Multi-state CPUs - McGraw-Hill Higher Education

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Emerging
Technologies

Can You See Them
Coming?

Chapter 11

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

Student Learning Outcomes

1.
Describe how automatic speech recognition,
virtual reality, biometrics, and thought
-
control
user interfaces will change how you interact
with technology

2.
Define multi
-
state CPUs and holographic
storage devices and identify the changes they
will bring out in technology

3.
Describe how e
-
cash will work on the Internet
and discuss the challenges to making e
-
cash a
common reality

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

Student Learning Outcomes

4.
Describe emerging technologies and uses of
technology on the Internet including renting
software from ASPs, personalization through
push technologies, and the Internet
-
enabled
home

5.
Discuss the potential benefits and drawbacks
of cutting
-
edge technologies such as CAVEs,
membrane
-
based technologies,
nanotechnologies, biochips, and implant chips

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

Introduction

Technology is changing every day. Many
truly cutting
-
edge technologies are quickly
emerging that will dramatically change how
you interact with your computer and forever
change how you live your life.

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

Emerging Technologies

p.11.324 Fig. 11.1

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

11.1 Computers and Their
Interfaces


Fundamentally change the technology itself

Change the way you interface or interact with your computer

Most visible emerging technologies are those that:

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

11.1 Computers and Their
Interfaces


Future forms of interaction


Automatic speech recognition


3
-
D technologies


Biometrics


Wearable computers


Multi
-
state CPUs


Holographic storage devices


Thought
-
control user interfaces

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

ASR Today and Tomorrow


ASR is already available


Will become more widespread


Issues:


ASR must be flexible to recognize the voices
of many people


Some systems are limited in recognizing
continuous speech patterns


Speech not yet understood within the
context of a conversation

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

Automatic Speech
Recognition


Captures your speech


Distinguishes your words and word
groupings to form sentences


Includes these IT components:


Microphone & sound card


Software to distinguish your words


Database that contains words & language
rules

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

Automatic Speech
Recognition


An ASR system processes speech in three
steps:

2. Pattern Classification

1. Feature Analysis

3. Language Processing

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

Automatic Speech
Recognition

1.
Feature analysis


Captures words


Converts digital signal of voice into phonemes

2.
Pattern classification


Attempts to recognize phoneme


Finds match in acoustic model database

3.
Language processing (Key step)


Attempts to make sense of what you're saying by
comparing the possible word phonemes to rules in a
language model database

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

ASR System Example

p.11.325 Fig. 11.2

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

Commercially Available
ASR Systems

ViaVoice


Publisher: IBM

Dragon Naturally Speaking
-

Publisher: ScanSoft

SpeechMagic
-

Publisher: Phillips

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

3
-
D

SALES
0
5
10
1999
2000
2001
2002
Year
$ in Millions
Two
-
dimensional
presentations of
information show only
length and width.

0
5
10
1999
2000
2001
2002
Year
SALES ($ IN MILLIONS)
Pseudo three
-
dimensional
presentations of
information incorporate
shadowing to show depth.

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

Real 3
-
D


Can see depth of an image


Can turn image to reflect different angles
& perspectives


Already available on some Web sites


Real 3
-
D is becoming more popular


Limited by computer speed and capacity


Newer and cheaper computers will make real
3
-
D more available

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

Virtual Reality


A three
-
dimensional
computer simulation in
which you actively
participate


Special input and output
devices needed


Glove, headset, Walker

p.11.327 Fig. 11.4


SimNet Concepts Support CD: “Virtual
Reality and Artificial Intelligence”

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

Form of d
éjà

vu

Drawbacks to Virtual Reality

Simulator

Sickness

Eye

Strain

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

Biometrics


The use of physical characteristics to
provide identification


Fingerprints


Blood vessels in the retina of your eye


Sound of your voice


Already used in high
-
security
environments such as military installations

p.11.329 Fig. 11.5

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

Real
-
World Biometric
Applications

Integrated
-
enabled

Toilets

Custom Wedding

Gowns

Custom Bathrobes

Custom Shoes

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

Wearable Computers


Technology so small
and so portable that
you’ll be wearing it

p.11.330 Fig. 11.7

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

Multi
-
state
CPUs

CPUs and Storage Devices

What Can You Expect to See?


Multi
-
state CPUs

work with
information represented in more
than just two states,probably ten
states with each state representing
a digit between 0 and 9


Holographic storage devices

will
store information on a storage
medium that is composed of 3
-
D
crystal
-
like objects with many sides
and faces. On each face
information can be stored

Holographic
storage devices

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

Holographic Storage
Devices

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

Thought
-
Control User
Interfaces


Graphical user interfaces will change to voice
-
control user interfaces through automatic
speech recognition


With
Mind Drive

technology a small sensing
device on a finger captures 70 different bio
-
electrical signals produced by the mind that
radiate though
-
out the body. These are
processed and interpreted to determine what a
person is thinking


©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

What’s Your Thoughts on These
Emerging Technologies?


