Pedagogy and the Learning Design:

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14 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Pedagogy and the Learning Design:

Integrating simulations effectively into the design and delivery of online
courses.

Brian Smith

Inspiring Learning

Inspiring Teaching

#UELPL


Immersive Learning

Collaborative learning

Simulating

Arousing curiosity

Stimulating

Safe practice

Introduction

Head of Technology Enhanced Learning, Edge Hill University

Higher Education Academy National Teaching Fellow

Techn
ology

Enhanced Learning
-

‘The Study off’

My focus is on ‘Immersive Learning’ and ‘Education without Walls’

www.edgehill.ac.uk

smithb@edgehill.ac.uk


01695 65 7061

Skype:smithbh116

Image courtesy of
http://www.stuartrayner.com
/


Arousing curiosity

Stimulating

Inspiring Teaching

Inspiring Learning

#UELPL


This session

Scene setting
-

Outline

Act 1
-

Revisiting what we mean
by Pedagogy

Act 2
-

Adding the ‘
e
’ into
P
e
dagogy

Three parts to this session:

Sound courtesy of
http://soundjax.com/drum_sounds
-
1.html


Inspiring Teaching

Inspiring Learning

Arousing curiosity

Stimulating

#UELPL


Pedagogy and the Learning Design:

Integrating simulations effectively into the design and delivery of online courses.



Outline

#UELIS


Pedagogy
-

Literature

Fast growing amount of
technology available to teachers

The pedagogical application of
technology

Design principles
-

what are the
principles we are using with
technology to simulate or to
stimulate learning

Image courtesy of
http://blogs.earthlink.net/living
-
with
-
social
-
media/


#UELPL


Origin
-

'Pedagogy'

Pedagogical origin


Greek
historical connections meaning
‘leading the child’

Today, 2013
-

It has a morphic
meaning; how content is
delivered, engagement, use of
video and teaching artifacts.

Freire (1998)
-

Critical Pedagogy
-

Education
Movement to guide passion and principles to
help students develop their skills and freedom
to take constructive action.

Gagne (1985)
-

identified five major
categories of learning: verbal information,
intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, motor
skills and attitudes.

Vygotsky (1978)
-

Zone of Proximal Distance;
the acquisition of new knowledge based on
previous learning.

Laurillard (2002)
-

Conversational
Framework
;

Inspiring Learning

Inspiring Teaching

Stimulating

Arousing curiosity

#UELPL


Models and Principles


Nicol, D. & Macfarlane
-
Dick

(2006) Formative assessment
and self
-
regulated learning: A
model and seven principles of
good feedback practice.

1.
Clarify what good performance is

2.
Facilitate self
-
assessment

3.
Deliver high quality feedback information

4.
Encourage teacher and peer dialogue

5.
Encourage positive motivation and self
-
esteem

6.
Provide opportunities to close the gap

7.
Use feedback to improve teaching

Inspiring Learning

Inspiring Teaching

Stimulating

Arousing curiosity

#UELPL


Models and Principles


Nicol, D. & Macfarlane
-
Dick

(2006) Formative assessment
and self
-
regulated learning: A
model and seven principles of
good feedback practice.

#UELIS


Inspiring Learning

Inspiring Teaching

Stimulating

Arousing curiosity

#UELPL


Origin of my pedagogy

Pedagogical origin


childhood;
watching others when playing
games; monopoly, backgammon,
chess, then the Rubik cube.

Arousing curiosity

Stimulating

Inspiring Teaching

Inspiring Learning

#UELPL


Images courtesy of
http://www.giftedpenguin.co.uk


Clinical Education
-

'purpose'

Saving lives
-

immersion into the
culture, organisation, profession,
community of practice, timely
feedback.

Inspiring Learning

Inspiring Teaching

Arousing curiosity

Stimulating

#UELPL


Images courtesy of
http://www.edgehill.ac.uk


Images courtesy of
http://www.vision.ee.ethz.ch



Inspiring Learning

Inspiring Teaching

Arousing curiosity

Stimulating

#UELPL


Images courtesy of
http://www.nbcwashington.com

Inspiring Learning

Inspiring Teaching

CONCENTRATION

ENGAGED

EMOTIONAL RESPONSES

DESIRE TO SUCCEED

Arousing curiosity

Stimulating

#UELPL


What behaviours do I hope to elicit it in the learning process?

Self
-
posed Questions

What emotions are likely to be provoked?

How do you keep the ‘story’ going?

What rewards does a learner need?

How do you keep the student engaged and communicative?

How do I know they are learning?

