Change Management Strategic Interventions - WordPress.com

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6 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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STRATEGI C I NTERVENTI ONS

Change Management


Managing a change process is as vital as the change
itself.


In recent years, management scholars have explored
the possibilities of employing the techniques of
Organization Development (OD) to effect desired
organizational changes. Properly diagnosing the
change environment allows for the application of
such strategic intervention techniques as role
playing, team development, survey feedback, process
consultation, among others

Strategic Interventions

1.Technostructural interventions


These focus on improving the organizational
effectiveness and human development by focusing
on technology and structure


Technostructural

interventions the following:
organizational structure, organization systems,
business process redesign, space and physical
settings, socio
-
technical systems, change
management, job design / enrichment, competency
-
based management, knowledge management and
organizational learning


2.Management and Leadership Development
Interventions

These types of OD interventions aim to improve
organizational performance by increasing
effectiveness of formal and informal leaders


Their use is wide spread, and almost all
organizations have programs in place to identify,
measure, and improve the quality of their leaders.
Kormanik

(2005) includes the following examples:
executive and professional development, mentoring,
coaching, action learning, action science, MBO,
succession planning, 360 degree feedback,
participative management, technical / skills training

3.Team Development and Group Processes
Interventions

Aim at improving different aspects of a group
performance, such as goal setting, development of
interpersonal relations among team members, role
clarification and analysis, decision making, problem
solving, and communities of practice, among other

4. Individual / Interpersonal Process

Aim at improving organizational performance by
developing specific skills of individuals.

The most common examples of this type of
interventions are learning strategies, life transitions,
mentoring, and interpersonal communications,
among other.


NEED FOR CHANGE


There are several factors that indicate the need for
change in an organisation.

Changes in the Market


Changes in customers taste , requirements,
competition and others indicate the need for an
organisation to change its approach or
products/services

Economic Down
Down


Changes in GDP growth reduces the purchasing
power of consumers. Other factors like inflation,
Changes in interest rates in an economy also
triggers change in an organisation.

Other factors


Competition


Budget constraints /pressure


Changes in regulation / legislation


Changes in Technology


Changes in organisation size itself


Mergers and acquisition


Restructuring operations



Resources implication


As a result of changes in an organisation, the
following may a rise.


Restructuring of organisation.


Interviewing and hiring new staff/ consultants


Training of the staff.


New physical assets i.e. equipments , buildings or
machines and hence attracting additional costs to
the organisation.

LEADING STAKEHOLDERS IN DEVELOPING
A STRATEGY FOR CHANGE


Change of any type affect different types of
stakeholders.


The effect will depend on the interest and the power
of the stakeholder.

Stakeholder analysis


It is the process of identifying the individuals or
groups that are likely to affect or be affected by a
proposed action, and sorting them according to their
impact on the action and the impact the action will
have on them


This information is used to assess how the interests
of those stakeholders should be addressed in a
project

plan,
policy
, program, or other action

Benefits of doing stakeholder analysis

Stakeholder analysis helps with the identification of
the following:


Stakeholders' interests


Potential risks


Key people to be informed about the project during
the execution phase


Negative stakeholders as well as their adverse effects
on the project


Groups of stakeholders


Primary stakeholders

: are those ultimately affected,
either positively or negatively by an organization's
actions.


Secondary stakeholders

: are the ‘intermediaries’,
that is, persons or organizations who are indirectly
affected by an organization's actions.


Key stakeholders

: (who can also belong to the first
two groups) have significant influence upon or
importance within an organization


Methods of Stakeholder Mapping



Based on power to influence


Stakeholder expectations based on value hierarchies


According
to potential for threat and potential for
cooperation

STAKEHOLDER CIRCLE


The
Stakeholder

Circle

® is designed to enhance
the management of a business unit, organizational
activity, or project's stakeholder community to the
benefit of the stakeholders and the activity. It is a
proven methodology

supported by robust,
easy to
use tools
.

