Introducing Mobile IPv6
in 2G and 3G mobile networksWhite Paper
Executive summary 4
Mobile IP 5
Mobile IPv4 6
Mobile IPv6 6
Link layer mobility 9
Link layer mobility in 2G and 3G mobile networks 10
Mobile IPv6 as a service in GPRS
and WCDMA mobile networks 11
Mobile IPv6 for Inter-PLMN mobility 11
Roaming between different access technologies 12
Mobile IPv6 providing static IPv6 addresses
for mobile terminals 12
Implementation of Mobile IPv6
in 2G and 3G mobile networks 13
Application layer Mobile IPv6 main beneﬁ ts 13
Abbreviations and Deﬁ nitions 14
of packets from a correspondent
node to the mobile node via the
Home Agent. This reduces transport
The goal of cellular mobility IP mobility is a standardised part of delay and saves network capacity.
standards in GPRS (General Packet Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6). • No need for Foreign Agents in
Radio Service) and WCDMA In Mobile IPv6, each mobile node Mobile IPv6.
(Wideband Code Division Multiple is identiﬁ ed with a static home • Using IP Security for all security
Access) networks has been to provide address, independent of its current requirements.
global connectivity, where the point of attachment to the Internet.
IP (Internet Protocol) layer is not The home address is stored by the Mobile IPv6 is a highly feasible
involved in the mobility management. Home Agent (HA) router in the mechanism for implementing static
This makes it possible to continue home network. When the mobile IPv6 addressing for mobile terminals.
using existing IP enabled access node is attached to a foreign link, In this case, the Mobile IPv6 home
devices when moving in the network, it is addressable by a ‘care-of address is the static address. The
e.g. laptop computers connected address’, in addition to its home mobile node can always be reached
to GPRS terminals. This is called address. There may be several care-of using the same globally unique
link layer or layer 2 mobility. addresses deﬁ ned for the mobile node, IPv6 address, independent of its
but only one, the primary care-of current location. Many applications
In link layer mobility, access to address, is bound to a speciﬁ c home and services, such as push services,
IP networks is through one speciﬁ c address at any one time. The care-of need static user identity.
IP router (Gateway GPRS Support address provides information about
Node, GGSN). Consider that the the mobile node’s current location. Implementing application layer
mobile terminal is roaming in a The mapping or association between Mobile IPv6 in 2G and 3G mobile
visited network that is located very the current care-of address and the networks primarily requires
far away from the home network. home address is called ‘binding’. application layer IPv6 support from
When the mobile terminal is attached the network, the installation of a
to its home GGSN and local IP mobility is also speciﬁ ed for IPv4, Home Agent (HA) router in the home
services are used, the routing might but IPv6 provides more enhanced network, the use of mobile terminals
be inefﬁ cient. Another case is when support for it. Mobile IPv4 is not supporting Mobile IPv6 and the
a multi-mode mobile terminal is deployed widely enough to satisfy implementation of IP Security (IPsec).
roaming between different access current mobility needs – a shortage
networks. If a multi-mode terminal of globally routable IPv4 addresses Mobile IPv6 is a promising technology
moves from WCDMA coverage to and the use of private IPv4 that complements the link layer
a Bluetooth or WLAN (Wireless addresses with Network Address (layer 2) mobility in GPRS and
Local Area Network) coverage Translators (NATs) hampers Mobile WCDMA mobile networks.
area, it is given a new IP address. IPv4 deployment in many cases. Mobile IPv6 can handle the mobility
When the IP address changes, The beneﬁ ts of Mobile IPv6 management in multi-access
existing application connections are compared to Mobile IPv4 include: networks (e.g. a network with
lost, and need to be restarted. • The huge address space of IPv6 WCDMA and WLAN coverage
makes Mobile IPv6 deployment using multi-mode mobile terminals
A natural solution is to use IP layer more straightforward. supporting both technologies).
mobility. IP mobility allows • IPv6 address autoconﬁ guration Additionally, Mobile IPv6 is a
packets sent to the home address to simpliﬁ es the care-of address feasible method of providing static
be delivered to the mobile node. assignment for the mobile node. IPv6 addresses for the mobile
In addition, mobile IP can hide any It also eases the address terminals. Nokia sees Mobile IPv6
address changes from the transport management in a large network as the enabling platform for
and application layers, enabling the infrastructure. creating IP layer mobility in
mobile terminal to roam seamlessly • Optimised routing: Mobile IPv6 the evolution path towards next
between different access networks. avoids so-called triangular routing generation service offerings.