#UELPL


Smith B, Reed P & Jones C (2008)


‘Mode Neutral’ pedagogy. European Journal of Open, Distance and E
-
learning. June 2008


Learning design

Communication

Emotional responses

Tutor planned stimulus

Contextual Voice

c

c

c

c

c

c

c

Reflection

Critical thinking

Arousing curiosity

Modelling behaviour

Story telling

#UELPL


Interconnecting

Images courtesy of
http://www.google.co.uk

Interconnection

Classroom

Online/Distance

#UELPL


Smith B, Reed P & Jones C (2008)


‘Mode Neutral’ pedagogy. European Journal of Open, Distance and E
-
learning. June 2008



Findings and benefits



35% move towards online in the first
three weeks.


High communication among participants



Modelling good practice



Application of knowledge into practice



Centre point for support



Fairness and Equality



Accessed 22 hrs out of 24hrs


(3am
-
5am!)




Findings

#UELPL


Smith B, Reed P & Jones C (2008)


‘Mode Neutral’ pedagogy. European Journal of Open, Distance and E
-
learning. June 2008


Three key principles that underpin
Mode Neutral Pedagogy



1. Changing the locus of control from an
externally perceived entity to internal for
the learner (Rotter 1966).



2. Create a convergence among the
constellation of mode of delivery to one
of mode of learning.



3. Ensure the learning is context
-
centric
fostering situated learning and student
generated learning.


Role of the Tutor

Curriculum
Design

Communication for Learning

Context
-
centric

Published
-

Model Neutral pedagogy

#UELPL


Inspiring Learning

Inspiring Teaching

Immersive Learning

Collaborative learning

Simulating

Arousing curiosity

Stimulating

Safe practice

Curiosity

#UELPL


#UELPL


Inspiring Learning

Inspiring Teaching

Arousing curiosity

Stimulating

Immersion

#UELPL


Virtual: ‘Place’

AGREED TIMES

CONFIDENTIALITY

RESPECT

SHARING FOR SUCCESS

#UELPL


Double
-
tap to edit

Inspiring Teaching

Inspiring Learning

Virtual: ‘Creative’

Arousing curiosity

Stimulating

Immersion

#UELPL


Double
-
tap to edit

Inspiring Teaching

Inspiring Learning

Virtual: ‘Practice’

Arousing curiosity

Stimulating

Immersion

#UELPL


Double
-
tap to edit

Inspiring Teaching

Inspiring Learning

Virtual: ‘Connecting’

BUILDING EFFECTIVE RELATIONSHIPS

Arousing curiosity

Stimulating

Immersion

#UELPL


Double
-
tap to edit

Inspiring Learning

Inspiring Teaching

Virtual: ‘Reflecting’

AFFORDING TIME TO REFLECT

Arousing curiosity

Stimulating

Immersion

#UELPL


All rights preserved
-

Images courtesy of
http://www.mrtoledano.com/gamers/02


Inspiring Learning

Inspiring Teaching

CONCENTRATION

ENGAGED

EMOTIONAL RESPONSES

DESIRE TO SUCCEED

Arousing curiosity

Stimulating

Immersion

#UELPL


Making the real world
more like the virtual
world

How do I inspire my students to:



look and feel like this?


Immerse themselves in an epic
adventure?


provide a marvellous experience?


stimulate the need to explore
collaboratively?

All rights preserved
-

Images courtesy of
http://www.mrtoledano.com/gamers/02


#UELPL


Candy Crush

14.4 million daily players

King.com believe the game is ‘so family friendly and social’.

Meant for everyone on any platform

Images courtesy of
http://news.cnet.com/8301
-
1023_3
-
57576461
-
93/crushing
-
competition
-
candy
-
crush
-
creator
-
crowns
-
itself
-
king/

#UELPL


Many unanswered questions

Have many of us understand the
‘game’ elements?

Have there been any successes
in implementing the virtual world
design into the real world?

Does it success depend upon
physical rooms or can
Education

take place
Without Walls
?

Is the technology developed
enough to keep people immersed
in what they are doing?

Is the Virtual World a red herring
to what should happen in the real
world?

#UELPL


Technology in Education
-

'confusion'

Blurred Terminology
-

Virtual
Words, Virtual Reality, Virtual
Environment, Blended learning,
Distance Education, Hybrid
education, trans
-
model learning
and more.

#UELPL


Activity 1

#UELPL


Your pedagogy and learning design


In groups, use the flip chart to draw a visual representation of how you
structure one of your teaching sessions.

