the sociology of the body, pain and emotions - University of Warwick

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1




THE SOCIOLOGY OF THE BODY, PAIN AND EMOTIONS

2012/13




MA

MODULE




DEPARTMENT OF SOCIOLOGY


UNIVERSITY OF WARWICK




Dr Alan Bradley



MODULE AIMS, OBJECTIVES AND LEARNING
OUTCOMES.


The aims and objectives of this half module are to provide students with an advanced
sociological knowledge and understanding of key perspectives and debates on the body in social
life. The module provides both a grounding in these debates and a

spring
-
board for those
wishing to go further. Key topics and issues covered include the social construction of bodies,
the `civilising’ of bodies, the body, physical capital and social inequalities, feminisms and the
(biological) body, and emotions, embod
iment and social life. These issues in turn are
consolidated and extended in the latter part of the module through a focus on topics such as
ageing bodies, biomedicine, technoscience and the body, pain and suffering, sleeping bodies,
and death and dying. T
hroughout the module, links are made between these sociological issues
and a series of broader debates on the legacies of Western dualism and the nature and status of
bodies in Western society, both past and present. The nature and status of sociology itse
lf, as an
embodied enterprise and passionate vocation, will also be debated and discussed.


Learning objectives


By the end of the module students should:


1)

Have an advanced knowledge and understanding of key concepts and theoretical
approaches within the
sociology of the body as a developing field of inquiry, with
specific reference to:

a)

The legacies of Western dualism;


b)

The bodily basis of social order, social institutions and social action


c)

Bodily experiences and expressions of social diversity and
inequality


d)

The dilemmas of embodiment in contemporary Western societies


e)

The bodily basis of social transformation and change in Western societies.


2





f)

The embodiment of sociology as a passionate vocation and reflexive form of inquiry.



2)

With reference to th
ese theoretical and substantive areas of study, be able to:


a)

Assess a range of perspectives


b)

Evaluate sociological arguments and evidence


c)

Draw upon, summarise and synthesise a variety of source materials in constructing their
own sociological arguments;


d)

Recognise sociologically informed questions and the distinctive character of sociology in
relation to other forms of understanding and everyday explanations


e)

Undertake and present scholarly work


f)

Participate in group discussion and work


g)

Make appropriate
use of library and IT resources



Learning and teaching methods (which enable students to achieve these learning
outcomes):


1.

A course of 10 weekly two hours seminars (Term
1
, weeks
2

to 1
1
) in which guided
discussion and small group work is incorporated,
and for which students are expected to
prepare



Assessment methods (which will measure the achievement of these learning outcomes):


1.

ONE 5,000 word assessed essays in which students must show ability to:


a)

Assess perspectives


b)

Evaluate sociological
arguments and evidence


c)

Draw upon, summarise and synthesise a variety of source material in constructing their
own sociological arguments


d)

Recognise sociologically informed questions and the distinctive character of sociology in
relation to other forms of
understanding and everyday explanations


3





e)

Undertake and present scholarly work


f)

Describe and analyse at least ONE of the following:


i)

The legacies of Western dualism;


ii)

The bodily basis of social order, social institutions and social action


iii)

Bodily
experiences and expressions of social diversity and inequality


iv)

The dilemmas of embodiment in contemporary Western societies


v)

The bodily basis of social transformation and change in Western societies.


vi)

The embodiment of sociology as a passionate vocation a
nd reflexive form of inquiry.



3)

Students’ performance in the following (transferable) skills is assessed (via standardised
criteria) as part of the Departments review of student progress:


a)

Time management


b)

Participation in discussion


c)

Group work


d) Use
of Library and IT resources








4





SEMINAR WORK AND ASSESSMENT


Seminars, as indicated above, include both individual and small group work.