Are you fast at typing or would you rather
use speech recognition?


Can you ever foresee a time when your
computer will capture your thoughts?


Is technology becoming so important that
you need to wear it all the time like a
regular piece of clothing?


Do you want an Internet
-
enabled toilet
monitoring your physical well
-
being?

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

11.2 The Changing Internet

Internet
-
based trends

and

Internet
-
enabled technologies

Internet
-
enabled home

True personalization

Renting software
from ASPs

E
-
cash

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

E
-
Cash


Electronic representation of cash


Can buy products on the Web by sending
the e
-
cash file to a merchant


Far beyond digital money & wallets

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

Using E
-
Cash on the Web

E
-
Cash Transaction

p.11.334 Fig. 11.10

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

What's Holding Up E
-
Cash?


Anyone can be an electronic bank


There are no e
-
cash standards


Merchants must have accounts with electronic
banks


E
-
cash makes money laundering easy


E
-
cash is easy to lose, impossible to replace


Biggest Drawback: Acceptance by the consumer
market at large that e
-
cash is safe to use

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

Renting Software from
Application Service Providers


Many companies are
already planning for
"pay
-
for
-
use" software
over the Web


May not need a disk
drive in the future


even for Web
-
oriented devices

p.11.337 Fig. 11.12

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

Personalization


When a business knows so much about
you that it can anticipate what you want or
need and offer it to you


This isn’t spam


You will receive personalized offerings that
no one else will receive


May be achieved with global positioning
system (GPS) technology

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

Personalization or Spam?


If your cell phone is GPS
-
enabled, can any
organization track your movements?


Is a push environment always better than
a pull environment or will we need a
combination of the two?


©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

Push (Not Pull)
Technologies

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

Technology
-
Based Homes
of the Future


Wirelessly networked


Part of the Internet


Speech enabled


Characterized by
intelligent home
appliances

p.11.340 Fig. 11.15

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

Intelligent Home Appliances


Contain embedded computer technology
that controls functions and makes
decisions


Smelling refrigerators


Smart vacuum cleaners


Dirt
-
sensing clothes washers

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

11.3 Pushing the Envelope


CAVEs


Membrane
-
based technology


Nanotechnologies


Biochips


Implant chips

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

Caves

p.11.342 Fig. 11.16

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

Two Main Types of Caves

CAVE that displays images on all four walls to give you

the illusion that you’re in a particular environment

CAVE where you enter one CAVE while someone else

enters another. Numerous digital camera/projection

units capture you both, send the images to the opposite

CAVEs, and re
-
create your 3
-
D likenesses

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

Membrane
-
Based and
Nanotechnologies


Membrane
-
based
technologies

store
and manipulate
information within
living tissue cells


Nanotechnology

is
the study of
controlling individual
atoms and molecules

p.11.343 Fig. 11.17

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

Biochips and Implant Chips


Biochip

is a
technology chip that
can perform a variety
of physiological
functions when
inserted into the
human body


Implant chip

is a
technology
-
based
microchip implanted
into the human body

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

11.4 Key Terms


Application service
provider (ASP)


Automatic speech
recognition


Biochip


Biometrics


Cave automatic virtual
environment (CAVE)


E
-
cash


Global positioning
system


Holographic storage
device


Implant chip

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

11.4 Key Terms


Membrane
-
based
technology


Multi
-
state CPU


Nanotechnology


Three
-
dimensional
technologies


Virtual reality (VR)


Wearable Computer


©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

Review of Concepts

1.
Creating a Timeline for Emerging
Technologies and Their Uses


When will e
-
cash become a common
reality?

2.
Matching Occupations with Emerging
Technologies


What does a lawyer need?

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

Hands On Projects

E
-
Commerce

1.
Understanding New Government
Initiatives to Use the Web

2.
Making Long
-
Distance Phone Calls


Some are free on the Web

3.
Taking College Courses on the Web

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

Hands On Projects

Ethics, Security & Privacy

1.
Tracking Customer Movement with Body
Heat Maps


Stores can recognize and track your body
heat map

2.
DNA Testing


Should your DNA determine what education
you receive? What job you get?

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

Hands On Projects

on the Web

1.
Finding Virtual Reality Applications

2.
Determining the Capabilities of
Xybernaut’s Newest Poma Wearable
Computer

3.
E
-
Publishing on the Web

4.
Using Electronic Coupons

©2003 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies

Hands On Projects

Group Activities

1.
Researching Voice
-
Controlled Cell
Phones

2.
Blocking Spam

3.
Creating Three
-
Dimensional Graphs

4.
Researching Intelligent Home Appliances