International Advanced Robotics Program

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International Advanced
Robotics Program
Russian Status Report
The 28
th
Joint Coordinating Forum
Beijin,China
October 28-31,2009
Moscow
2
Russian Status Report
The 28
th
Joint Coordinating Forum
International Advanced Robotics Program
Beijing,China
October 28-31,2009
CONTENTS
1.
Introduction……………………………………………….………………3
2.The main events related to Advanced Robotics in Russia…………..…….4
2.1.The 20
th
Conference on Extreme Robotics……………………………4
2.2.The International Forumon Nanotechnology “Rusnanotech”…….…..5
3.
Some results of R&D………………………………………………………6
3.1.Research activity in Research Institutes and Universities…………......6
3.2.Micro-and-nanorobotic systems research activity……………………15
4.
Summary of Russian Status Report………………………………………24
5.
List of main Robotic Centers……………………………………………..25
3
RUSSIAN STATUS REPORT
The 28
th
Joint Coordinating Forum
International Advanced Robotics Program
Beijin,China
October 28-31,2009
1.
Introduction
Academic theoretical,experimental and applied R&D compose the base of advanced
robotic forming in the Universities,Institutes and Research Centers,belonging to Russian
Academy of Sciences,Ministry of Science and Education,Ministry of Emergency Situations,
Ministry of Industry and Economy Development,Atomic Energy Agency and other Ministry
Agencies.
Russian Foundation for Basic Researches (RFBR) is well-known organization many years
supporting as R&D in advanced robotics as book publishing in this field,including international
cooperation.
This annual report includes academic and applied results in the field of the advanced
robotics in Russian Federation.The status of R&D in Robotics analyzed on the base of
presentations,demonstrations and discussions during the Conferences,Workshops,Seminars,
Exhibitions,various presentations.The published papers and some books also help to formulate
the opinion and conclusion about significance of ideas and results.
The main subjects of R&D were the following:
-
Scientific and technological problems of extreme robotics,directed to improve the
autonomy of mobile robots,biotechnical man-machine systems and self-perfection of
robots.
-
Nano-and microtechnology in Robotics,including microelectromechanical sensors,
driving gears,actuators,control,modular design,nanocomponents,integration design
of nano-micro-macro systemlevels.
-
Components of robotic system such as sensors,transducers,information-and-control
components,on-board power sources,artificial muscles.
-
Theory and design methods of robotic systems oriented on the application fields.
Applications of robots under extreme conditions are under consideration in such areas like
medicine,space,underwater,field-robotics,nuclear power stations.
Some of previous R&D have prolongation this year.The report reflects more important and
new results received in the Universities and Institutes.
The report is coordinating with every year Report of Scientific Council on Robotics and
Mechatronics of Russian academy of sciences.
2.The main events related to Advanced Robotics in Russia.
2.1.The 20
th
Conference on Extreme Robotics.
The 20
th
Conference on Extreme Robotics with international level participants to be held in
Divnomorskoye Village,Gelendzhik Region,near by Krasnodar city in Russia,on September 28
– October 3,2009.XX Anniversary International Scientific-and-Technological Conference
“Extreme Robotics,Nano-,Micro- and Macrorobots” (ER-2009),
http://www.rtc.ru
,being held
in the frames of the Multiconference “Up-To-Date Problems of Information and Computer
Technologies,Mechatronics and Robotics” (ICTM-2009),
http://www.mvs.tsure.ru
4
Organizers of the Conference:
-
The A.Ishlinsky Institute for Problems in Mechanics of RAS
-
Bauman Moscow State Technical University
-
Saint-Petersburg State Polytechnical University
-
State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation Central R&D Institute of Robotics and
Technical Cybernetics (RTC)
With support of:
-
Russian Academy of Sciences
-
Russian Foundation for Basic Research
-
Federal Agency of Science and Innovations
-
Federal Agency of Education
-
Federal Space Agency
-
S.P.Korolev RSC Energia,Korolev,Moscow region
-
Russia’s Federation of Cosmonautics
-
RosBusinessTour Company,Sain-Petersburg
Information support:
-
Magazine “Mechatronics,Automation,Control”,Moscow
-
Magazine “Information-Measurement and Control System”,Moscow
-
Magazine “Cosmonautics News”,Moscow
-
Russia’s National Aerospace Magazine “Vzlot”,Moscow
-
Magazine “Innovation”,Saint-Petersburg
-
Magazine “Machines and Mechanics”,Saint-Petersburg
-
Newspaper “Poisk”,Moscow
-
Newspaper “Computer Inform’,Saint-Petersburg
Goal of the Conference
Development of advanced technologies and innovation designs in robotics,encouragement
of international collaboration and cooperation in the field of high technologies,involvement of
youth into scientific-and-technological sphere.
Subjects of the Conference:
-
Scientific-and-Technological Problems of Extreme Robotics
Increase of the autonomy of mobile robots.Systems with variable structure.Biotechnical
man-machine systems.Self-perfection of robotic systems.
-
Theory and Design Methods of Robotic Systems
Computerized methods of design and simulation of robotic systems.Modular robots.
Distributed real time systems for control and sensors data processing.3D methods in
virtual reality for operators and simulation in robototechnics.Open source systems and
wireless technologies,communication systems with a man-operator.
-
Nano- and Microtechnologies in Robotics
Microelectromechanical sensors,driving gears,control systems,actuators.Module design
of robotic systems.Nanocomponents.Construction assemblage from nano up to micro and
macro levels.Human-nanoworld interaction.Micro and nanotechnologies metrological
security.
-
Components of Extreme Robotic Systems
Sensor systems and transducers.Information-and-control components.Microsystem
actuators of artificial muscle type.On-board power sources.
-
Applications of Robotic Systemunder Extreme Conditions
Space,underwater,ground robotics.Robotics for medicine.Robotics for special answer.
