Lecture #6c - Brookdale Community College

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17 Φεβ 2014 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 3 μήνες)

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RFID Technology


NCTT 2005 Summer Conference

Warren Hioki


Community College of Southern Nevada


What is RFID?


Radio Frequency
Identification (RFID)
is a method of storing
and retrieving data
through
electromagnetic
transmission to an
RFID transponder,
also known as an
“RFID tag.”



RFID: An Emerging RF
Technology on Center Stage


Yr 2003: $1.1 billion
industry


Yr. 2004: $2.5 billion
industry


Yr 2005
-
2006: $5.5
billion industry



A Global Internet of Things




RFID employs a numbering scheme
called EPC (for "electronic product code")
which can provide a unique ID for any
physical object in the world.


“In the future, everything of value will be
on the Internet,” says John Foster,
Software CTO for Sun Microsystems.


Growth in technology will be outside the
realm of the PC and network, a
“Megatrend” according to Fowler.

The Wal
-
mart Effect


When Wal
-
Mart
speaks, the retail
industry listens


Wal
-
Mart issues 2005
RFID Mandate to top
100 suppliers


12,000 other Wal
-
Mart Suppliers must
follow suit



Others Follow Suit


Target


Sears/Kmart


Albertsons


American Express


Visa, Mastercard


Home Depot


7
-
Eleven Inc.


Coca
-
Cola


Robert Bosch Tool


DOD, DOE, DOT,
DOH, FAA


Agriculture Industry


Gaming Industry


Automotive Industry


Athletics


Pharmaceuticals


Libraries


Semiconductor
Industry




What’s Being Tagged?


People


Animals


Credit Cards


Grocery Items


Department Store Items


Cars, Trucks, Trains, Boats


Airline Luggage


Hospital Wrist Bands


Tools


Boxes, Crates, Pallets





Casino Chips


Euro Notes


Test Equipment


Soccer Balls


toilets


Trees


Birds, Fish, Shell Fish


Keyless Entry/Exit Doors


Museum Artwork


Weapons and Ammunition




History


1920s: RFID was developed at MIT as a way for robots
to "talk" to one another


1939: RFID technology was used extensively by the
British in WWII as a way to track planes and other
vehicles with IFF (identification of friend or foe)
transponders


1948: “Communication by Means of Relflective Power,” a



Landmark paper by Harry Sockman


1950s: D.B. Harris “Radio Transmission Systems With
Modulatable Passive Repsonder


1952: F.L. Vernon’s “Application of the Microwave
Homodyne


1960s: R.F. Harrington advances theory with “Field
Measurements Using Active Scatterers”



RFID History (cont)


1970s: Explosion of RFID research and inventions (Los
Alamos Labs, Raytheon, Northwestern University, RCA,
Fairchild)


1980s: Worldwide Implementation and deployment of
RFID in transportation, personnel access, and
agriculture



1990s: Expansion of RFID into retail, electronic toll
collection, fuel dispensing, parking and building access,
etc.


2000s: RFID has become ubiquitous and mainstream;
Retail giant Walmart slaps RFID mandate on


over 100 of its top suppliers; Target and other retailers
follows suit



http://www.aimglobal.org “
The History of RFID Shrouds of Time”


RFID Components


Antenna


Reader (Interrogator)


Transponder (Tag)


Host Computer


Software

RF
Control
Circuits
Circuits
Host
Computer
RS232
Interface
or
Internet
to Host
RFID
Transponder
(Tag)
RFID Reader
RFID Tags



Active Tags: (Read/Write) Contain a
micro chip, an on
-
board power source for
data transmission to the reader, and an
antenna


Semi
-
active Tags: Same as active tag but
power source requires a “wake
-
up field”
from RFID reader to turn on


Passive Tags: (Read Only) Contain a
micro chip and an antenna


Figure 1: An Ant Playing with RFID Chips (Courtesy of AIM)

Figure 2: Passive RFID Tag Architecture (Courtesy of AIM)

Tag Antennas



Antennas are typically
built into the chip


½ wavelength in length


Single dipole


Dual dipole


Loop


Patch



Dual Dipole Antenna

Dipole Antenna

EPC Class Specification

EPC Class

Definition

Programming

Class 0

Read Only
passive tags

Programmed as part of the
semiconductor manufacturing
process.

