Chemical Engineering

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9 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Pengenalan

Teknologi

Industri

Program
Studi

Teknik

Kimia

FTI
-

ITB

Pengenalan Teknologi Industri

2


to describe the Chemical Engineering,


to explain the Chemical Engineering body of
knowledge,


to show the opportunities of new Chemical
Engineering directions ,


to describe the ITB Chemical Engineering
curriculum,


to introduce the Department of Chemical
Engineering, FTI


ITB.

Pengenalan Teknologi Industri

3


Solen
, K.
dan

J.N.
Harb
, Introduction to Chemical
Processes: Fundamentals & Design, 3
rd
ed., McGraw
-
Hill,
New York, 1998.



Peters. M.S., Elementary Chemical Engineering, 2
nd
ed.,
McGraw
-
Hill Book Co., New York, 1984.


Pengenalan Teknologi Industri

4



An
Engineer

who manufactures chemicals



A
Chemist

who works in a factory



A glorified
Plumber
?


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5


No universally accepted definition of
ChE
.



However, aimed towards design of processes that
change materials from one form to another more
useful (and so more valuable) form, economically,
safely and in an environmentally acceptable way.



Application of basic sciences (math, chemistry,
physics & biology) and engineering principles to the
design, development, operation & maintenance of
processes to convert raw materials to useful products
and improve the human environment.


Pengenalan

Teknologi

Industri

6

Air, Gas, Crude
Oil, Coal,
Mineral, Biomass,
Energy

Chemistry,
Physics,
Mathematic,
Biology,
Economics


ChE

involves specifying equipment, operating
conditions, instrumentation and process control
for all these changes.


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7

8



Ilmu

tentang

proses

kimia

berskala

niaga
/
komersial

dan

sarana

pelaksanaannya
.

9


Proses

Kimia
Berskala

Niaga



Pengolahan

yang
memanfaatkan

reaksi

kimia

dan

peristiwa

kimia
-
fisik

untuk

mengubah

keadaan
,
kandungan

energi

dan
/
atau

komposisi

bahan

sehingga

menghasilkan

produk

yang,
karena

nilai

gunanya
,
dapat

dijual

secara

menguntungkan
.


The
fields
of
ChE

are
:



petrochemicals, petroleum
and natural gas
processing


extraction and processing of natural resources


plastics
and polymers


pulp and paper


instrumentation and process control


energy conversion and
utilization


environmental control


Pengenalan

Teknologi

Industri

10



biotechnology


biomedical
and Biochemical


food processing


composite materials, corrosion and protective
coatings


manufacture of microelectronic components


pharmaceuticals


nanotechnology

Pengenalan

Teknologi

Industri

11

Chemical Engineers:
it is not what we do, but how we think about
the world, that makes us different.

Problem

Best
solution(s
)

Quantitative Engineering Analysis

understanding

of math,
chemistry,
physics, biology,
and economic

design/synthesiz
e products,
services, and
processes

Chemical Engineering Body of
Knowledge

Fundamental Engineering

Process Engineering, Product
Engineering, Energy and
Process System, Caption

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12

design, development
and operation of
process plants

management of
technical operations
and sales


research and
development of novel
products and
processes

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13


The majority of Chemical Engineers work in
businesses known collectively as
the Chemical
Process Industries (CPI)


Chemicals,


Oil and Gas (upstream and downstream
)


Energy conversion and utilization


Pulp and Paper,


Rubber

and
Plastics,


Food and Beverage,


Textile,


Electronics/IT


Metals, mineral processing


Electronics and microelectronics


Agricultural Chemicals Industries


Cosmetics/ Pharmaceutical


Biotechnology/Biomedical


Environmental, technical, and business
consulting

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14


Many Chemical Engineers also work
in


supplier,
consulting and governmental
agencies related to the CPI by engaging
in equipment manufacture, plant
design, consulting, analytical services
and standards
development.


governmental agencies concerned with
environmental protection



Chemical
engineers have been
referred to as
“universal engineers.”