It is possible to mention several papers related with wireless transmission of the energy by
means of various methods,including electromagnetic and light scale waves.Small level of
wireless energy transmission is intended for supply the micro- and nanosystem,having on-board
limited source accumulator batteries that necessary to recharge.
5
The efficiency coefficient of wireless energy transmission is rather low at present time.
One of prospective use can be laser beam application as a source and photodiode as a receiver
for such kind of purposes.
The robots design for special applications had of current interest,such as humanitarium
demining,fire-fighting,space technologies,nuclear power station repair,underwater.
2.2.International Forumon Nanotechnology “Rusnanotech”
The problematic of International Forum of Nanotechnology includes very wide spectrumof
problems,such as structure of nanomaterials,nanomechanics,new types of nanostructural
materials and etc.Among those,micro- and nanosystems design and macro-micro- and nano-
systems integration was evolved.Exhibition illustrated the advances in development of
nanostructural materials and its possible application for future micro- and nanorobots.
Nanoelectromechanical clamp systems for microrobots and today’s tendencies of MEMS
development were presented in the frame of Nanoelectromechanical section.
The plant viruses as instruments in biotechnologies and nanodiamonds with novel
properties in biological and medical robot applications represent some interest.
The following Institutes,Universities,Companies and other organizations enclosed the
most contribution on integration of nanotechnology results in Advanced Robotics in Russia at
present time:
-
A.Ishlinsky Institute for Problems in Mechanics of Russian Academy of Sciences
(IPMech).Previous title was The Institute for Problems in Mechanics RAS.
(Nanoelectromechanical clamp systems for microrobots).
-
R&D Complex “Technological Center” of the Moscow Institute of Electronic
Engineering (Nanoelectromechanical systems based on ordered arrays of carbon
nanotubes for sensors) on cooperation with The Institute for Nanotechnologies in
Microelectronics of Russian Academy of Sciences.
-
Moscow Institute for Steels and Alloys on cooperation with Kotelnikov Institute of
Radio Engineering and Electronics of RAS and with Bauman Moscow State Technical
University and S.Petersburg State Electroengineering University “LETI” (3D
Manipulation with Nanoobjects).
-
Lomonosov Moscow State University on cooperation with Moscow Institute of Physics
and Engineering (Micromanipulation).
-
SPC Technological Center MIET,Zelenograd,Russia (Nanostructured materials for
moveable MEMS and MEMS elements).
-
Moscow State Institute of Electronics and Mathematics (Study and Application of
Phenomenon of Self-assembly in Microrobics)
-
The Institute of Biophysics SB RAS,Krasnoyarsk (Medical and biological applications
of nanodiamonds with novel properties).
Various problems of biotechnology and development of medical-and-biological supports
for nanotechnology safety were discussed that can be interested for future biomedical nano-and-
microrobotics.
6
3.Some results of R&D
3.1.Research activity in Research Institutes and Universities.
3.1.1.Scientific and technological problems of extreme robotics.
Scientific and technological problems directed to space robotics,to improve the mobile
robot’s autonomy motion,to medical and biotechnical man-machine systems and self-perfection
of robots.
The last year space robotics evolved on the following areas:
-
Development of robotic systems for the self autonomous space installations.
-
Intelligent planet robot generation.
-
Training equipment for astronauts.
Control equipment,drives,telecommunication,mechanical,sensor systems were included
on this program (Fig.1).Automotive self-moving chassis for planet robots was designed by
Central R&D Institute of Robotics and Technical Cybernetics,Saint-Petersburg and custom-built
for European Space Agency.
7
The position-and-force control system for space manipulator for “DORES” was made in
the softwear poket simulink MATLAB (Fig.2).
The space manipulator for monitoring the space situation was suggested by The Moscow
State Technical Bauman University.The manipulator produces 3-axis optical apparatus control,
path planning of TV camera,attitude stabilization.The external view and the version of it
displacement on space installation shown on Fig.3;were 1,2,3 – manipulator’s drives,4 – TV
camera,5 – sensor for camera orientation (“star” sensor),6 – mechanical system for camera
install,7 – space apparatus.
8
The hull identification system for marine autonomous robot was developed (HISMAR
Project) in the Moscow Technological Stankin University (Fig.4) in the frame of FP6 European
Program.The robot intended for inspection and cleaning the bodies of the ships.Robot equipped
by magnetic landmark recognition systemMLRS.
It was considered the dynamics of search-and-rescue underwater vehicle and it system
under various operation modes.
Medical system on quality and safety in robotic surgery and algorithms for position-and-
force control were developed.
9
Medical systems:quality and safety in robotic surgery.
In computer-controlled products,such as modern robotic medical systems and complexes,
both hardware and software,should meet not only its functional parameters.The clear
requirements to a system’s cost,time and also performance are imposed during its development.
More specifically,in such products the quality of software is as important as that of the
hardware.For example,in 1955 the software cost accounted for approximately 18% of the total
development cost of a software product;in 1985 it increased to 82%.This reversal has further
increased the importance of medical software development in accordance to required level of
quality and necessary rate of safety up to 95%in 2008.
It is common knowledge that improper work of medical software can have unforeseeable
consequences,which are related to the state of human health.That’s why medical systems are
instantly related to the critical systems.Let’s formulate the main definitions:a life-critical
system or safety-critical system is a system whose failure or malfunction may result in:death or
serious injury to people or loss or severe damage to equipment or environmental harm.The
classification for critical systems is presented on Fig.5.
The view point on medical systems development expound in this part of Report on the base
of article.
The authors of this article reflected own point of view and it may be debated.
At the same time the elucidated statistics may present certain interest for the designers of
software for robotic medical systems.
10
Therefore the definition of well known facts about medical systems and equipment failures
was discussed in the Conference in Extreme Robotics.