Mobile IP is the IETF proposed
standard solution for handling
terminal mobility among IP subnets
and was designed to allow a host to
change its point of attachment
transparently to an IP network.
Mobile IP works at the network
layer (layer 3), inﬂ uencing the routing
of datagrams, and can easily
handle mobility among different
media (LAN, WLAN, dial-up links,
wireless channels, etc.).
Figure 1. General scenario of Mobile IPv4
The generic problem with IP
mobility is that when an IP node
moves to a new subnet, it either has
to change its IP address to reﬂ ect The home address is naturally majority of IPv4 nodes do not
the new point of attachment, routed to the Home Agent (HA), support Mobile IP. For IPv6,
or the routers must have host which maintains the mapping the mobility support has been on
speciﬁ c routes for the mobile node. (“binding”) from the home address the list of required features from
Both these alternatives have their to the current (primary) care-of the beginning. The Mobile IPv6
drawbacks. Host-speciﬁ c routes in address (CoA). The HA will tunnel speciﬁ cation is on its way to
general cannot be scaled up for packets to the MN at its current becoming a standard, so it is
Internet-wide use. Changing the point of attachment via the CoA. expected that virtually all IPv6
IP address seen by the transport In Mobile IPv4 the care-of address deployments will include at least the
and the application layers every can be either hosted by a Foreign minimal mobile IP support (i.e. the
time a MN (Mobile Node) moves Agent (FA in Figure 1) or co-located correspondent node functions).
to a new network may be a solution with the mobile node itself.
to infrequent roaming, but not to The CoA is always assigned by the
mobility in general. This is because visited network, so that the routing
the transport layer (e.g. TCP) uses of the packets to the mobile node
the IP address as an identiﬁ er, will remain transparent to the
correlating IP packets to transport routers in transit. The packets from
sessions. If this IP address is changed, the MN to the correspondent
then the correlation is lost and the node (CN) will be routed naturally
sessions need to be restarted. without going through the home
agent. As the MN moves from one
Mobile IP solves the mobility subnet to another, and its CoA
problem by managing the changes, it will inform the HA of
correlation between a changing the new binding.
IP address (care-of address) and the
static home address. The transport Mobile IP was originally deﬁ ned
and application layers keep using for IPv4 (IETF RFC 2002).
the home address, allowing them to This deﬁ nition has suffered from
remain ignorant of any mobility the fact that mobility support for
taking place. IPv4 is an add-on, and the vast
Mobile IP was originally deﬁ ned for Home
IP version 4, before IPv6 existed.
The base protocol is deﬁ ned in RFC
2002. Many enhancements have
in the home network
been proposed to Mobile IPv4 to (the mobile node’s home
address is associated
with the home agent)
counter some of the identiﬁ ed
problems, which include:
• Triangular routing as shown in
that is communicating
with the mobile node
Figure 1. All packets sent to the
mobile node are routed through Visited
its home agent, causing increased
load on the home network and
higher latency. This problem could
be solved with route optimisation Figure 2. General scenario of Mobile IPv6
extension, but the required
update may not be practical.