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15

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16

3.9

5.8

2.4

1.8

5.6

2.1

9.3

3.1

10.6

15.9

15.7

23.3

4.8

Other Industries

6.4

Business Services

2.6

Engineering Services (Environmental
Engineering)

2.4

Engineering Services (Research & Testing)

4.8

Engineering Services (Design & Construction)

2.4

Pulp & paper

6.9

Biotech & Related
Industries

3.3

Materials

11.4

Food/Consumer
Products

15.6

Electronics

12.6

Fuels

26.7

Chemical


Pengenalan

Teknologi

Industri

Program
Studi

Teknik

Kimia

FTI
-

ITB


As the
Industrial Revolution

(18th Century to the
present) steamed along certain basic chemicals quickly
became necessary to sustain growth.



Sulphuric
acid

was first among these "industrial
chemicals". It was said that a nation's industrial might
could be gauged solely by the
vigour
of its
sulphuric
acid
industry




With this in mind, it comes as no surprise that
English
industrialists

spent a lot of
time
,
money
, and
effort

in
attempts to improve their processes for making
sulphuric
acid. A slight savings in production led to large profits
because of the vast quantities of
sulphuric
acid consumed
by industry.

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18


Bahan

baku

untuk

pembuatan

asam
-
asam

yang lain


Bahan

baku

industri

pupuk

(NH
4
)
2
SO
4


Bahan

koagulan

untuk

industri

kertas

dan

penjernihan

air : Al
2
(SO
4
)
3


Pelarut

mill scale
di

industri

besi



baja


Bahan

baku

industri

deterjen

(ABS)


dll

Pengenalan Teknologi Industri

19


1749 John Roebuck developed the process to make
relatively concentrated (30
-
70%) sulfuric acid in lead lined
chambers rather than the more expensive glass vessels
.



air, water,
sulphur
dioxide, a nitrate (
potassium, sodium, or
calcium
)
and a large lead container.

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20


The nitrate was the most expensive ingredient because during
the final stage of the process, it was
lost to the atmosphere

(in
the form of nitric oxide
).



Additional nitrate (
sodium nitrate)

was imported from
Chile

-

costly
!



In
1859,
John Glover

helped solve this problem with
a mass
transfer tower to recover some of this lost nitrate
. Acid
trickled down against upward flowing burner gases which
absorbed some of the previously lost nitric oxide. When the
gases were recycled back into the lead chamber the nitric oxide
could be re
-
used.


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Teknologi

Industri

21

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22

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23


Notice how
sulphuric
acid production closely mirrors historical events

affecting
the American
economy.


Sulphuric
acid production dropped after the American involvement in
World War I

(1917
-
1919) and
open world trade resumed.


The stock market crash of 1929 further stagnated growth which was restored at the outbreak of


World War II

(1938). As the U.S. entered the war (1941) economy was rapidly brought up to full
production capacity.


The post war period (1940
-
1965) saw the greatest economic growth in America's history, and this was
reflected in ever increasing
sulphuric
acid production.


Massive
inflation

during the late sixties and the
energy crisis

and economic recession of the early
seventies also reveal themselves in the
sulphuric
acid curve

Figure 1
-
1
, Source: "US Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics from Colonial Times to 1970."


1700’s the demand for soap increased due to washing of clothes,
requiring
Na
2
CO
3



The
Alkali compounds
,
Soda ash

(Na
2
CO
3
) and
potash

(K
2
CO
3
),
were used in making
glass
,
soap
, and
textiles

and were therefore in
great demand.



This
alkali was imported to France from Spanish and Irish peasants
who burned seaweed and New England settlers who burned
bush
, both
to recover the ash



At
the end of the 1700's, English trees became scarce and the only
native source of soda ash in the British Isles was
kelp

(seaweed).



Alkali
imported from America in the form of wood ashes (potash),
Spain in the form of barilla (a plant containing 25% alkali), or from
soda mined in Egypt, were all very expensive due to high shipping
costs.

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24

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25




Nicolas Leblanc
was
a poor young man working in a
chemistry
research
lab established by the wealthiest man in
France, the Duke of Orleans
.



It took
Le Blanc
5 years to stumble upon the idea of reacting
NaCl

with sulfuric acid to form sodium sulfate, and then
converting to sodium carbonate with limestone.



In
1789 he went to collect his prize…unfortunately this was
during the time of the French Revolution.



A
factory was built, but the Duke was executed and the
factory seized.



King Louis XVI of France offered an
award

(equivalent
to
half a million dollars
) to anyone who could turn
NaCl

(common table salt) into Na
2
CO
3

because French access
to these raw materials was threatened.