-
Two patients died and the third one was severely injured due to software errors in a
computer-controlled therapeutic radiation machine called Therac 25.The patients
received approximately 125 times the normal doze of 200 rads.
-
Two people died in incident involving heart pacemakers because of software errors.
11
A subsequent investigation identified many causes of these incidents,including
unjustifiable confidence in software,poor software engineering practices and procedures,and
removal of independent hardware safety features.Thus,a single failure in the software caused an
accident and unrealistic and unfinished risk assessment.
The distribution of medical systems devices and software errors by different medical areas
is described on Fig.6.
Fig.6.Distribution of medical systems errors by different medical spheres.
The medical device’s faults,which include software defects,are described on Fig.7.The
diagram shows that total number of medical software recalls from 1983-1997 is 383.The years
1994,1995,1996 have 11%,10%,and 9%of the software recalls.One possibility for this higher
percentage in later years may be the rapid increase of software in medical devices.The amount
of software in general consumer products is doubling every two to the three years.
Also,it is necessary to admit the importance of software quality and reliability in robotic
surgery,especially in accordance to its fast development.Three major advances aided by
surgical robots have been:remote surgery;minimally invasive surgery;unmanned surgery.
Major potential advantages of robotic surgery are precision and miniaturization.Further
advantages are articulation beyond normal manipulation and three-dimensional magnification.
12
Fig.7.The medical system’s failures distribution by symptoms.
Let’s discuss minimally invasive surgery in details.Minimally invasive surgical procedures
avoid open invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery with fewer traumas.These
procedures involve use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments
with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device,and are
carried out through the skin or through a body cavity or anatomical opening.Special medical
equipment may be used,such as:
-
Fiber optic cables;
-
Miniature video cameras;
-
Special surgical instruments handled via tubes inserted into the body through small
openings in its surface.
The images of the interior of the body are transmitted to an external video monitor and the
surgeon has the possibility of making a diagnosis,visually identifying internal features and
acting surgically on them.However,the safety and effectiveness of each procedure must be
demonstrated with randomized controlled trials.
Let’s review the example of some occasions with medical robotic surgery system.Surgery
robots can break down in different ways.They can have hardware failures,e.g.broken arms.
They can have software failures and the robot is made to stop working and will not allow you to
move any instruments.From 299 robotic operations,it was happened several problems,such as:
1 hardware failure,2 software failures,2 other operations were affected by robotic failures that
were discovered before the operation was started,1 case was cancelled and 1 was delayed until
our robot was fixed.
Thus,actual problem consists in not only creation of new medical software,but in the
creation of the medical system with required quality,reliability and safety.Moreover,there are
many researches in the area of medical software quality,reliability and safety.Nevertheless,it is
necessary to discuss main definitions in accordance to international standards,and formulate
typical design methods of software engineering for providing essential level of quality,reliability
and safety.
Medical software engineering for life-critical systems is particularly difficult,partly
because of main software defects mostly appeared on the specification phase (Fig.7).After all
phases of the software development these early injected defects will cause the serious software
faults.
This is some opinion of designers of software for medical robots.
13
The bionic robotics:lizard and snake robots.
The mechanism for bionic robot-lizard (Saint Petersburg State Technical University) was
suggested (Fig.8),were it motion is shown.
The 3D computer simulation model of one lug leg of robot-lizard helps to understand the
mechanics of such motion (Fig.9).
Fig.8.Stages of the robot-lizard motion.
Fig.9.3D computer model of one lug leg
The mechatronic and control synergy principles were used in executive level of mobile
mechatronic systems.Neuro-fuzzy control systems of tree–masses electromechanical object with
bio-resonant elastic deformations and synthesis of locomotion modes of the snakelike robot
using running waves composition method were developed (Fig.10).
14
Fig.10.Snake robot containing 13 modules.
Fig.11.“Lateral Rolling” motion of snake robot containing 6 modules.
Fig.12.“Lateral rolling” motion of snake robot containing 14 modules.
15
Human body motion simulation.
Human body motion simulation system was developed for industrial and medical
applications.The simulation methods in 3D for human body dynamics were developed,
including demands of textile manufacturing.Whole system consists of own simulation system
and data base.The functional algorithms and adapted software of information mechatronic
human body simulation system take into consideration domestic experience and interaction
possibilities with foreign partners cooperation in the frame of International EUREKA Program,
E!3760-HUMANOID Project.Delivered anthropometric data base reflects the requirements to
design and specification of human body parameters.
3.2.Micro-and-nano robotic systems research activity.
Nanoelectromechanical clamp systems for microrobots.
Full robotic system miniaturization depends on miniaturization of all units included in the
system so as the various types of links-mechanical,electrical,information,pneumatic are
connected between in one block.The increasing of friction force anisotropy is prospective for
improving in-pipe robot characteristics and can be realized using electromechanical robot’s
clamps made from nanostructural material connected with compliant base.Compliant base
intended for consistent connection robot clamps with tube internal surface.The polyamide (or
compliant polymer) base can be suggested as an example of such material with teasels on the
robot surface.
It is possible to change adhesion friction forces depend on angles of teasels for changing a
direction of motion or it reverse motion realization.The values and conditions of minimal and
maximum friction forces distinguish were obtained.Various types of microrobots were designed
on the base of such approach.
Modern tendencies of a robotics system miniaturization are propagated by following
directions:
-
reduction the mechatronics modules sizes down to micro- and nanodimensions;
-
applying the available nanomaterials and designing a new ones with specified
mechanical and strength characteristics;
-
combination of some functional operation in connection with manufacturing capability
for reduction of a mechanical systems dimensions,sizes of crystals and density;
-
development of the mechatronic method to robots designing;
-
more broad application biotechnology and biomechanics processes for creation of
miniature robots;
-
utilization of the phenomena on molecular and cellular levels for achievement robotics
systemsubminiaturization.
E-mail:
http://www.ipmnet.ru
3D manipulation with nanoobjects.