List the pedagogical principles you integrate into your diagram; getting the
students to become independent learners, etc

#UELPL


Plenary 1

#UELPL


Key learning points from Activity 1

1.
Knowing your learning design and pedagogical principles helps to plan a constructively
aligned session

2.
Inspire to collaborate, to engage and interact with others

3.
Enter into the learning at the correct level, giving you a chance to achieve,

4.
Having something specific to do, no sitting back doing nothing or staring into space.

5.
Knowing others are waiting to help you achieve your epic mission.

6.
Inspiring story, positive feedback and encouragement.

They may include

#UELPL


Activity 2

#UELPL


Simulating elements of your learning
design


In the same groups, use your visual representation from activity 1 and ask
each other where can technology simulate/enrich the pedagogical principles
within the learning experience.

What technology might you consider using: Facebook, Twitter, Video,
Google Glass or something else?!

#UELPL


Plenary 2

#UELPL


Key learning points from Activity 2

1.
Game
-
based activity that is fun and increases in difficulty as levels are met.

2.
Embedding

social media to foster the need for feedback with one another.

3.
Delivery of high
-
fidelity media for learning and stimulating engagement.

4.
Knowing others are waiting to help you achieve your epic mission.

5.
Inspiring story, positive feedback and encouragement.

They may include

#UELPL


Further reading



Cogill J (2008). Primary teachers’ interactive whiteboard practice across one year: changes in pedagogy and influencing facto
rs.

EdD thesis King’s
College University of London.


Allen, M., Bourhis, J., Burrell, N., & Mabry, E. (2002). Comparing student satisfaction with distance education to traditiona
l c
lassrooms in higher
education: A meta
-
analysis. The American Journal of Distance Education, 16, 83
-
97.

Angelo, T. A., & Cross, K. P. (1993). Classroom Assessment Techniques: A handbook for college teachers (2nd ed.). San Francis
co:

Jossey
-
Bass.

Beetham, H. (2002). Design of learning programmes (UK).

Dewhurst, D. G., & Williams, A. D. (1998). An investigation of the potential for a computer
-
based tutorial program covering the
cardiovascular system to
replace traditional lectures.

Freire, P. (1998). Pedagogy of Freedom: Ethics, Democracy, and Civic Courage (Clarke, P., Trans.). Maryland: Rowman & Littlef
iel
d.


Gagne, R. (1962). Military training and principles of learning. American Psychologist, 17, 263
-
276.

Gagne, R. (1985). The Conditions of Learning (4th.). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Gagne, R. (1987). Instructional Technology Foundations. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc.

Gagne, R. & Driscoll, M. (1988). Essentials of Learning for Instruction (2nd Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice
-
Hall.

Gagne, R. M., Briggs, L. J., & Wager, W. W. (1992). Principles of instructional design (4th ed.). Fort Worth TX.: Harcourt Br
ace

Jovanovich.

Hannon, P. and Umble, C (2002) Gagne and Laurillard's Models of Instruction Applied to Distance Education: A theoretically d
riv
en evaluation of an
online curriculum in public health. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. 3, 2.

Kulik, C. L. C., & Kulik, J. A. (1986). Effectiveness of computer
-
based education in colleges. AEDS Journal, 19, 81


108.

Laurillard, D. (1993). Rethinking University Teaching: A framework for the effective use of educational technology. London: R
out
ledge.

Laurillard, D., Stratfold, M., Luckin, R., Plowman, L. & Taylor, J. (2000) Affordances for Learning in a Non
-
Linear Narrative M
edium. Journal of
Interactive Media in Education, 2, [www
-
jime.open.ac.uk/00/2]

Laurillard, D. (2002). Rethinking university teaching. A conversational framework for the effective use of learning technolo
gie
s. London: Routledge

Russell, T. R. (1999). The no significant difference phenomenon. Montgomery, AL.: International Distance Education Certificat
ion

Center.



#UELPL


Further reading
(2)



Salmon, G. (2000) E
-
moderating: The Key to Teaching and Learning Online. Kogan Page.


Schulz, K. C., & Dahale, V. (1999). Multimedia modules for enhancing technical laboratory sessions. Campus
-
Wide Information Syst
ems 16, 81


88.

Twigg, C. (2001). Innovations in online learning: Moving beyond no significant difference. Troy, NY: Center for Academic Tran
sfo
rmation, Rensselaer
Polytechnic Institute.

Vygotsky, L.S. (1978) Mind in Society The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Harvard University Press. Cambridge:

Ma
ssachusetts.

Links


http://www.jisc.ac.uk/digiemerge

http://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/p
rogrammes/elearning/digilifelong.aspx

http://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/
programmes/elearning/developingdigitalliteracies.aspx

http://www.jisc.
ac.uk/uploaded_documents/sb%20conversational%20framework.pdf

Laurillard (2010) Conve
rsational Framework
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=97NjUUAdyq0



#UELPL