Student preparation for and participation in each seminar is therefore crucial. Readings include
both core/essential

(for all students) and further (key
)/other shared materials. Seminar
questions, to aid preparation and guide reading, are listed for each week’s seminar topic.
In addition to core/essential readings, students will each be expected to present a key (*)
p
aper each week through an agreed division of labour.


Essays questions for the 5,000 word assignment, including `Another
agreed

title’, are given at
the end of the module reading list.
Please consult the Departmental Postgraduate Student
Guide for details
of essay requirements and regulations
).


The se
minars will take place in Term 1

on
Mond
ays of each week from
11am
-
1.00pm
, Room
H4.22/4 (4
th

Floor of the Humanities Building)
.




READING/INFORMATION SOURCES




1.`Textbooks’


Any one (or more) of the follow
ing `core’ texts may be chosen for this module:


a)

The body:



Shilling C (2003)
The Body and Social Theory

(2
nd

Edition). London: Sage.


Turner, B.S. (1996)
Body and Society

(2
nd

Edition). London: Sage.


Williams, S.J. and Bendelow, G. (1998
) The

Lived Body: Sociological Themes, Embodied
Issues.

London: Routledge.



I would also strongly recommend you buy one of the above texts
in conjunction with

the
following reader:



Fraser, M. and Greco, M. (eds.) (2005)
The Body: A Reader
. London: Routledge
.






5




Students particularly interested in emotions may also like to get a copy of:




Greco, M. and Stener, P. (eds.) (2009)
Emotion: A Social Science Reader
. London:
Routledge





2. Journals:


The key journal for this course is
Body & Society
, published by Sage.


Other (mainstream) journals such as
Theory, Culture and Society
,
Sociology,

Sociological
Research Online
, and
The Sociological Review

also carry many important articles bearing on
these issues, as does
Health
, and the
Sociology of
Health and Illness.


Many of these journals are now available
on line
.



3. Lecturers’ Box:


In addition to the sources listed in 1 and 2 above, a Lecturers’ Box of master copies of some
of the core readings on the module is available for students to consu
lt and photocopy in the
Sociology Department in the Student Resources Room on the Second Floor.


Some Core/Key readings will also be handed out in the seminars, at appropriate points across
the module.




4. Module Evaluation
.


A formal evaluation will ta
ke place at the end of the module, in line with Deparmental
procedures and criteria (consult the postgraduate student handbook).


6





THE SOCIOLOGY OF THE BODY, PAIN AND EMOTIONS



MA
MODULE



Dr Alan Bradley



Module outline




Week/Topic:



2
.
Introduction:

Body Matters in Sociology, Past, Present and Future...



3
. The Discursive/Disciplined Body: Foucault and Beyond?



4
. The Civilised Body: Socio
-
Historical Perspectives.




5.
The Body, Physical Capital and Social Inequalities.



6
. Feminisms
and the (Biological) Body.



7
. The Emotional/Expressive Body: Macro
-
Micro Relations



8
. Ageing Bodies: Problems, Practices and Prospects.



9
. Biomedicalised Bodies: From Therapy to Enhancement?



10
. The Body in Pain: Vulnerability, Suffering and Human
Values



11
. Dormant/Mortal Bodies: Sleep, Death and Dying.




Module evaluation.


7




WEEK 2.

INTRODUCTION: BODY MATTERS IN SOCIOLOGY, PAST, PRESENT
AND FUTURE.



This aim of this first/opening session is to meet students and introduce the module through a
preliminary discussion of the nature and status of the body in (classical and contemporary)
sociology. The key seminar question in this respect is: ‘How can the r
ecent corporeal turn or
interest in body matters, both inside and outside sociology, be explained?’


Seminar Questions


1)


Why might the body have been neglected by sociologists on their theorising for so long?

2)

Can we find the body in the work of classical
sociologists?

3)

Is it possible/desirable for sociology to take account od biology?