The result deals with the experiments aimed the creating of micro and nanomechanical
devices on the basis of alloys with shape memory effect (SME).It was proposed a new scheme
and made a model of the micro tweezers for handling nanoobjects with record-breaking small
overall dimensions: 12×3×2 μm
3
,thickness of the layer with SME is 500 nm.It was
demonstrated the controlled displacement of the micro tweezers by local heating.The controlled
displacement is 1000 nm,its value agrees well with the theoretically calculated one.The
problems and prospects of the new technology application to 3D manipulation of different
nanoobjects are discussed,including combination with commercial nanomanipulators in vacuum
16
chambers of SEM,and use of ferromagnetic SME alloys controlled by magnetic field at constant
temperature for bionanoobjects manipulation.
A great number of micro and nanomanipulators and tweezers based on different principles
have been designed to meet the demands of nanotechnology.Alloys with SME can be used for
creating miniature sensors,nanoactuators and nanotweezers which can find applications in
biology,electronics,micro and nanomechanics for manipulating nanoobjects.No micro tweezers
have ever been able to manipulate objects of the real nanoscale dimensions,like single-wall
carbon nanotubes or graphene layers.The aim of this work is to create a model of submission
tweezers with Ni
50
Ti
25
Cu
25
SME alloy and to study manifestations of SME with the sample
dimensions less than 100 nm.
The main problemwith creating of actuators with SME on micro and nanoscale dimensions
arises from the fact that the property of reversible strain is not the intrinsic property of a SME
alloy.So this effect is often called
one-way shape memory
.To reach the possibility of controlled
reversible strains the alloy has to be exposed to the special procedure of training for
two-way
SME
.This study is aimed to creation of macroactuator based on the above mentioned principle
by training an alloy sample with the width of less than 100 nm.
The composite consists of a thin SME layer,and an elastic layer made from conventional
metal.There is a rigit connection between these two layers.Before the layer with SME is
connected with the elastic one,it is to be exposed to pseudoplastic stretching strain.As a result a
reversible bending strain of the composite is obtained.The advantages of the composite scheme
are as follows:giant bending strains (1-10%) are obtained without additional training;simple
technological process of standard ion etching by focused ion beam (FIB);it is possible to create
a submicron size actuator,the size of an entrapped object being less than 10 nm;adaptability
with the well-known commercial nanomanipulators Kleindiek or Omniprobe.
The technology of nanoactuator with
two-way
SME was base TiNiCu alloy cantilevers with
the dimensions of 30×15×0,07μm
3
produced by FIB and the subsequent training.Training for
two-way
SME was fulfilled by thermocycling of the sample in the viewing area of the
metallographic microscope under pressure,which was inducted by elastic glass coated steel
microwire.A
two-way
SME was observed in the sample after training.
Preparation of the samples for creating microtweezers based on the SME composite was
divided into three stages.At stage 1,the sample of a rapidly quenched Ni
50
Ti
25
Cu
25
alloy ribbon
with the thickness of 40μm, width of 3mm, length of 20cm was exposed to pseudoplastic strain
of not less than e=1%.At stage 2,the sample was exposed to etching in the solution of chrome
anhydride and orthophosphoric acid to the thickness not exceeding 3μm. At stage 3,
nanotweezers were shaped from the fragments of the NiTiCu ribbon by FIB technology.At first,
the elastic Pt was put on the surface of the free end of the NiTiCu sample.Then,a hole was
made on the sample end and an aperture was cut out to shape the free end of the sample,having a
lateral displacement due to SME.As a result,the sample was shaped into a console with a hole
on the end to provide a free lateral displacement.
The sample prepared at stage 3 was scanned by an electron microscope.The measurements
show that the length of the free end is about 12μm, the thickness is 3μm, the thickness of the
SME layer is 0.5μm, the thickness of the Pt layer is 0.5μm, the free space is about 1000nm.
Experiments on manifestations of the controlled thermally induced strains of the free end of the
sample were carried out.The sample was fixed on the object table of the optic metallographic
microscope.The object table was heated by electric current with temperature span from 40C to
80 C,overlapping the interval of martensitic transformation of the alloy.A video was made of
the sample reversible strain.
17
It is shown in the experiments that the free end of the sample,bent by heating,overlaps the
available free space of 100 nm.The optical photos were used to measure the value of the
reversible movement of tweezers end.It was compared with the value calculated theoretically.
The results of the theoretical calculations well agree with the experiment.
Nanoactuators with SME can be driven by:a) temperature;b) magnetic field at constant
temperature.In the latter case it is necessary to use ferromagnetic alloys with SME.
Nanobiomanipulators with SME controlled by magnetic fields at constant temperature can be
applied in biology and medicine due to the fact that temperature fluctuations can be harmful for
living biological objects.
The work is supported by RFBR Grants No 06-02-16266,06-02-16984,06-02-39030,07-
02-13629,08-02-91317.
E-mail:
koledov@cplire.ru
Materials and structure elements of nanoelectromechanical systems for extreme
operating conditions.
With the transition to nanosizes,along with possible manifestation of traditional external
influences (thermal,mechanical,radiation,electromagnetic,chemical),the role of internal loads
in micro- and nanotechnical devices increases drastically.The loads are characterized with the
follows:
-
high local energy release determined by the product of the operating current density
times the voltage;
-
impulse energy release determined by the product of the “switched” power times the
frequency;
-
destructive effects related to possible local behaviour of processes initiating thermal,X-
ray-induced,mechanical,radiation,and corrosion fatigue of materials.
