Genetic Engineering

yeastyfizzleΒιοτεχνολογία

16 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 5 χρόνια και 21 μέρες)

139 εμφανίσεις

Genetic Engineering

I. DNA Review

A. DNA is a Nucleic Acid


B. Monomers of DNA are called nucleotides

C. DNA has bases A, T, C, and G

DNA Review Cont.

D.
A
gene

is a segment (piece) of DNA that
codes for a protein.



E
. DNA


RNA


Protein







II. Genetic Engineering

A.
Genetic Engineering
is changing the DNA
sequence that occurs naturally in organisms.


Recombinant DNA

B.
Recombinant
DNA
the process of taking DNA
from one organism and adding it to another
organism


For
example, if you put the gene from a firefly that
makes it glow into a plant, then the plant will
glow
.


C. What makes genetic engineering
possible?


because
the
DNA code is
Universal
.


1.
All

DNA uses the same four bases (A, T, G, C).

2.
All

codons (three bases) code for the same amino
acids, which are the building blocks (monomers) of
proteins. For example,
ATG

codes for the amino
acid, methionine.


Same genetic code for all living
organisms!!

BACTERIA

ANIMALS

PLANTS

VIRUS

III. Recombinant DNA

A.
Restriction enzymes
cut DNA at specific
places

B.
A
plasmid

is a small piece of circular
DNA
found in bacteria.

C.
A gene can be cut out using restriction
enzymes and inserted into plasmids


IV. Transformation

Transformation

-

genetically engineered plasmids are inserted into
bacteria

A.
Put
DNA into a
plasmid

B.
Put
the plasmid into a
bacteria

C.
When
bacteria reproduce by asexual reproduction, the plasmid also
gets copied
.

D.
You
get:

1.
More
of the
gene

2.
More
of the
protein

for which the gene codes


Cloning

http
://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/tech/cloning/
clickandclone
/


1.
In 1997, scientists cloned the first large mammal: a
sheep
named Dolly

2.
A nucleus
from the original sheep was put into an
egg
with the DNA removed

3.
Cloned organisms are genetically
identical
to the
parent
. They
have the same
DNA.


Think Pair Share

Question 1:


Why would we want to clone more of a certain
animal
?




What are some pros and cons of doing this?


III. Genetically Modified Organisms
(
GMO
)


Genetically Modified Organisms (
GMOs
) are
created when
humans

purposefully
change
the
genes

that naturally occur
in organisms
.


Genetically Modified Organisms
(
GMO
)


Jellyfish
GLO

gene inserted into brain cells!

Genetically Modified Organisms
(
GMO
)


Artic fish “antifreeze” genes inserted into a
strawberries to make more frost resistant


Genetically Modified Organisms
(
GMO
)


DNA from Hepatitis B virus inserted into
banana is used as a vaccination

Genetically Modified Organisms
(
GMO
)


Gene for insecticide resistance from bacteria
inserted into Corn

Think Pair Share

Question 2:

Currently, genetically modified foods in the
United States do not require special labeling to
notify consumers.



How do you feel about eating food that has
been genetically modified
?



What is good about it and what could be bad?