• Deployment problem: Mobile IPv4
typically requires each potential violated, because it will reveal the
foreign network to have foreign true location of the mobile node.
agent(s). If foreign agents were Mobile IPv4 and Mobile IPv6 If the MN needs to discover its HA
not used, every mobile node would protocols share similar ideas, dynamically, it can make the
need a globally routable IPv4 but their implementations are enquiry using IPv6 anycast. This is
address from the foreign network. somewhat different. Figure 2 shows more efﬁ cient and reliable than
• Ingress ﬁ ltering: In an ISP (Internet the basic elements of Mobile IPv6. IPv4 directed multicast, which may
Service Provider), any border router return several replies.
may discard packets that contain Mobility signalling and security
a source IP address that is not features (IPsec) are integrated in the Several ICMPv6 (Internet Control
topologically correct. In Mobile IPv6 protocol as header extensions, Message Protocol for IPv6)
IPv4, the Mobile nodes that are whereas Mobile IPv4 uses a separate mechanisms provide support for
away from home, i.e., in a foreign UDP (User Datagram Protocol) mobility management. These include:
ISP, use their home address as the based protocol for registrations. • Router Advertisement
source IP address, resulting in the These registrations apply special • Router Solicitation
likelihood of dropping of packets mobility security associations. • Address Auto-conﬁ guration
by ingress ﬁ ltering. In IPv6 stateless address (stateful and stateless)
• Authentication and Authorisation: autoconﬁ guration, addresses can • Neighbour Discovery
Mechanisms speciﬁ c to Mobile be generated easily by combining
IPv4 are used for authentication the network preﬁ x of a visited Some of these have been extended
of Mobile IPv4 registrations. network and an interface identiﬁ er in Mobile IPv6 to better support
of the MN. In addition, address its needs. These changes include a
Mobile IPv4 has only a small exhaustion is not a problem. new home agent bit to the router
percentage (a few million nodes) of Therefore, an IPv6 Care-of Address advertisement, a new bit to the
the overall IPv4 deployment. (CoA) is always co-located at the preﬁ x information option format,
A shortage of globally routable MN, and the concept of the foreign allowing the router to efﬁ ciently
IPv4 addresses and use of private agent has been eliminated. Also, advertise its global IPv6 address
IPv4 addresses with Network route optimisation is built into instead of the link local address.
Address Translators hampers its Mobile IPv6. If route optimisation Also, the timing rules for router
deployment in many cases. is used, user privacy may be advertisements and solicitations
have been reﬁ ned and a new
Advertisement Interval Option
has been deﬁ ned for Router
The following subsections detail
the major functional elements of
Mobile IPv6 that make use of these
A mobile node can determine its
Figure 3a. Mobile Node at a foreign link informing the Home Agent
current location by listening to the
Router Advertisements and storing
the included network preﬁ x
information (as do the normal,
stationary IPv6 nodes). If one of
the network preﬁ xes equals the
network preﬁ x of the home address
of the MN, then the MN is on its
home link. Otherwise the MN is
network Home link
on a foreign link.
The MN selects one of the Mobile Node
advertised routers as its default
router. Movement from one link to
another is initiated when the
Figure 3b. Mobile Node at its home link informing the Home Agent
currently selected default router
If the MN does not want to wait for
a periodic Router Advertisement,
it can send a Router Solicitation
asking all the routers on the link to
send Router Advertisements.
To obtain a care-of address, the MN d
can use either stateful or stateless
Foreign link Home link
address auto-conﬁ guration.
In the ﬁ rst situation the MN
obtains a care-of address from
e.g. a DHCPv6 (Dynamic Host
Figure 3c. Mobile Node at a foreign link informing a correspondent node
Conﬁ guration Protocol for IPv6)
server. In the latter situation,
the MN extracts the network preﬁ xes
from the Router Advertisements
and adds a unique interface
identiﬁ er to form a care-of address.
When the MN is not on its home receives packets routed via the HA, mechanism (for example
link, the home agent must intercept it can send a Binding Update to the stateless autoconﬁ guration).
packets destined for the MN new CN. 3. Registration of the new care-of
home address, causing them to be address with the home agent.
delivered to the HA. When the MN moves back to its home
link, it will notify the home agent Moving to a new subnet can cause
Binding management in to delete the binding (Figure 3b). a short break in the IP layer
Mobile IPv6 reachability of the mobile node,
Three destination options are The Binding Acknowledgement is causing packet loss during the
introduced in Mobile IPv6 for sent as a response to the Binding handoff. Such breaks are not
binding management: Update, if so requested by the MN. inevitable, depending upon layer 2
• Binding Update The Binding Acknowledgement is effects, range overlap and policy.