Analysis of the influence of new materials and technologies on the possibility of creating
nanoelectromechanical systems for extreme operating conditions and modes has been carried
out,taking into account the transition to:
-
new nanostructured structural materials with extra resistance to extreme factors;
-
new nanosize designs allowing to provide (1) ultrahigh current densities (over
10
9
A/cm
2
) and electric field intensities (over 10
8
V/cm),(2) high local magnetic field
intensities,which are normally difficult to generate due to their drastic decrease in the
localization area (~1/R
6
),(3) ultralow energy and charge transfer process times (10
-9
-
10
-12
seconds) due to ultralow dimensions of structural elements;and decreased
requirements to the vacuum depth in the structural element due to ultralow probability
of residual fluid particle presence in the volume of the nanosize element;
-
new techniques for the integral group formation of identical micro- and nanosize object
arrays within extremely restricted areas (up to 10
8
elements/mm
2
),minimizing the cost
per element.
V.V.Luchinin,St.Petersburg Electrotechnical University “LETI”.
Some remarks of today’s tendencies of MEMS and micro- and nanorobotics
development.
The remarks based on domestic and international (see ref.1-15 of this part of Report)
analyses of the MEMS and miniature robots R&D.
Principal changes and tendencies in microsystem technology development at the beginning
of 2008 include the considerable increasing of the electronic constituent of the MEMS/NEMS
design due to the introduction of self-testing systems and the development of wireless
communication interface devices.The tendency of continuous price decrease results in the search
18
for new MEMS/NEMS application areas (household appliances),new materials (polymers),and
new technological solutions.Silicon microprocessing still accounts for 80% of the
MEMS/NEMS production.Due to that,on-wafer encapsulation technologies and 3D assembly
have been implemented.Large companies switch over to production based on 200 mm wafers.
Positive and negative aspects of the tendencies described are examined.
Today’s tendencies of mycrosystem technology (MST) development,as earlier,are
determined by the possibility of efficiently solving main problems and satisfying demands of
industries,i.e.manufacturers of main hardware of the contemporary civilization.Usually,7 to 8
microelectromechanical/nanoelectromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) application areas are
considered,i.e.automotive engineering,aerospace engineering,household appliances,security
means,industrial system,medical equipment,computer equipment,telecommunication
equipment.In this case,the rate of development (MEMS/NEMS) and the market capacity in the
respective areas serve as certain waypoints for MST manufactures.Selection may be based on
various analytic reviews.However,they all have different statistical base selections so the
quantitative evaluations may vary considerably and it is only qualitative evaluation that is
actually important.For example,the following MST growth figures are given for the period of
2007-2012,namely,medical equipment 18%,home appliances 11%,and telecommunications
40%.It is evident that the telecommunications have preference from this viewpoint.On the other
hand,in 2006,the total sales of 7,65 bn USD were distributed as follows:injection heads 30%,
pressure and flow sensors 20%,inertial sensors 16%,microoptoelectromechanical systems
(MOEMS) 13%,bio-MEMS 7%,radio frequency (RF) MEMS 4%,MEMS for contacting
devices 4%,IR sensors 3%,MEMS microphones 1%,other 2%.Market sectors with high sales
are considerably monopolized so the actual interest for developing companies may represent
sectors with a share of less than 10%:bio-MEMS,RF MEMS,MEMS microphones,etc.The
coincidence of these sectors with the areas,developing at the highest rates,allows to consider
their growth as a tendency of the today’s MST development.
Another circumstance should also be noted,i.e.70-80% of the MEMS market is virtually
divided between 30 leading companies.When selecting its niche,a new manufacturer should
have clear understanding of what he will be competing with.Continuous price press should be
considered in this relation.This may be illustrated by an example of MEMS sensors and
actuators,which account for 80%of the respective market.In 2003-2008,the quantity of crystals
of these products grew at an annual rate of 27%(1,3 billion pieces in 2003 and 4,3 billion pieces
in 2007).In 2007-2012,a 23% growth,i.e.to 12.1 billion pieces,is expected.At the time,sales
are expected to grow at a lower rate of 19% [2],to 12.1 bn USD.We would like to draw
attention again to random nature of the statistical base selection and the fact that only
quantitative evaluations are real.Still,fairly high MST growth rates are an absolute fact,and
considerable price press and,respectively,growth of the competition at the MST product market
should be considered as a new tendency.
Recently,the expansion of functionality of home appliances has become a stimulus for
wider application of MEMS/NEMS in their design.
The MST advantages,which are a factor for the growth of its application scope,are based
on three tendencies of its development:further miniaturization,reduced power consumption per
function,and the increase in function quantity.Further MST miniaturization is mainly due to the
possibility of using it in the design of elements based on nanotechnologies.Although the
tendency of nanotechnology application in the engineering is common,it is the microsystem
technology that is particularly prepared for the perception of nanotechnology means,taking into
account the close dimensions of micro- and nanoobjects.This is a reason why the MST is
considered a natural bridge between the nano- and macroobjects.Examples of the use of
nanotechnologies may be physical and chemical quantity probes with sensor efficiency increased
due to the use of nanoelements (for instance,carbon nanotubes) or nanostructured materials
(including nanopowders and nanopores).This is why the inclusion of nano components in
19
microsystem (MS) design may be regarded as one of the most important tendencies of the
today’s MST development.
MS are usually divided into integrated and standalone ones.So far,integrated MS are most
widely used.However,the higher level systems proper,into which the MS are integrated,are
often standalone.An example of this may be a cell phone.This restricts the dimensions and
power consumption of MS components.In general,one may speak of a tendency of standalone
MS growth.It increases even more due to the network wireless MS development.In these MS,
the MS is a standalone structure,as far as its tasks and power supply are concerned,but serves as
an element of a distributed network with a common purpose.For example,the well-known
“smart dust”.The wireless MS share growth is an apparent tendency at the today’s stage of MST
development.