STEPS IN STAKEHOLDER CIRCLE


1. Identify the stakeholders who
are likely to be affected by the
change


2. Prioritise the stakeholders
according to the need of the
change



3.
Map the stakeholder in terms of
power and interest


4. Develop engagement strategy
with the stakeholders


5.Optimise the support of the
stakeholders


6.Monitor the changes

METHOD OF INVOLVING
STAKEHOLDERS


1. Having communications with
individual stakeholder/
consultations


2.Group meetings


3. Team building


4.Coaching


5. Delegation of responsibilities.


RESISTANCE TO CHANGE


Most people don't like
change

because
they don't like being changed. When
change comes into view, fear and
resistance to change follow


often
despite its obvious benefits


People fight against change because they:


fear to lose something they value, or


don't understand the change and its
implications, or


don't think that the change makes sense, or


find it difficult to cope with either the level
or pace of the change.
3


Organisational barriers to change



Structural inertia


Existing power structures


Resistance from work groups


Failure of previous change
initiatives


Individual barriers to change



Tradition and set ways:


Loyalty to existing relationships


Failure to accept the need for change


Insecurity


Preference for the existing arrangements


Break up of work groups


Different person ambitions



Fear of:


Loss of power


Loss of skills


Loss of income


The unknown


Redundancy


Inability to perform as well in the new situation


STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING RESISTANCE


1. Have open communication or be open.


2.Education all stakeholders involved.


3.Involve all stakeholders


4.Have forums to discuss pertinent issues as regards
to change.


5. Have a system of giving feedback to stakeholders


6. Create a sense of ownership from the stakeholders


7. Have change champions


8. Communicate the vision for change.


9. Ensure there is support from all stakeholders.


10. Focus on the positive benefits of change


11. Ensure there is training programmes necessary
for successful implementation.


CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION


A successful change implementation leads to.


Business Process Re
-
engineering.


Learning Organisation


Delayering


Kaizan


Right sizing


Matrix organisation


Network organisation

BUSINESS PROCESS RE
-
ENGINEERING


Business Process Reengineering (BPR) involves the
fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of
business processes to achieve dramatic
improvements in critical contemporary measures of
performance such as cost, quality, service and speed

A reengineered organization is process oriented,
where:


Processes are identified and named,


2) Everyone is aware of the processes they are
involved in,


3) Process measurement, i.e. monitoring and control,
is performed

LEARNING ORGANISATION


A
learning organization

is the term given to a
company that facilitates the learning of its members
and continuously transforms itself.


Learning organizations develop as a result of the
pressures facing modern organizations and enables
them to remain competitive in the business
environment.

A learning organization has five main features;
systems thinking, personal mastery, mental
models, shared vision and team learning
.


BENEFITS OF LEARNING ORGANISATION


Maintaining levels of innovation and remaining
competitive


Being better placed to respond to external pressures


Having the knowledge to better link resources to
customer needs


Improving quality of outputs at all levels


Improving corporate image by becoming more
people oriented


Increasing the pace of change within the
organization


KAIZEN


Refers to activities that continually improve all
functions, and involves all employees from the CEO
to the assembly line workers


It also applies to processes, such as purchasing and
logistics, that cross organizational boundaries into
the supply chain


By improving standardized activities and processes,
kaizen aims to eliminate waste

The five main elements of kaizen



Teamwork


Personal discipline


Improved morale


Quality circles


Suggestions for improvement


DELAYERING


Delayering

is a term in
management

and
corporate
restructuring

that refers to a planned
reduction in the number of layers of a
management
hierarchy


The purpose is to give the organization a flatter
structure and thereby push decision
-
making down to
lower managerial levels





The assumption is that this will produce quicker
decision
-
making by managers who are closer to their
customers and more in touch with their competitive
environment




The reasoning behind
delayering

lies in the belief
that as organizations grow they become
cumbersome, bureaucratic, and inflexible





Moreover, they can be stultified by rules and
procedures, slow decision
-
making processes, and a
lack of creativity




Managing Conflict


Conflict involves incompatible
behaviors
; one person
interfering, disrupting, or in some other way making
another’s less effective


A. Understanding Competitive and Cooperative
Conflicts


1. Competitive Conflicts

Competitive Conflicts occur when two parties believe
that they are right and the other one is wrong and
will not agree in the middle.


A win
-
lose situation

These conflicts can ruin a relationship and lead to a
dysfunctional, destructive
outcome.


2. Cooperative Conflicts


Cooperative Conflicts occur when two parties agree to
compromise to end a conflict, each party may need to
give up something to get something in return.



A win
-
win situation


These conflicts build trust for the future and allows
parties to accomplish their present goals together



MAESURES TO MONITOR PROGRESS


It is important to monitor the progress that change is
achieving. Some of the method to use are:


Goal based Evaluation


Process based evaluation


Outcome based evaluation


Regular reports


Meetings


Quality circles


Progress reviews


Deadlines


progress