1. Core/Essential Readings:


ANY ONE OF THE FOLLOWING:


1. Williams S.J. and Bendelow G. (1998)
The Lived Body
. London: Routledge. (Introduction
and Chapter 1)


2. Shilling C. (2003)
The Body and Social Theory
. London: Sage. (Preface to second edition,
Chpts. 1, 2 & 9, plus Afterword: Embodiment, Identity and Theory.) See also: Shilling, C.
(2007) Sociology and the body: Classical traditions and new agendas, (Chp
t. 1) in C. Shilling
(ed.)
Embodying Sociology
. Oxford: Blackwell.


3. Turner B.S. (2008)
The Body and Society (3rd Edition)
. London: Sage. (Introduction(s) and
Chpt. 2).


4. Fraser, M. and Greco, M. (2005) Introduction.
The Body: A Reader.

London: Routle
dge (NB.
This to repeat will be a useful reader throughout the module, with many useful/important
essays).


PLUS:


5. Howson, A and Inglis, D. (2001) The body in sociology: tensions inside and outside
sociological thought.
The Sociological Review
.

49 (3):
297
-
317. Also follow up the debate
through responses by Crossley and Shilling in the same issue and Inglis and Howson’s reply in
the (2002) volume.





8





WEEK 3
. THE DISCURSIVE/DISCIPLINED BODY: FOUCAULT AND BEYOND


In this session we take a closer look at
debates surrounding the social construction of bodies,
with particular reference to the work of Michel Foucault and his critics.


Seminar Questions:


1)

How can the

recent interest in the body be explained?

2)

In what ways might it be argued that the body is a p
roduct of discourse?

3)

How does Foucault conceptualise power and how is this relevant to studies of the body?

4)

What are the strengths and weaknesses of Foucauldian or neo
-
Foucauldian approaches
to

the body?




Core/Esential Readings:



1. ANY OF THE FOLLOWING

(i) Williams S.J. and Bendelow G. (1998)
The Lived Body
.
London: Routledge (Chpt. 2); (ii) Shilling C. (20033)
The Body and Social Theory
. London:
Sage (Chpt. 4); Turner B.S. (2008)
Body and Society
. London: Sage (Chpt. 7).


Foucault, M. (2005) The

political investment of the body, in Fraser, M. and Greco, M. (eds.)
The Body: A
Reader. London: Routledge.




2. Further (Key *) Readings (on specific topics)



(i) Power/knowledge and the body:



Armstrong D. (1987) Bodies of knowledge: Foucault and the

problem of human anatomy.
(Chpt. 3) in: Scambler G. (ed.)
Sociological Theory and Medical Sociology
. London: Tavistock.
OR: Armstrong D. (1983)
Political Anatomy of the Body: Medical Knowledge in Britain in the
Twentieth Century
. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ
ersity Press.


Butler J. (1993)
Body Matters: The Discursive Limits of 'Sex'
. London: Routledge.


* Craib I. (1997) Social constructionism as a social psychosis.
Sociology
. 31, 1: 1
-
15.


* Crossley N. 1996. Body subject/body
-
power: agency, inscription an
d control in Foucault and
Merleau
-
Ponty.
Body & Society
. 2, 2: 116.




9





*

Foucault M. (1980)
Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings 1972
-
1977

(ed. by Gordon C.). Brighton: Harvester. (Esp. Chpt 3 'Body/power'). AND/OR: Foucault M.
(1986)
Th
e Foucault Reader

(ed. by P. Rabinow). Harmondsworth: Penguin (esp. part II).


* Foucault M. (1979)
The History of Sexuality (Vols. 1)
. Harmondsworth: Penguin (this is only
a short book which captures Foucault's (early) view of bodies well). See also Vols
. 2 and 3).


* Foucault M. (1977)
Discipline and Punish
. London: Allen Lane Penguin


* Foucault M. (1973)
The Birth of the Clinic
. London: Tavistock.