As for other today’s high-technology products,the determining factor of the market
success for MEMS/NEMS has been the price/quality ratio.While the product quality depends on
its design level,its price is determined by the mass production technology.The criterion of
efficiency of MEMS/NEMS production using the silicon microprocessing technology is the
wafer yield.Crystal size growth due to increasing functional complexity of integrated systems
(IS) or MEMS requires that the wafer diameter be increased.In microelectronics,it means
transition to 300 mm and,in the future,450 mm wafers,and 200 mm wafers for MEMS.In [10],
this was noted as the thesis “2008 is the 200 mm wafer year for MEMS”.The development of
200mm wafer MEMS production may go in two directions:the deployment of a special MEMS
production using 200 mm wafers and 200 mm wafer IS production conversion to the production
of MEMS.The restricting factor of the first direction is the cost of such production deployment
(150-200 MUSD).The restricting factor of the second direction is the already clear absence of
uniformity of IS and MEMS technologies (and,therefore,the equipment).Finally,the
production rates of microelectronic and MEMS products may be considerably different.
Contemporary equipment allows to produce tens and hundreds of thousands of MEMS products
a week but there may be much less demand for these products.For example,the production rate
may be increased to 100 thousand crystals a week but,if only half of them may be sold,the
transition to mass production using 200 mm wafers can hardly be feasible.The transition to
200mm diameter wafers is mainly determined by the crystal price decrease.This transition is not
altogether positive but also has potential drawbacks.A new 200mm wafer production
specializing in MEMS is expensive.This is why it is often complemented with another
production,for example,semi-custom IC production.The use of existing IC production for the
production of MEMS requires a change in the design methods,additional equipment,and mutual
adjustment.For example,Wi Spry spent 2 years for the interaction with the Jazz Semiconductor
company,for the implementation of its RF MEMS into the Jazz Semiconductor’s production
[11].In any case,the process of mutual adjustment of MEMS and IC manufacturers becomes
simpler if they already have a common base of customers and suppliers.Sceptics believe that
there is no need to place IC and MEMS components on the same 200 mm wafer designed for
both 0.25 and 0.18 μm lithography, it is easier and less expensive to separate them. The market
saturation tendency puts its own limitations on production.For example,while on the one hand
increase in the number of manufacturers of MEMS/NEMS microphones for mobile phones is
observed,on the other hand the phone market growth rate has been slowing down recently.In
price press conditions,large manufacturers will have certain advantages.In the MEMS/NEMS
production,a group of 30 large MEMS manufacturers has already formed,which cover the
MEMS product range to a considerable extent [10].For young companies already having a
market product,the way out would be to enter an alliance with one of more companies from
among the 30 largest MEMS manufacturers.For beginning companies designing new MEMS,a
good chance would be contacting a production service network.For example,such services are
provided by the widely known European system Europractice [13].The more strict gradation of
market penetration possibilities for MEMS/NEMS manufacturers,which becomes similar to that
characteristic of the IC market,may also be called a new MEMS development tendency.
20
In conclusion,we would like to point out that the described tendencies allow to define
general features of a today’s MST product able to compete at the market.Their wide range
allows to select niche products,which take into account at least part of these tendencies and may
be implemented at the selected production facilities.The continuing role of silicon
microprocessing as the leading MST technology allows to assume that the main microelectronics
development tendencies,after a little delay,will also appear in the MST development.
The report dwells on the current status and prospects of development of micro- and
nanorobotic systems and devices of different functions.Classification of the mentioned type of
devices is offered for consideration.Structure of micro- and nanorobotic systems is analyzed,
particularities of interaction of their structural elements is reviewed.Principles and methods of
formation of all their major structural elements are set out:
-
Systems of sensitization;
-
Systems of power supply;
-
Actualization systems;
-
Technological components.
Review is made the opportunities and ways to apply technologies of hybrid systems for
realization of nano- and micro robotic devices and complexes.Specific examples of systems and
devices developed by the leading laboratories of the world are under development.
The authors of remarks use own experience and the literature mentioned in ref.1-15 of this
part of report.
References.
1.
Taking the pulse of MEMS industry//Think small:April 2007//
www.wtc-consult.de
2.
R.C.Johnson//MEMS set to consumer fancy//
www.eetasia.com/ARTP_8800497806_590626HTM
.
3.
P.Harrop,R.Das//Active RFID and Sensor Network 2007-2017//
www.idtechex.com/products/en/view.asp?publicationid=ib6
.
4.
Discera//
www.discera.com
5.
Si Time//www.sitime.com.
6.
V.V.Amelichev,V.D.Verner,A.V.Ilkov,A.N.Saurov//Correlation between Micro
System Technology and Technology of Microelectronics itself//Nano- and
MicrosystemTechnique,2006,11,p.10-14.
7.
J.Parker//Perpetum Vibration Energy Harvester – Powered Wireless Condition
Monitoring Application Note//Perpetum Ltd,2007,AN001,issue 1.0-9
th
April 2007,
p.1-6.
8.
G.A.Rincon-Mora//SIP Integration of Intelligent,Adaptive,Self-Sustaining Power
Management Solutions for Portable Application//Int.Conf.on Energy,Environment
and disasters (INCEED) USA.NE.2005.
9.
Organic Electronics Association – OEA//
www.vdma.org
.
10.
J.Bouchand//The year of 8-inch MEMS fab//WTC –Wicht Technology Consulting.
Think Small;issue 1,v.3,March 2008,p.1,6-8.
11.
J.L.Hilbert//Sealable MEMS manufacturing//
www.wispry.com
.
12.
J.Bouchand//Taking the pulse of the MEMS industry//Think small;April 2007,p.
10-15.
13.
Europractice IC Service Expands to MEMS Prototyping//
www.europractice-ic.com
14.
T.Torfs,V.Leonov,R.J.M.Vullers//Pulse Oximeter Fully Powered by Human Body
Heat//Sensors &Transducers journal.V.80#6,2007,1230-1238.
15.
H.van Heeren,P.Salomon,A.El Fatary//Micronano Systems – Challenger and
Opportunities//Micro Nano News November,2007,p,p.12-15.