2
NaCl

+
H
2
SO
4



Na
2
SO
4

(
saltcake
, intermediate
) + 2
HCl

(
hydrochloric acid
gas, a horrible waste product
)


Na
2
SO
4

+
CaCO
3

(
limestone
) + 4 C(s) (
coal
)


Na
2
CO
3

(
soda ash extracted
from black ash
) +
CaS

(
dirty calcium sulfide waste
) + 4
CO

Pengenalan

Teknologi

Industri

26

Dependence on imported soda ended
with
the
Le Blanc Process
which

converted
common
salt

into
soda ash

using
sulfuric
acid
,
limestone
and
coal

as feedstock (raw
materials) and produced
hydrochloric acid

as a by
-
product.



In many ways, this process began the modern chemical
industry.


From its adoption in 1810 it was continually improved over
the next 80 years through elaborate engineering efforts
mainly directed at recovering or reducing the terrible by
-
products of the process, namely: hydrochloric acid,
nitrogen oxides, sulfur, manganese, and chlorine gas.


Indeed because of these
polluting chemicals
many
manufacturing sites were
surrounded by a ring of dead and
dying grass and trees
.


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Teknologi

Industri

27


A
petition against the Le Blanc

Process
in
1839

complained that:



"the gas from these manufactories is
of such a deleterious nature as to
blight everything within its influence,
and is alike baneful to health and
property. The herbage of the fields
in their vicinity is scorched, the
gardens neither yield fruit nor
vegetables; many flourishing trees
have lately become rotten naked
sticks. Cattle and poultry droop and
pine away. It tarnishes the furniture
in our houses, and when we are
exposed to it, which is of frequent
occurrence, we are afflicted with
coughs and pains in the head...all of
which we attribute to the Alkali
works."

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Teknologi

Industri

28


In 1873 a new process
-

the
Solvay Process

-

replaced Le Blanc's
method for producing Alkali.


The process

was perfected in 1863 by a Belgian chemist,
Ernest
Solvay
. The chemistry was based upon an old discovery by A. J. Fresnel
who in 1811 had shown that
Sodium Bicarbonate

could be
precipitated from a
salt

solution containing
ammonium
bicarbonate
.


This chemistry was far simpler than that devised by Le Blanc, however
to be used on an industrial scale many
engineering obstacles

had to
be overcome. Sixty years of attempted scale
-
up had failed until Solvay
finally succeeded.
Solvay's contribution was therefore one of
chemical engineering
.

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Teknologi

Industri

29


The heart of his design was an
80 foot tall

high
-
efficiency
carbonating tower

in which ammoniated brine trickled down and
carbon dioxide flowed up.
Plates and bubble caps
created a large
surface area (
contacting area
) over which the two chemicals could
react forming sodium bicarbonate
.



Solvay's
engineering

resulted in a
continuously operating

process

free of hazardous by
-
products

and with an
easily purified final
product
.



By 1880 it was evident that it would rapidly replace the traditional Le
Blanc Process.

Pengenalan

Teknologi

Industri

30


The

term

"chemical

engineer"

had

been

floating

around

technical

circles

throughout

the

1880
's,

but

there

was

no

formal

education

for

such

a

person
.



The

"chemical

engineer"

of

these

years

was

either



a

mechanical

engineer

who

had

gained

some

knowledge

of

chemical

process

equipment,



a

chemical

plant

foreman

with

a

lifetime

of

experience

but

little

education,

or



an

applied

chemist

with

knowledge

of

large

scale

industrial

chemical

reactions
.


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Teknologi

Industri

31


In 1887
George Davis
, an Alkali Inspector
from the "Midland" region of England
molded his knowledge into a series of
12
lectures

on chemical engineering, which he
presented at the
Manchester Technical
School
.


This
chemical engineering course was
organized around individual chemical
operations, later to be called “
unit
operations
”.


Davis
explored these operations
empirically

and presented operating practices employed
by the British chemical industry.

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Teknologi

Industri

32


For

all

intents

and

purposes

the

chemical

engineering

profession

began

in

1888

when

Professor

Lewis

Norton

of

the

Massachusetts

Institute

of

Technology

(MIT)

initiated

the

first

four

year

bachelor

program

in

chemical

engineering

entitled

"
Course

X
"

(ten)
.



Soon

other

colleges,

such

as

the

University

of

Pennsylvania

and

Tulane

University

followed

MIT's

lead

in

1892

and

1894

respectively
.



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34

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