Petersen A. and Bunton, R. (1997)
Foucault: Health and Medicine
. London: Routledge (esp
foreword by Turn
er, introduction by Bunton and Petersen, Part I and Part III). See also: Jones C.
and Porter R. (eds.) (1994)
Reassessing Foucault: Power, Medicine and the Body
. London:
Routledge (esp. chpt by Armstrong).


Rose, N. (2007)
The Politics of Life Itself.

Pri
nceton: Princeton University Press.



c) Beyond Foucault?




* Craib I. (1997) Social constructionism as a social psychosis.
Sociology
. 31, 1: 1
-
15.


Crossley N. 1996. Body subject/body
-
power: agency, inscription and control in Foucault and
Merleau
-
Ponty
.
Body & Society
. 2, 2: 116.


Newton, T. (2003) Truly embodied sociology: marrying the social and the biological?
The
Sociological Review
. 51, (1): 20
-
42. Also follow
-
up the debate in subsequent vol’s/issues of the
journal e.g. Williams, S.J. (2003) Marryi
ng the social and the biological: A rejoinder to Newton.
Sociological Review
. 51, 4: 550
-
61.



* Shilling, C. (2004)
The Body in Culture, Technology and Society
. London: Sage
(Introduction: on ‘corporeal realism’)




10




WEEK 4
.

THE CIVILISED BODY: SOCIO
-
HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES.



In this session we take a closer look at socio
-
historical issues concerning the `civilising’ of
bodies, with particular reference to the work of Norbert Elias.


Seminar Questions:


What issues does the
civilising process raise in relation to the socialisation, rationalisation and
individualisation of bodies?


How does the civilising process affect children/childhood?


What comparisons and contrasts can be drawn between Elias and Foucault’s historical acc
ounts
of bodies?



1.

Core/Essential Readings:


1. Shilling C. (1993/2003)
The Body and Social Theory
. London: Sage. (Chpts. 6 ‘The Civilised
Body’)


2. Fraser, M. and Greco, M. (eds.) (2005)
The Body: A Reader
. London: Routledge (Part Two:
Chpts

by Elias and Bakhtin)


3. Elias N. (1991) On human beings and their emotions: a process
-
sociological essay. In:
Featherstone M., Hepworth M., and Turner B.S. (ed.)
The Body: Social Process and Cultural
Theory
. London: Sage.



2. Further (Key *) Readings (
on specific topics):




Bakhtin M. 1984/[1965])
Rabelais and His World
. Bloomington: Indiana University Press (for
comparative historical material on grotesque realism and carnival culture in feudal times). See
also Greenblatt, S. (1982) Filthy rites.
Daed
alus
. 3: 1
-
16.


* Elias N. (1978 [1939])
The Civilizing Process, Vol I: The History of Manners
. Oxford: Basil
Blackwell.


* Elias N. (1982 [1939])
The Civilizing Process, Vol II: State Formation and Civilization
.
Oxford: Basil Blackwell. (esp. Part II: 'Sy
nopsis').


* Elias N. (1989) The symbol theory.
Theory, Culture and Society
. 6 (x 3 parts): 163
-
217, 339
-
383, 499
-
537/(1991)
The Symbol Theory
. London: Sage.


11





Elias, N. (1996)
The Germans: Power Struggles and the Development of Habitus in the
Nineteenth an
d Twentieth Centuries
. Cambridge: Polity Press (esp. Preface by Dunning and
Mennell, and Parts I: Civilization and Informalization and Part IV: The Breakdown of
Civilization).


Gehlen A. (1988)
Man, His Nature and Place in the World
. New York: Columbia Uni
versity
Press (a philosophical anthropology of Man's 'unfinished' nature, and the unchanging conditions
of human changeableness).


* Kuzmics H. (1991) Embarrassment and civilization: on some similarities and differences in
the work of Goffman and Elias.
Th
eory, Culture and Society
. 8: 1
-
30.


Kuzmics H. (1987) Civilization, state and bourgeois society: the theoretical contribution of
Norbert Elias.
Theory, Culture and Society
. 4: 515
-
37.


