Process Management in Public Sector: a Case Driven approach - J ...

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Process Management


in Public Sector :

a Case Driven approach

Joachim Vanden Brande, CEO, LoQutus

March 19th, 2012

Warschau

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LoQutus

1


Why process management in public sector ?



Different patterns to support process
management



Solutions



Case



Q&A

Agenda

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LoQutus

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Why processes?


Traditional organization!

3

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LoQutus

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4

Process driven organisation

Why processes?

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LoQutus

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Why process management?


We need more staff because…




… there is too much work…



… nobody can be disengaged to perform additional tasks…



… we can no longer do our job properly…



… we are facing a backlog…




… we are not working at full capacity…



… ”




Can we define the need for additional resources


without analyzing the processes



5

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LoQutus

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Why process management?


We can do it more efficient
because



… we feel that there is still time left…




… there is still a lot of waste in the processes




… the way we organize things can be improved…



… we have to focus on the work that is important…



… ”

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LoQutus

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Why process management?

7

In an information
-
based services company:


5% of the activities create an added value …


50 % of the activities are necessary, but do not create any added value
for the
citizens



45 % of the activities do not create any added value …

Answering telephone calls, emails,…that are not intended for the company …

Defective or incorrect information leading to additional contacts ...

Unreliable process quality resulting in extra work ...


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LoQutus

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Why Process Management

in Public Sector ?



Most services offered to citizens span
more then one organization, a process
oriented way of thinking solves this



Accelerator for lean administration



More efficiency in the interaction
between citizens,
organisations

and
government



Supports basic principles of e
-
government


Authentic sources


Only once


Privacy

D
e
p
a
r
tm
e
n
t

C
i
ti
ze
n

F
u
n
c
ti
o
n
a
l

S
I
L
O

s

w
i
th
i
n

p
u
b
l
i
c

s
e
c
to
r

C
i
ti
ze
n


D
e
p
a
r
tm
e
n
t

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LoQutus

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Solutions

Support Process Management from IT Viewpoint



‘Current’ IT Systems


Hard to maintain because process logic and GUI are
interwoven


Data driven, NOT process driven


Process and rules embedded in code



Process & Event driven IT Systems


Business Process Management Systems


(Advanced) Case Management


Can be a bit confusion which direction to take


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LoQutus

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Solutions


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LoQutus

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Solutions

Tayler

versus
Drucker

Business Process Management


Scientific management


Standardize processes to
increase efficiency


Case Management


Management by objectives


Participants choose actions
to meet goals


Routine work

can be analyzed and a common pattern derived … it can be automated by traditional
process automation means.


Knowledge work
… does not have the level of repeatability found in routine work. When it comes
to work automation, any advantage gained from similarities is overwhelmed by additional costs of
having to accommodate the differences

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Solutions

Example


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Solutions

Example


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Solutions

Example


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Solutions

Example

BPM = A
Transactional

Thread
Linking Activities
Across Multiple Systems & Applications


State

State

State

Control

Control

Control

Activity

Activity

Activity

Activity

Solutions

BPMS

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Solutions

Deterministic
vs.
Non
-
Deterministic

BPMN Processes Are Deterministic,
Where All Possible Paths Are

Pre
-
Determined or Known in
Advance, No Matter How Complex
the Pathways May Be
.


The Direction of the Process is
Determined by the Pre
-
Defined

Path and Current State; State is
Determined by the Preceding
Activity, in Other Words,

Wher
e it is in the Process.

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LoQutus

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Solutions

Business
Proces

Management Systems

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LoQutus

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Solutions

Business Process Management Systems



Human activity

Automated activity
(external)

Long
-
running business process

Automated activity
(internal)

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LoQutus

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BPMS modeling example


class Business Processes
Beheren Contract
Gunnen Contract
Kwalificeren
Exploitant
Uitvoeren Contract
Optimaliseren
Contracten

BPMN 1. Beheren Contract
1.1 Voorberei den
Onderhandel i ng Met Expl oi tant
«Event»
Wi j zi gi ng opdracht
expl oi tant
(from Events)
«Event»
Ni euw overhei dsopdracht
(from Events)
«Event»
Wi j zi gi ng opdracht i n
regi e
(from Events)
1.2 Onderhandel en Met
Expl oi tant
1.3 Communi ceren Wi j zi gi ng Met
Expl oi tant
«Product»
Products::Aangepast
contract
«Event»
Expl oi tant haakt af
(from Events)
«Event»
Expl oi tant wi l
onderhandel en
(from Events)
«Generate»
«Generate»
«IsProcessedBy»
«Generate»
«Produce»
«IsProcessedBy»
«IsProcessedBy»
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LoQutus

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BPMS modeling example


BPMN Communiceren wij ziging met exploitant
«Lane» Planner
«Lane» Contractbeheerder
«Pool» Exploitant
«Pool» De Lijn
Goedgekeurd resul taat
Bevesti gen
geactual i seerd
contract
Paral l el
Informeren Enti tei t Afdel i ngshoofd
Expl oi tati e
Informeren Enti tei t Expl oi tati e
Pl anni ng
Informeren Regi o Expl oi tati e
Merge
Actual i seren van de
prakti sche l open
Aangepast Contract
Actual i sati e ok?
Starten beheren contract
j a
nee
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LoQutus

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The problem with BPMS


Case Management Focuses

on Events and Outcomes

An Event
Occurs

The Case is
Completed

A Case File
is Opened

Activities and Work Create Content

& Context Added to the Case

Pragmatic Definition : ACM is a strategy to support ad
-
hoc, unpredictable, human
centric processes

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Event
-
Driven? Yes.