P.P.Maltsev,A.N.Saurov,R&D Complex “Technological Center of the Moscow
Institute of Electronic Engineering”.
21
Biosensors based on surface plasmon resonance.
Development of optical biosensors (OBS) with high sensitivity and resolution for detection
and quantitative analysis of chemical and biological species is an important task related with
needs of the biological processes control,analysis of drug substances efficiency and monitoring
of environment.Parallel with traditional spectroscopic sensors,the refractometric OBSs based on
resonance and interferometric phenomena in photonic and plasmonic nanostructures attract great
attention.In particular,the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors are important for the label
free tool determination of molecular concentration and biomolecular interaction near metal
surface,since the analysis of SPR.Frequency shifts can provide the information about changing
media refractive index and its time dependence.The change in the refractive index produced by
the capture of biomolecules depends on concentration and properties of molecules and binding
characteristics of biomolecular recognition element,e.g.proteins,which immobilized on the SPR
sensor surface.To realize the SPR based biosensors,two different technological methods for
making plasmonic nanostructures were used.The first type is the creation on the glass surface
the ordered array of metallic cylindrical or semisphere nanorods (Au,Ag,Cr,Ni) by electron
beam lithography technique,and the second one is the array formation of spherical metallic
nanoclusters in subsurface layers of photothermochromic glasses.
A.V.Nashchekin,O.A.Usov,P.N.Brunkov,R.V.Sokolov.IIoffe Physico-Technical Institute
RAS,26 Polytechnicheskaya str.,194021 Saint-Petersburg,Russia.
Application of micro- nanotechnologies for miniature robot design
One of the applications of nanotechnology in miniature robotics is the using synthetic fibrillar
dry adhesives in robot’s grippers [1,2].Such material is a polymer hair-covered flexible tape.
Each hair has about 0.5-4

m diameter and 5-10

m length.When the material contacts with
surface the fibers makes intimate contact with variety of surface profiles due to flexibility of the
material.A Wan der Waals force,which influence on one fiber is about 70 nN.For various
fibrilar dry adhesives the adhesive force achieves 0.5-10 N/sm
2
.One of the possible designs of
the gripper consists of the elastic plate on which such material is attached.
The main parameters for that gripper are:

The preload force is the force,which is necessary for gripper has a good cohesion with the
surface.

The force,which keeps the gripper on the surface.It depends on the preload force.

The torque is needed to tear the gripper from the surface,just as removing a piece of tape
froma surface.
A contact of the fibrillar adhesive,which consist of flexible substrate with micro fibers,staying
on it and rough surface.Dependence of interaction force from distance and roughness is
presented on Fig.13.
If the roughness is rise than the adhesion is reduce.For attaching the material is necessary
previously press it for increase a number of contacting hairs.The elastic force of the contacting
hairs is equal the application force.We may remove the application force after the pressing.On
the figure 14 dependence of the adhesion force fromapplication force is presented.
22
Fig.13.Dependence of interaction force fromdistance and roughness.
Fig.14.Dependence the dimensionless adhesion force fromthe application force.
Increase of friction anisotropy by means of adhesive materials
Using of a dry adhesive material on contact surfaces of the in-pipe electromagnetic minirobot
considered.It is possible to increase anisotropy of friction of its supports (Fig.15).The increase
anisotropy of friction is necessary to increase of carrying capacity of the robot.It is possible,for
supplied contact surfaces of supports of the robot the overlays made an adhesive material to
increase anisotropy of friction (Fig.15,16).
Fig.15.Inpipe miniature robot created in IPMRAS
Overlays should represent nanostructural material pasted on flexible substrate which is pasted in
turn on a contact surface of the robot.Flexible substrate is intended for that adhesive
nanostructural material densely adjoined to a surface of a pipe in view of it macro unevenness.
23
The dependence between friction forces and inclination angles of hairspring (Fig.17) shows that
optimumvalue may be choose.
The angle under which hairsprings are cut off,should be equal
αθ

,where
α
- angle on which
hairs deviate at movement back,

- incline angle of the hairs.Dependence of the angle
α
on
orientation of hairsprings is presented on fig.18.
Fig.16.structure of the adhesion material.
Fig.17.Dependence of the relation of forces of friction on a angle of an inclination of
hairsprings.
Fig.18.Dependence of the angle
α
on orientation of hairsprings (s – ratio of the elastic
coefficients of hair in lengthwise direction and across it).
References
1.Chaschuhin V.,Gradetsky V.Analysis the interaction nanomechanism of the gecko
mimicking material with the surface microstructure.//Proceedings of IARP Micro and Nano
Robotics,Paris,France,October 23-24,2006.
2.Chaschuhin V.“Study of the contacting devices with the surface plates of the robot’s having
adhesion materials”. Preprint IPMech RAS, M., № 861, p. 27, 2008
A.Ishlinsky Institute for Problems in Mechanics RAS,Moscow.
24
4.Summary of Russian Status Report 2009
Academic theoretical,experimental and applied R&D compare the base of advanced
robotic forming in the Universities,Institutes and Research Centers,belong to Russian Academy
of Sciences,Ministry of Science and Education,Ministry of Emergency Situations,Ministry of
Industry and Economy Development and other Ministry Agencies.
Russian Foundation for Basic Researches (RFBR) is well-known organization many years
supporting as R&D in advanced robotics as book publishing in this field,including international
cooperation.
The main subjects of R&D were the following:
-
Scientific and technological problems of extreme robotics,directed to improve the
autonomy of mobile robots,biotechnical man-machine systems and self-perfection of
robots;
-
Nano- and microtechnology in Robotics,including microelectro-mechanical sensors,
driving gears,actuators,control,modular design,nanocomponents,integration design
of nano-,micro-,macro- systemlevels;
-
Components of robotic system,such as sensors,transducers,information-and-control
components,on-board power sources,artificial muscles;
-
Theory and design methods of robotic systems oriented on the application fields.