• Binding Acknowledgement also sent to reject the Binding
• Binding Request Update (e.g. for authentication
All these are implemented as IPv6
Destination Options, allowing If a CN wants to know the care-of
them to be either piggybacked with address of a mobile node, it can
any IPv6 packet being destined to send a Binding Request to the MN,
a desired destination, or sent which does not necessarily have to
separately with no upper layer respond to the request by sending
payload. a Binding Update. The Binding
Request is mainly used to refresh
IP Security is applied to Binding binding when nearing the end of
Update and Binding the current binding lifetime.
Authentication Header (AH) is Mobile node moving in
required for authentication and the network
Encapsulating Security Payload Whenever the mobile node moves
(ESP) can also be used together from one subnet or network to
with AH, if encryption is desired. another it acquires a new care-of
No authentication is required for address, which needs to be
the Binding Request option. registered with the HA serving the
mobile host. This process involves
A Binding Update is used to the following events, each of which
inform the HA and any active takes some time:
correspondent node (CN) of the 1. Movement detection: The mobile
current (new) binding, consisting of host determines that it has
the new care-of address, the home moved and needs to acquire a
address and a binding lifetime new care-of address. In IPv6 this
(Figures 3a and 3c). Each IPv6 is facilitated in general by the
node (either mobile or stationary) Router Advertisements being
is recommended to understand sent periodically by the subnet
the Binding Update message, routers. In cellular networks,
enabling the packets destined to the movement detection can be
the MN to be efﬁ ciently routed co-ordinated with link layer
without going through the HA. movement detection mechanisms.
Initially a new CN knows only the 2. Acquisition of a co-located
Home address, but when the MN care-of address by some
Link layer mobility
In 2G and 3G mobile networks, implements the forwarding of IP within a PLMN only, and the
mobility is managed below the user packets from the GTP tunnel to inter-PLMN backbone is used for
plane network layer i.e. on the layer a PDN over the Gi interface and roaming from one PLMN to
2 (the link layer). Layer 2 mobility vice versa. another (via the Gp interface and
management is also used in other the Border Gateways). SGSN and
systems, such as Wireless LANs, There are two kinds of PLMN GGSN use the intra-PLMN
for inter access point handovers. backbone networks: Intra-PLMN backbone to exchange PS Domain
backbone and Inter-PLMN data and signalling. When roaming,
UMTS (Universal Mobile backbone (Figure 5). Every intra- both the intra-PLMN backbone
Telecommunications System) is a PLMN backbone network is a of the home and visited networks
more general term for the 3G (third private IP network intended for are used, in addition to the inter-
generation) telecommunications packet domain data and signalling PLMN backbone.
system based on the WCDMA high
capacity radio interface. The goal
of UMTS Packet Switched (PS)
Domain is to provide global layer 2
connectivity that can support any
layer 3 protocol. GPRS Tunneling
R Uu Iu-PS Gn Gi
Protocol (GTP) handles the global
Laptop Mobile terminal RNC SGSN GGSN
(macro) mobility. The MT (Mobile
Terminal) is attached to the same
IPv6 End user IPv6 connectivity IPv6
GGSN AP all the time, and keeps
PPP PPP PDCP PDCP GTP GTP GTP GTP L2
its layer 3 (e.g. IPv6) address.
UDP UDP UDP UDP
In this case there is no vital need
bone IPv4 IPv4 IPv4 IPv4
for Mobile IP. Figure 4 shows a L2 L2 L2 L2
simpliﬁ ed transport protocol
structure in the UMTS PS Domain,
where user level IPv6 is tunnelled
Figure 4. Simpliﬁ ed protocol architecture in a 3G network
across the internal GPRS elements.
In the ﬁ gure, a laptop computer
Figure 5. Intra- and Inter-PLMN backbone networks
is connected to the network using
a WCDMA terminal as a modem
(so-called dial-up emulation).
