Introduction to Virtual Environments & Virtual Reality

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14 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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1

Introduction to Virtual
Environments & Virtual Reality

c 2003 Larry Hodges, Zachary Wartell 2011

c2003 Larry Hodges

Virtual Environments


Augmented Reality


Telepresence


Artificial Reality


Classical Simulation Environments


Virtual Reality


c2003 Larry Hodges

Augmented Reality


A combination of a real
scene viewed by a user
and a virtual scene
generated by a computer
that augments the scene
with additional
information.

c2003 Larry Hodges

Telepresence


The use of various
technologies to
produce the effect of
placing the user in
another location.

c2003 Larry Hodges

Artificial Reality
(Myron Kruger)

Responsive Environment


Is an environment where
human behavior is
perceived by a computer
which interprets what it
observes and responds
through intelligent visual
and auditory displays

c2003 Larry Hodges

Visual Simulation


Classic “Visual
Simulation” is a mix
of real objects and
computer generated
stimuli.

c2003 Larry Hodges

Virtual Reality


Ideal for VR is that
everything you
experience is
computer
-
generated.

Reality

Virtuality Continuum

c2003 Larry Hodges


[Milgram94]

c2003 Larry Hodges

VR usually implies


Immersive Technology


Real
-
time first person view


Environment responds to you (at least at
the level of head
-
motion)

c2003 Larry Hodges

Immersive Technology


Head
-
mounted
Display


Optical System


Image Source (CRT or
LCD)


Mounting Apparatus


Earphones


Position Tracker


c2003 Larry Hodges

Immersive Technology


Multi
-
screen Projection of
stereoscopic images (CAVE)

c2003 Larry Hodges

Immersive Technology


Single large
stereoscopic display


Projection
-
based


Head
-
tracked


Possible tracking of
hands and arms.


Brings virtual objects
into the physical world

c2003 Larry Hodges

Other Characteristics


Head and body tracking implies that visual
content is always computed and rendered
in “real time” (10
-
60 frames/second).


In virtual reality you have a sense of, and
interact with, three
-
dimensional things as
opposed to pictures or movies of things.

c2003 Larry Hodges

What are the primary intellectual
components that create a virtual
environment?


Hardware / Technology


User’s Perspective (the environment that
is experienced)


System Software Design


Interaction Techniques

c2003 Larry Hodges

Hardware / Technology


What is my computation
environment?


How many active users
do I wish to
accommodate?


What display modalities and technologies will
I use?


What sensor modalities and technologies will
I use?

c2003 Larry Hodges

User’s perspective


Setting


Objects in world


Other participants


Active/Passive


Factory Simulation


Architectural
Walkthrough


c2003 Larry Hodges

System Software Design


Software structures that run the virtual
environment


Rendering group


Graphics, audio, haptic


Sensor polling group


Separately poll each sensor hardware subsystem


Computation group


Manage the state of the environment

c2003 Larry Hodges

Interaction Techniques


Do I interact with the
environment?


How do I interact
with the
environment?


Not the same as what
devices I use

c2003 Larry Hodges

Applications


1960
-
2005: VR was only a specialized market.



After a 40+ year history, the materials science,
engineering and computer science behind VR
displays, tracking and algorithms have achieved
systems at
consumer price points
. Hence:



XBox Kinect, PrimeSense, Playstation Move,


Nintendo Wii, AR smart phone apps, etc…


Prepare for the flood of app’s …


c2003 Larry Hodges

Training (NASA)

c2003 Larry Hodges

Design Visualization

c2003 Larry Hodges

Location Based Entertainment

c2003 Larry Hodges

Clinical Virtual Reality

The direct use of VR as a tool in the
treatment or assessment of
psychological and physical disorders.

c2003 Larry Hodges

c2011 Zachary Wartell

Scientific Visualization


[Wartell09]

cZachary Wartell 2011

Home Entertainment

Nintendo
Wii

Playstation

Move

XBox

Kinect

(
PrimeSense
)

27

Field Trip to Lab’s