Agile? Maybe.

ACM Processes Are Goal
-
Driven and Non
-
Deterministic,

The End Point is Known at the Start, the Pathway for Reaching it is
Determined by the Outcome at Each Stage as well as Rules and Policies
Applicable to the Case. The State of the Case is determined by the Content
and Context
Within

the Case, Not
Wher
e the Case is at Any Time.

Issue
Resolved &
Recorded

Customer
Reports
Problem

A Case is
Opened

Issue is
Investigated

Solution
Applied,
Unsuccessfully

Alternatives
Researched &
Applied

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LoQutus

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Goal
-
Driven = Non
-
Linear

Cases Evolve Over Time in the Direction of Achieving a Goal, Often in
Unpredictable Directions, Requiring the Ability to Jump Forward, Jump
Back, Re
-
do or Otherwise Perform Work in a Sequence That Can

t be
Determined in Advance.

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LoQutus

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Adaptable, Not Ad
-
Hoc

Business Rules, Business Analytics, Context
-
Sensitive

Help


and
Knowledge Management Functions Help Guide Knowledge Workers to
Make Decisions About Cases as They Evolved.


The Case Management System Adapts to the Context of the Case,
Guiding the Outcome Based on the Combination of Rules/Policies, Data,
and Application of Knowledge Worker Know
-
How.

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LoQutus

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Concept


Coordination through case folder

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Claim case


High level

Claims management
Technical
services
Driver
(
or police
,
dispatching
,
...)
Finance
/
Litigation
Insurance
/
Personnel
Finance
Phase
1
.
Register claim
2
.
Make estimate
3
.
Handle claim
4
.
Settle payment
5
.
Close claim

act Handle claim
Handl e cl ai m
Under procedure
«Lane» Chief personnel
«Lane» Insurance
«Pool» Public Transport
Recei ve cl ai m
Add extra
documentati on
Perform "Vul nerabl e
road user" procedure
Perform "Own
damage" procedure
Perform settl ement
procedure
Deny
«Pre-condi ti on»
{No other runni ng
procedure}
End
«Post-condi ti on»
{[Procedure succesful l y
handl ed] OR [Deni ed]}
Request advi ce
Approve cl ai m
handl i ng
«Post-condi ti on»
{[Procure fi ni shed]}
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LoQutus

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Handle claim
-

detail

No structure, but

pre
-

& post
-
conditions


stm States
Registered
Ini ti al
Fi nal
Under estimate
Handling claim
Under procedure
Under investigation
Entry
Exit
Settling payment
Closed
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LoQutus

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Claim case


states


Event
-
driven!



Events
determine
state

(= summary of history)



State determines
available events


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LoQutus

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Claim case


High level

Claims management
Technical
services
Driver
(
or police
,
dispatching
,
...)
Finance
/
Litigation
Insurance
/
Personnel
Finance
Phase
1
.
Register claim
2
.
Make estimate
3
.
Handle claim
4
.
Settle payment
5
.
Close claim
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LoQutus

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Case

Manage end
-
to
-
end process :
Subsidies for school infrastructure

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Agion


Project ALPHA

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LoQutus


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Business process (simplified)


Maximum configurability (business users)


Letter templates





Calculations (rules)





Checklists++

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LoQutus

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Key succes factors (IT)


Key characteristics (
AGIOn
)

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LoQutus

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Why is this ACM?

Case is central

Subsidy request

Multiple input stimuli

E
-
mail, printed mail,

phone

Knowledge worker

Specially trained

AGIOn employee


Goal
-
based working

Evaluate and grant

the subsidy

Every case is different

Unpredictable flow,

different forms,

procedures, …

Robust regarding to change

Subject to

changing legislation,

procedures, forms, …

Collaboration

Different teams

work together:

accountancy, legal, …


Identifying cases and subcases

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Challenges

Case

Multiple request forms

need to be evaluated

individually (subcases)

Different subcontractors

require different handling

and approval of the

specifications (subcases)

Many
-
to
-
many relationship

Monthly

invoices from

subcontractors

(subcases)

Mutual financial

statement


Checklist to letter concept (“autotext”)







Case states


Case states drive the underlying process fragments


Explicit process fragment rules needed


Subcase states vs case states



Stakeholders can be dynamic, e.g. Identification of external experts


In some cases, external experts are needed to evaluate a request


Not known beforehand if this expert is needed

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LoQutus

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Challenges (2)


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LoQutus


40

AGIOn ACM Architecture


Process Management is necessary

when we
want to optimize the way organizations in Public
Sector work



Process modeling and discovery should focus on
both
structured and unstructured
processes in
order to realize IT systems that support process
management



State
-
of
-
the
-
art IT systems (
BPMS & ACM
) each
have advantages, combine them


Summary

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Q & A

Literature

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