2_griffindor_Pharm_Final.pptx

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9 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Polymers In Pharmaceuticals

Makenzie

Ball, Daniel Bacon
-
Brown,

Bill Martin, Ben Hastie

The Pharmaceutical Industry


major development in
1900’s


Complexity Cost


Drug discovery &
development


Controversy


Current industry and
direction…

Polymer
-
Drug Conjugates


Defined as “
nano
-
sized
hybrid construct that
covalently combine a
bioactive agent with a
polymer”.


Or, a polymer where
some of the monomers
act as drugs.


These can be used to
significantly enhance
the effect of drugs.

Figure 1. Examples of polymer drug
conjugates.

Apoptosis


Defined as programmed cellular death.


Problems with the process cause:
Alzheimers

and Huntington’s diseases, ischemia,
autoimmune disorders, and cancer.


Cancer drugs usually work by inducing apoptosis
in the cancerous cells.


However, they also induce apoptosis in non
-
cancerous cells. This is why chemotherapy is so
toxic.

Use of polymer
-
drug conjugates to
induce apoptosis for cancer treatments


Help target tumors
because of their
enhanced permeability
and retention effect.


Improving drug activity.


Lowering drug toxicity.


TNP
-
470 is a conjugate
that avoids causing
harm to the brain
because it’s polymeric
aspect keeps it from
crossing the blood brain
barrier.

Figure 2. Example of a polymer
-
drug
conjugate.

Marketing
-
Section Needs


Great need exist for “White Biotechnology”


White biotechnology is technology produced from
natural enzymes that could be used to help
provide fuel, refine agricultural crops, and help
remove harmful products


Pharmaceuticals will benefit from white
biotechnology in the form of
antibotics


Marketing
-
Section Needs


Another important need is in research and
analyzing current production lines


1
st

generation plants which generate current
biotechnology, including antibiotics, are outdated


2
nd

generation plants will be radically different


Current research in filtration shows vast
improvements to current industrial practices


Research on carbon flux within cell will give
crucial leads on engineering practices


Pharmaceuticals Until 2020


What major research activities will drive drug
discovery and development?


Feed off research of biology, bioengineering,
materials science, and nanotechnology


Holistic approach to combine diagnostics, drugs,
and devices


What will the enabling technologies be?


Ultrafast computing microprocessor technology


Stem cell research


Nanotechnologies



What paradigm shifts will
there be in drug discovery,
development, regulation and
usage?


Current business model of
discovery and development is
unlikely to be sustainable
with increased research and
development costs with low
yields


Realign from product to
healthcare


Integration


Public
-
private development
partnerships


Globalization



How will changes in education
meet the demands of academia
industry and regulatory
institution?


New products means new
technology


Life
-
long learning programs


Move from large lectures and
laboratories to focus on small
group teaching, problem
solving tutorials and
computer assisted learning


Become more pharmaceutical
engineers


Conclusion


Marketing


Emphasis on white
biotechnology


Roadmap


Re
-
model business aspects
of drug discovery/develop.


Specialized learning, more
engineering


Current Technology


Efficiency of treatments
could be better


Polymers and cancer