Applications of robots under extreme conditions – medicine,space,underwater,field,
nuclear power stations.
Some new results were obtained in various areas.In medicine – medical system on quality
and safety in robotic surgery and algorithms for position-and-force control were developed.It
was created fault tolerant architecture for autonomous unmanned vehicles and robot intended for
cleaning the body of the ships in the frame of International Hull Identification System for Marine
Autonomous Robotics (HISMAR project,FP6 European Programme).
In area of mechatronics control-sinergetic principles were realized on executive level of
mobile mechatronic systems.Neuro-fuzzy control system of three-masses electromechanical
object with bio-resonant elastic deformations and synthesis of locomotion modes of the
snakelike on the base of running waves composition were developed.
Human body motion simulation system was developed for industrial and medical
applications.The simulation methods in 3D for human body dynamics were developed,
including demands of textile manufacturing.Whole system consists of own simulation system
and data base.The functional algorithms and adapted software of information mechatronic
human body simulation system take into consideration domestic experience and interaction
possibilities with foreign partners cooperation in the frame of International EUREKA Program,
E!3760-HUMANOID Project.Delivered anthropometric data base reflects the requirements to
design and specification of human body parameters.
The method of the synthesis of multi-channel variable structure system for the centralized
robust control of the spatial motion of autonomous underwater vehicle and law of vector control
were proposed,based on the formation of the sliding mode on the intersection of
multidimensional hyper-surface in the space of such system coordinates,which appropriate by
the separate control subsystem.
It was organized several domestic and international scientific and technological
conferences.Main attractive was XX Anniversary International Conference on “Extreme
Robotics.Nano-,micro- macrorobotics”.
In the field of micro-and-nano robotic systems research activity may be note the following:
3D manipulation with nanoobjects,nanoelectromechanical clamp device for microrobots,
materials and structure elements of nanoelectromechanical devices for extreme operating
conditions,biosensors based on surface plasmon resonance and application of micro-and-
nanotechnologies for miniature robot design.
25
5.List of main Robotic Centers.
1.
State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation,Central R&D Institute of Robotics
and Technical Cybernetics (RTC) (extreme robotics,self-moving chassies for planet robots,
control systems).
2.
The A.Ishlinsky Institute for Problems in Mechanics of Russian Academy of Sciences
(wall-climbing robots,mechanics of autonomous robots,micro-and-miniature robots).
3.
Bauman Moscow State Technical University (mobile robots for extreme conditions).
4.
Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University (bionic robots).
5.
Moscow State Technological STANKIN University (mechatronics and robotics).
6.
Saint-Petersburg Electrotechnical University (LETI) (structure elements for micro-and-
nanoelectromechanical systems and robots).
7.
R&D Complex “Technological Center” of the Moscow Institute of Electronic
Engineering (MEMS and micro- and nanorobotics).
8.
IIoffe Physico-Technical Institute RAS (optical biosensors).
9.
Ufa Institute of Mechanics,RAS (microrobots).
10.
Ufa Institute of Aviation Technology (microrobots and MEMS).
11.
The State Moscow University of Radiotechnical electronics and Automation (assembly
automation,mobile robots).
12.
A.Ishlinsky Institute for Problems in Mechanics of Russian Academy of Sciences
(IPMech).Previous title was The Institute for Problems in Mechanics RAS.
(Nanoelectromechanical clamp systems for microrobots).
13.
R&D Complex “Technological Center” of the Moscow Institute of Electronic
Engineering (Nanoelectromechanical systems based on ordered arrays of carbon nanotubes for
sensors) on cooperation with The Institute for Nanotechnologies in Microelectronics of Russian
Academy of Sciences.
14.
Moscow Institute for Steels and Alloys on cooperation with Kotelnikov Institute of
Radio Engineering and Electronics of RAS and with Bauman Moscow State Technical
University and S.Petersburg State Electroengineering University “LETI” (3D Manipulation with
Nanoobjects).
15.
Lomonosov Moscow State University on cooperation with Moscow Institute of Physics
and Engineering (Micromanipulation).
16.
SPC Technological Center MIET,Zelenograd,Russia (Nanostructured materials for
moveable MEMS and MEMS elements).
17.
Moscow State Institute of Electronics and Mathematics (Study and Application of
Phenomenon of Self-assembly in Microrobics)
18.
The Institute of Biophysics SB RAS,Krasnoyarsk (Medical and biological applications
of nanodiamonds with novel properties).
19.
The M.Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (four and six legs locomotion robots,
sensors for robots,software for control robot’s systems).
20.
Volgograd Technical University,Department of Mechanical Engineering (Locomotion
Robots for bogs and swamps).
21.
Kursk Technical University (Vibration Robots).
22.
The Mechanical Engineering Institute of RAS (Locomotion Robots,Manipulation
Robots).
23.
The Moscow State Industrial University (Measurement systems,Medical Robots).
24.
Vladivostok Technical University (Underwater Robots).
25.
Institute of Oceanology RAS (Underwater robotics MIR-1 and MIR-2 Robot types).
26.
The Mechanical Engineering Center for Fire-Fighting Equipment – “FR”,Petrozavodsk
city (The modular design of Fire-Fighting Robots).
27.
Federal Institute for Fire Prevention VNIIPO (Fire-Fighting Robots).
26
28.
Vladimir State University and Design Bureau “Kontract” (Orthosis systems,
exoskeleton for invalids).
29.
R&D TARIS Corporation (Robotics for oil and gas industry,inside tubes Robots).
30.
Federal State Unitary Enterprise.Central R&D Institute “Electropribor” (Navigation
systems).
31.
The Kovrov Electromechanical Plant” (Production of multifunctional Robots).
32.
The Institute for Control Sciences (Control systems).
33.
Android Robot Co (Android and Game Robots).