Mennell S. (1989)
Norbert Elias: Civilization and the Human Self
-
Imag
e
. Oxford: Blackwell.
(esp. Part II, Chpts. 2 & 4).



12




WEEK 5
THE BODY, PHYSICAL CAPITAL AND SOCIAL INEQUALITIES.



In this session we take a closer look at the notion of the body as a form of physical capital and a
bearer of symbolic value/social
distinction through the work of the French sociologist Pierre
Bourdieu. This also provides an opportunity to consider more widely the role of the body as both
a site and source of social inequalities.


Seminar Questions:



To what extent can the body be vi
ewed as a form of physical capital?


What role light do Bourdieusian notions of habitus, capital and field shed on social inequalities?


How is social capital converted into other forms of capital?


To what extent is Bourdieu’s approach to the body and soc
ial inequalities both promising and
problematic?


Compare and contrast Bourdieu’s approach to that of Foucault and Elias.



1. Core/Essential Readings:



1. Shilling C. (2003)
The Body and Social Theory
. London: Sage. (Chpts. 7 ‘The Body, Physical
Capital

and Social Inequalities’)


2. Fraser, M. and Greco, M. (eds.) (2005)
The Body: A Reader
. London: Routledge (Part Two:
Chpt by Bourdieu)


3. Crossley, N. (2004) The circuit trainer’s habitus: reflexive body techniques and the sociality
of the workout.
Body & Society
. 10 (1): 37
-
69 AND/OR: Crossley, N. (2001)
The Social Body
.
London: Sage (Chpts 6
-
8 and Afterword).


4. McNay, L. (1999) Gender, habitus and field: Pierre Boudieu and the limits of reflexivity.
Theory, Culture and Society.
16, 1: 95
-
117.




2. Further (Key *) Readings (on specific topics):




* Adkins, L. and Skeggs, B (eds.) (2004)
Feminism After Bourdieu
. Oxford: Blackwell

13




Publishing.


Bourdieu P. (1977)
Outline of a Theory of Practice
. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


* Bourdieu P
. (1984)
Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste
. London:
Routledge (esp. Chpt. on 'habitus and the space of life
-
styles').


Bourdieu P. (1986) The forms of capital. In: Richardson J. (ed.)
Handbook of Theory and
Research for the Sociology

of Education
. New York: Greenwood Press.


Bourdieu P. (1981) Men and machines. In: Knorr
-
Cetina K. and Cicourel A.V. (eds.)
Advances
in Social Theory and Methodology: Towards an Integration of Macro and Micro Sociologies
.
London: RKP.


* Bourdieu. P.(199
0)
The Logic of Practice
. Cambridge: Polity Press (esp. Book I, chapter 4
'Belief and the body').


* Bourdieu P. and Wacquant L. (1992)
An Invitation to Reflexive Sociology
. Cambridge: Polity
Press.


Jenkins R. (1992)
Pierre Bourdieu
. London: Routledge (es
p. Chpts. 4 & 6).


Lovell, T. (2000) Thinking feminism with and against Bourdieu.
Feminist Theory
. 1, 1: 11
-
32.


*
McNay, L. (
2008
)
Against

Recognition
. Cambridge: Polity.


* Sayer, A. (2005)
The Moral Significance of Class
. London: Routledge (esp. Chpts.
2
-
4).


*
S
keggs, B. (2004)
Class, Self and
Culture
. London: Routledge.


Turner B.S. (1992)
Regulating Bodies: Essays in Medical Sociology
. London: Routledge. (Chpt.
2 pp: 85
-
91).


* Wacquant, L. (2004)
Body and Soul: Notebooks of an Apprentice Boxer
.
Oxford University
Press.


Williams S.J. (1995) Theorising class, health and lifestyles, can Bourdieu help us?
Sociology of
Health and Illness
. 17 (5): 577
-
604.