Packet Data Network
A GPRS attached MT can be
assigned either a static or dynamic
IP address. The static address is
Gi Gp Gi
assigned by the Home Public Land
Mobile Network (HPLMN)
GGSN BG BG GGSN
operator at the time of subscription.
The dynamic IP address can be
Intra-PLMN Backbone Intra-PLMN Backbone
allocated by the GGSN of either
HPLMN or the visited PLMN
SGSN SGSN SGSN
(VPLMN) operator at the PDP
PLMN A PLMN B
context activation time. In addition
to address allocation, a GGSN
from HLR of the subscriber’s Home packets to their destination.
Link layer mobility
PLMN (HPLMN) and ﬁ nished the 2. Use a visited domain GGSN,
in 2G and 3G
location update procedure. routing the packets from the
VPLMN to their destination
After GPRS Attach, the MT sends directly though a Packet Data
The inter-PLMN backbone network an ‘Activate PDP context’ Request, Network, such as the public
interconnects SGSNs and GGSNs in which the Access Point Name Internet using the Gi interface.
and intra-PLMN backbone (APN) is a reference to the GGSN
networks in different PLMNs. AP to be used in either the home or The ﬁ rst case allows the mobile
visited PLMN. The SGSN selects terminal to have a network layer
When a subscriber is roaming to the GGSN based on the PDP identity from the home network.
another PLMN, known as the context subscription record and But it might not be the most
visited PLMN (VPLMN), the user sends the context data to a selected effective way especially in the case
needs to ﬁ rst attach to the network. GGSN. The GGSN routes the local services (topologically near
In GPRS Attach, the MT informs packets to the appropriate Packet the visited network) are used.
the SGSN of its intention to Data Networks (PDN).
connect to the network by giving In the second case, the mobile
information about its identity, When a subscriber is roaming in the terminal is assigned an IPv6 address
capability and location. The SGSN VPLMN, there are two possibilities from the address pool of the visited
then checks the MT’s identity and for GGSN selection: GGSN. In that case it is impossible
performs the authentication 1. Use the home network GGSN for the mobile terminal to be
procedure in order to secure the via the inter-PLMN backbone, reachable via an address from the
transmission path. The attachment BGs, and GTP tunnel over the Gp home domain. A solution to that
is completed after the SGSN has interface (see Figures 5 and 6). based on Mobile IPv6 is described
received the roaming subscriber data The home GGSN then routes the in the following chapter.
Figure 6. Link layer (layer 2) mobility in the 2G and 3G mobile network.
GGSN Edge Router
backbone GTP tunnel
GGSN Edge Router
Mobile IPv6 as a service in GPRS
and WCDMA mobile networks
This section describes the beneﬁ ts IP address being assigned from the agent encapsulates each intercepted
of the introduction of Mobile IPv6 home network as well. packet using IPv6 encapsulation,
as a service in GPRS and WCDMA with the outer header addressed to
mobile networks. The use of A natural solution to this problem the mobile terminal’s primary
Mobile IPv6 as a complementing is to use Mobile IP to register care-of address. After the mobile
mobility method and a method for the visited network address with terminal has received the ﬁ rst
multi-access mobility is discussed. the home network, allowing encapsulated packet from the
The following section shows how packets sent to the home address to home agent, it sends a Binding
Mobile IPv6 can be used to provide be delivered to the mobile node. Update to the correspondent node
static IPv6 addresses for GPRS/ informing it of its care-of address:
WCDMA terminals. Finally, The basic operation of Mobile the correspondent node then replies
the beneﬁ ts of Mobile IPv6 are IPv6 in GPRS/WCDMA network with a Binding Acknowledgement.
summarised. When the mobile terminal is After this, sending IP packets
roaming in a foreign network, it is between the correspondent node
addressable by a care-of address, and the mobile terminal is
in addition to its home address. straightforward and routing via a
The IPv6 address preﬁ x in the home agent is not needed.