Class 1

Write once,
read many
passive tags

Programmed once by the
customer then locked.

Class 2

Re
-
writable
passive tags

Can be reprogrammed many
times.

Class 3

Semi
-
passive
tags

Class 4

Active tags

Class 5

Readers

NA

http://www.impinj.com/page.cfm?ID=aboutRFIDStandards
:
RFID Standards

EPC Code Structure

EPC
TYPE

HEADER
SIZE

FIRST
BITS

DOMAIN
MANAGER

OBJECT
CLASS

SERIAL
NUMBER

TOTAL
BITS

64
-
bit
type 1

2

1

21

17

24

64

64
-
bit
type 2

2

10

15

13

34

64

64
-
bit
type 3

2

11

26

13

23

64

96
-
bit +

8

00

28

24

36

96

8

28

24

36

2

21

17

24

2

15

13

34

2

26

13

23

96
-
Bit Format


Type 1 64
-
bit format


Type 2 64
-
bit format


Type 3 64
-
bit format


EPC Field Definition


Version No.: Defines EPC structure type


Domain Manager: Defines mfg. number


Object Class: Defines product number


Serial No.: Serial number of object

Error Control


May or may not be used


CRC
-
16: G(x) = X
16

+ X
12

+ X
5

+ 1


(ISO/EIC 3309)


Reader to tag computation on all n bits of
the packet. 1’s Complement stored on tag










Signal Measurement

(Inductive Coupling)

http://www.rfid
-
handbook.de/rfid/measurements.html

Modulation Technique


a reader to tag command

http://www.rfid
-
handbook.de/rfid/measurements.html

Function of the Reader


Provided energy to the tag


Provide a carrier signal for the tag to
modulate and resonate back to the reader


Detect the modulated signal from the tag
and decode its data


Transmit detected data to host computer

Examples of RFID Readers

Functions of the Tag


Untilize the electromagnetic energy
provided by the reader


Detect and decode the reader signal


Resonate the carrier signal sent by the
reader


Modulate the resonated signal sent back
to the reader

Layout considerations

Challenges facing RFID


Standardization


Costs


Training


Data Security


Long
-
term electromagnetic radiation


Issues of Privacy and Ethics



California Senator Debra Brown (2003)
“How
would you like it if, for instance, one day your
realized your underwear was reporting on
your whereabouts?”





References



Special thanks to Tomas E. Grajales, Vice President of R&D of Dynasys Technologies Inc. for
providing the use of all Axcess Inc. slides.



Toward a Global “Internet of Things”:
:
http://java.sun.com/developer/technicalArticles/Ecommerce/rfid/


The Use of RFID as a Replacement for Traditional Bar Coding:
http://www.andrew.cmu.edu/user/cjs/tech.html



Shrouds of Time, RFID History
http://www.mindcontrolforums.com/news/shrouds_of_time.pdf


RFID Timeline:
http://people.interaction
-
ivrea.it/c.noessel/RFID/RFID_timeline.pdf#search='application%20of%20the%20microwave%20h
omodyne%20and%20vernon



RFID Handbook: http://www.rfid
-
handbook.de/index.html


CASPIAN
http://www.nocards.org/welcome/index.shtml



RFID A Week Long Survey:
http://people.interaction
-
ivrea.it/c.noessel/RFID/RFID_research.pdf



RFID White Paper:
http://www.rmsomega.com/documents/RFID_White_Paper_ScanSource_000.pdf



RFID Standards:
http://www.impinj.com/page.cfm?ID=aboutRFIDStandards


Electronic Product Code (EPC):
http://www.zebra.com/id/zebra/na/en/index/rfid/faqs/epc_rfid_technology.html


Destron Technologies Cattle Tags:
http://www.destronfearing.com/pipdf/tx12102fdx_b_cattletag050702.pdf