Williams S.J. and Bendelow G. (1998)
The Lived Body
. London: Routledge (Chpt. 4).




14




WEEK
6. FEM
INISMS AND THE (BIOLOGICAL) BODY.




Set against the backdrop of broader feminist debates on the problems of Western dualism and
the contested nature and status of the `biological’ body, this session takes a critical look at
relations between women and med
icine, focusing in particular on the medicalisation of women’s
bodies and reproductive lives, both past and present. In doing so, moreover, we also glimpse
here the manner in which these, and associated feminist debates, pre
-
date what some critics see
as t
he current vogue or `fashionable’ interest in body matters in the academy and beyond: a
theme succinctly captured in the phrase `Our bodies ourselves’.



Seminar Questions:



In what ways have feminists sought to challenge the legacies of Western dualism?



To what extent have women’s bodies and reproductive lives been `medicalised’?


Do these processes of medicalisation involve `gains’ as well as `losses’ ?




1. Core/Essential Readings:



ANY ONE OF THE FOLLOWING:



Williams S.J. and Bendelow G. (1998)
The Lived Body
. London: Routledge (Chpt. 6.)


Hughes A. and Witz A. (1997) Feminism and the matter of bodies: from de Beauvoir to Butler.
Body & Society
. 3, 1: 47
-
60.


Witz, A. (2000) Whose body matters? Feminist socio
logy and the corporeal turn in sociology
and feminism.
Body & Society. 6, 2: 1
-
24.


PLUS:


Fraser, M. and Greco, M. (eds.) (2005)
The Body: A Reader
. London: Routledge (Chpts by
Grosz (1)
Butler

(5)
,
Skeggs (17),
Haraway

(32)
)


Lupton D. (1994)
Medicine as

Culture: Illness, Disease and the Body in Western Societies
.
London: Sage (Chpt. 6 'Feminisms and medicine').




15






2. Further (Key *) Readings (on specific topics):


(i) Feminist debates on the `sexed’ body: essentialism and beyond;


* Birke, L. (1999)
Feminism and the Biological Body
. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.


* Butler J. (2005) Bodies that matter, in Fraser M. and Greco, M. (eds.)
The Body: A
Reader.
London: Routledge. Reprinted from Butler, J. (1993)
Body Matters: The Discursive Limits o
f
'Sex'
. London: Routledge.


* Grosz, E. (1994)
Volatile Bodies: Toward a Corporeal Feminism
. Indianna University Press
(Chpt. 8 'Sexed bodies' and passim).


* Lacquer T. (199)
Making of Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud
. Cambridge
Mass.:
Harvard University Press.


* Sawicki J. (1990)
Disciplining Foucault: Feminism, Power and the Body
. London: Routledge.


*. Wilson, E. (2004)
Psychosomatic: Feminism and the Neurological Body.

Duke: Duke
University Press (Introduction: Somatic compliance…)


(ii) Women, medicine and the body;


Bendelow, G., Carpenter, M., Vautier, C. and Williams, S.J. (eds.)
Gender, Health and Healing:
The Public/Private Divide
. London: Routledge (esp. Chpts by Birke, Busfield, and Doyal).


* Jacobus M, Keller E.F. and Shut
tleworth S. (1990)
Body/Politics: Women and the Discourse
of Science
. London: Routledge.


Boston Women's Health Collective (1971)
Our Bodies Ourselves
. New York: Simon and
Schuster.


* Ehrenreich B. and English D. (1979)
For Her Own Good: 150 Years of the

Expert's Advice to
Women
. London: Pluto Press. See also: Ehrenreich B. and English D. (1990) The sexual politics
of sickness. (Chpt. 23) in: Conrad P. and Kern R. (eds.).
The Sociology of Health and Illness:
Critical Perspectives
. St Martin's Press.