mobile terminal’s care-of address For packets sent by a mobile
is the preﬁ x of the foreign link. terminal while away from home,
The care-of address is acquired by the mobile terminal’s care-of
Consider the situation that a GPRS the addressing mechanism provided address is typically used as the
subscriber of an operator in by the visited network. While source address in the packet’s
Finland is roaming in the U.S. and roaming in the foreign network, IPv6 header. The Home Address
accessing a local service there. the mobile terminal registers one option can be used to inform the
If the link layer mobility is used, of its care-of addresses with the packet recipient of the mobile
the user’s IP packets would ﬁ rst be home agent and sends a “Binding node’s home address.
tunnelled to Finland, and then Update” to the home agent. The correspondent node can then
routed back to the U.S. The home agent replies with substitute the mobile node’s home
“Binding Acknowledgement.” address for this care-of address
The roaming GPRS subscriber Any IPv6 packets containing making the use of the care-of
could use the services of a local Binding Update or Binding address transparent to the
GGSN in the visited network, Acknowledgement destination correspondent node. The upper
allowing IP packets to be routed as options must be authenticated using protocol layers (e.g. TCP) thus only
soon as possible, without crossing IP Security AH (Authentication see the home address. (Figure 7.)
over to the home network. Header). After the binding, this
As the IP address is now being care-of address becomes the mobile
assigned from the visited network, terminal’s primary care-of address.
the mobile node would not be
accessible via a network layer The home agent intercepts all IPv6
identity of the home network. packets from a correspondent node
For some applications this may not (for example a WWW server that is
be a problem, but in general it communicating with the mobile
would be desirable if the mobile terminal) addressed to the mobile
node could be reached with an terminal’s home address. The home
enabling the mobile terminal to There are services that beneﬁ t from
roam seamlessly between different static IPv6 addressing. For example,
access networks. push services need static customer
identities. It can be noted that
the use of static IPv6 addresses
The need for multi-access mobility and using Mobile IPv6 to provide
raises, when a multi-mode mobile those is a generic solution for the
terminal roams between different static identity requirements.
access networks. For example,
IPv6 addresses for
when a multi-mode terminal moves Two-player games implemented in
from WCDMA coverage to mobile terminals are an example of
Bluetooth or WLAN (Wireless peer-to-peer services. If there is no
Local Area Network) coverage The basic addressing method in static addressing (at the user layer),
area, it is given a new IP address. GPRS and WCDMA mobile the users who want to play a game
When the IP address changes, networks is dynamic addressing together would need to meet via a
existing application connections are (stateless address autoconﬁ guration). network resident server. This could
lost, and need to be restarted. This means that GGSN allocates mean that new games could not
IPv6 addresses dynamically to be introduced into new mobile
A solution to this problem also is to mobile terminals. These addresses terminals, before making sure that
use IP layer mobility (Mobile IPv6). do not typically have registered the deployed servers (if any) meet
This allows packets sent to the DNS (Domain Name System) the speciﬁ c requirements of the
home address to be delivered to the names, making it difﬁ cult to use, game in question.
mobile node’s current care-of for example, peer-to-peer services
address. In addition, mobile IP can without explicit support from a Mobile IPv6 can be used as a solution
hide any address changes from the network server that could keep to this problem. The dynamic
transport and application layers, track of the dynamic addresses. address being assigned by the
Figure 7. IPv6 mobility in the 2G and 3G mobile network
MT core network
GGSN is used as the Mobile IPv6 Mobile IPv6 can handle the mobility
co-located care-of address. management in multi-access
Mobile IPv6 main
By registering this address with a networks (e.g. a network with
home agent, a mapping of the WCDMA and WLAN coverage
dynamic address to a more static using multi-mode mobile
home address is created. This allows The main beneﬁ ts of Mobile IPv6 terminals). Additionally, Mobile
the mobile node to be reached with in the application layer include: IPv6 is a feasible method of
the home address, and also via a • efﬁ cient roaming from the visited providing static IPv6 addresses for
DNS name, since the home address network to local network services the mobile terminals. The home
can be registered with the DNS. • seamless roaming between address is the static IP address and
different access technologies, care-of addresses are taken in use
i.e. reachability via the same dynamically when roaming in
address also from other types of foreign networks. The association
access networks (WLAN, between the current care-of address
of Mobile IPv6
Bluetooth, etc.) and the home address is called
• providing a feasible static IPv6 ‘binding.’ With Mobile IPv6,
in 2G and 3G
addressing method for mobile routing between the correspondent
terminals node (for example a WWW server
• reachability via the home address communicating with the mobile
Implementation of Mobile IPv6 in also when using services of a node) and the mobile node’s care-of
2G and 3G mobile networks visited GGSN address is optimised. Providing
primarily requires user plane • peer-to-peer services to be static IPv6 addresses to customers is
(application layer) IPv6 support used by the mobile node; a business case for operators –
from the network, installing a home allowing services to be run on Mobile IPv6 is an efﬁ cient way to
agent (HA) router in the home the terminals with no explicit implement that.