* Ja
cobus M, Keller E.F. and Shuttleworth S. (1990)
Body/Politics: Women and the Discourse
of Science
. London: Routledge.


* ANY OF THE FOLLOWING: (i) Martin E. (1987)
The Woman in the Body
. Milton Keynes:
OUP (esp Chpts. 3, 4 and 8); (ii) Martin E. (1990)
Science and women's bodies (Chpt. 4) in:
Jacobus M., Fox Keller E. and Shuttleworth S. (eds)
Body/Politics: Women and the Discourse
of Science
. London: Routledge; (iii) Martin E. (1991) The egg and the sperm: how science has

16




constructed a romance based on
stereotypical male
-
female roles.
Signs: Journal of Women in
Culture and Soceity

16, (3): 485
-
501.


* Lawrence C. and Benedixen K. (1992) His and hers: male and female anatomy in anatomy
texts for US medical students 1890
-
1989.
Social Science and Medicine
.
35 (7): 925
-
934.


Moscucci O. (1990)
The Science of Women: Gynaecology and Gender in England 1800
-
1929
.
Cambridge University Press. (Chpts. 1 and 4).


Oakley A. (1980)
Women Confined: Towards a Sociology of Childbirth
. Oxford: Martin
Robertson. And/or: Oak
ley A. (1984)
The Captured Womb.

Blackwell.


* Petersen, A. (1998) Sexing the body: representations of sex differences in Gray's Anatomy,
1858 to the present.
Body & Society
. 4, 1: 1
-
15. See also: Lawrence C. and Benedixen K. (1992)
His and hers: male and
female anatomy in anatomy texts for US medical students 1890
-
1989.
Social Science and Medicine
. 35 (7): 925
-
934.


* Riesman, K. C. (1989) Women and Medicalisation: a new perspective. (Chpt. 13) in: Brown
P. (ed.)
Perspectives in Medical Sociology
. Belmont
, CA: Wadsworth.


* Todd A.D. (1989)
Intimate Adversaries: Cultural Conflict Between Doctors and Women
Patients
. University of Pennsylvania Press.


Turner B.S. (2008)
The Body and Society: Explorations in Social Theory (3rd Edition)
. London:
Sage (Chpt. 6)
. See also: Turner B.S. (1987)
Medical Power and Social Knowledge
. London:
Sage (Chpt. 5).


* Wolf, N. (2002)
Misconceptions.

London: Vintage.



17




WEEK 7
. THE EMOTIONAL/EXPRESSIVE BODY: MACRO
-
MICRO RELATIONS



Emotions, as previous sessions testify, play a crucial role in bringing mind, body and society
together. In this session, therefore, we examine these issues more fully, focusing in particular on
the contested nature and status of emotions


rational or irr
ational, biological or social


the
emotional dynamics of (micro
-
macro) social relations, and the dilemmas of the `(un)managed'
heart in contemporary Western society.



Seminar questions:



What are emotions?



Rational or irrational,
biological or social: how should we view emotions?



Why were emotions absent from sociology and why are they now of interest?



What light do sociological notions such as emotion work and emotion management shed
on micro
-
macro relations?



1.

Core/Essential Readings:



1. Williams S.J. and Bendelow G. (1998)
The Lived Body
. London: Routledge. (Chpt. 7).


2. Hochschild A. (1979) Emotion work, feeling rules and social structure.
American Journal of
Sociology
. 85: 551
-
575.


3. Barbalet, J. (1998
)
Emotion, Social Theory and Social Structure
. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press (esp. Intro, Chpts. 1, 2 and Epilogue). See also Barbalet, J. (eds.)
Emotions and
Sociology
. Oxford: Blackwell. (esp. Intro and Chpts by Shilling, Burkitt, Flam and Barbal
et).