network, using mobile terminals support by the operator’s
supporting Mobile IPv6 and network. Implementation of application
implementing IP Security layer Mobile IPv6 in 2G and 3G
infrastructure, because Mobile mobile networks basically requires
IPv6 uses IPsec for all its security user plane IPv6 support from
requirements. Conclusions the network, installing a home
agent (HA), using mobile terminals
The home agent can be located in The two mobility mechanisms in supporting Mobile IPv6 and
the network operator’s network or GPRS and WCDMA mobile implementing IP Security.
some other network (e.g. company networks are link layer (layer 2)
intranet, home network, etc.). and IP layer mobility. GPRS and Nokia sees that the Mobile IPv6
In both cases, the GGSN elements WCDMA networks provide link protocol will have an essential
do not necessarily need to be layer mobility using GTP tunnels role in future mobile networks.
involved with the Mobile IPv6 to connect to the home network The time is ripe to consider
protocol. A feasible place to install GGSN. Mobile IPv6 is the implementing Mobile IPv6 support
the home agent could be near the technology to support the IP layer in the network.
operator’s network edge router. mobility – it is a very suitable
technology for complementing the
link layer mobility.
Abbreviations and Deﬁ nitions
2G Second Generation Mobile UDP User Datagram Protocol
Telecommunications, UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications
including GSM and GPRS technologies System
3G Third Generation Mobile VoIP Voice over IP
Telecommunications, WAP Wireless Application Protocol
including WCDMA/UMTS technology WCDMA Wideband Code Division Multiple Access
AH IPsec Authentication Header WLAN Wireless LAN
AP Access Point WWW World Wide Web
BG Border Gateway
CN Correspondent Node
CoA Care-of Address Binding
DHCPv6 Dynamic Host Conﬁ guration Protocol The association/mapping between the mobile node’s
for IPv6 home address and a care-of address
DNS Domain Name System
ESP IPsec Encapsulating Security Payload Care-of Address
FA Foreign Agent A temporary IP address associated with a mobile node
FW Firewall while visiting a foreign link
GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node
GPRS General Packet Radio Service Correspondent Node
GTP GPRS Tunneling Protocol A node that is communicating with the mobile node
HA Home Agent (for example a WWW server)
HLR Home Location Register
ICMP(v6) Internet Control Message Protocol Home Address
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force A static IP address assigned to the mobile node in
IP Internet Protocol the home network
IPsec IP security
IPv4 Internet Protocol, version 4 Home Agent
IPv6 Internet Protocol, version 6 A router on the mobile node’s home network with
ISP Internet Service Provider which the mobile node has registered its current
LAN Local Area Network care-of address. The mobile node’s home address is
MN Mobile Node associated with the home agent
MT Mobile Terminal
PDCP Packet Data Convergence Protocol Mobile Node
PDN Packet Data Network A node that can change its point of attachment in
PDP Packet Data Protocol the IP network. A mobile node can be reached via its
PLMN Public Land Mobile Network static home address
RFC Request For Comments
(a speciﬁ cation by IETF) Primary Care-of Address
SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node The care-of address of a mobile node most recently
TCP Transmission Control Protocol registered with its home agent
TE Terminal Equipment
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