4. Mestrovic S.G. (1997)
Postemotional Society
. London: Sage (esp. Preface, Chpts. 1, 4 and 7).



NB
. The Greco, M. and Stener, P. (eds.)
Emotion: A Social Science Reader
. London: Routledge

is also a useful resource/reference here, particularly the first two sections of the reader, and
includes extracts of fuller articles by many of the authors listed for this session on emotion (e.g.
Barbabelet, Goffman, Hochschild, Collins, Kemper, Freund
etc…).




2. Further (Key *) Readings (on specific topics):



18




i) What Are Emotions? Rational/Irrational, Biological/Social Discourses and Debates:


* Bendelow G. and Williams S.J. (eds.) (1998)
Emotions in Social Life: Critical Themes and
Contemporary
Issues
. London: Routledge (esp. Chpt. by Crossley).


Burkitt I. (1997) Social relationships and emotions.
Sociology
. 31, 1: 37
-
56.


* Craib. I. (1995) Some comments on the Sociology of Emotions.
Sociology
. 29 (1): 151
-
158.
See also: Williams S.J. and Bend
elow G.A. (1996). Emotions and sociological imperialism: a
rejoinder to Craib.
Sociology

30, 1: 145
-
153. And: Craib I. (1997) Social constructionism as a
social psychosis.
Sociology
. 31, 1: 1
-
15.


* Damasio A. (1994)
Descartes Error
. London: Macmillan.


Da
rwin C. (1955 [1895])
The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals
. New York:
Philosophical Library.


* Elias N. (1991) On human beings and their emotions: a process
-
sociological essay. In:
Featherstone M., Hepworth M., and Turner B.S. (ed.)
The Body: Soc
ial Process and Cultural
Theory
. London: Sage.


Ekman P. (ed.) (1982)
Emotion in the Human Face
. Cambridge NY: Cambridge University
Press.


Elster, J. (
2000
)
Alchemies of the Mind

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Goleman D. 1996:
Emotional Intellige
nce
. London: Bloomsbury.


Harre, R. and Parrot W.G. (eds.) (1996)
The Emotions: Social, Cultural and Biological
Dimensions
. London: Sage.


* Jaggar A. (1989) Love and knowlege: emotion in feminist epistemology. In Jaggar A. and
Bordo S. (eds.)
Gender/Knowl
edge/Body: Feminist Reconstructions of Being and Knowing
.
New Brunswick/London: Rutgers University Press.


Turner J.H. (1996) The evolution of emotions in humans: a Darwinian
-
Durkheimian analysis.
Journal of Health and Social Behaviour
. 26, 1: 1
-
33.



ii)
Micro
-
macro relations: intercorporeality, emotion work and beyond;


* Barbalet, J. (1998)
Emotion, Social Theory and Social Structure
. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press (Chpt. on Class and resentment).


Collins, R. (1990) On

the micro
-
foundations of macro
-
sociology. American Journal of
Sociology. 86: 984
-
1014. See also Chpt by Collins R. in Kemper T. (ed.) (1990)
Research

19




Agendas in the Sociology of Emotion
. New York: State University of New York Press.


* Fineman, S. (ed.)
(1993)
Emotion in Organisations
. London: Sage (Many useful Chapters (e.g.
Flam, Putnam and Mumby, Hearn, Parkin, James). See also the (2000)
2nd Edition

(esp. Chpts.
by Fineman, Krone and Morgan, and Bendelow and Mayall).


* Flam, H. (1990a) 'Emotional "Ma
n"': the emotional 'man' and the problem of collective action.
International Sociology
. 5, (1): 39
-
56. AND: Flam, H. (1990b) 'Emotional "Man"': Corporate
actors as emotion
-
motivated emotion managers.
International Sociology
. 5, (2): 225
-
34.


* Freund P.E.
S. (1990) The expressive body: a common ground for the sociology of emotions
and health and illness.
Sociology of Health and Illness
. 12, (4): 452
-
477. See also Chpt by
Freund in G. Bendelow and S.J. Williams (eds)
Emotions in Social Life
. London: Routledg
e.


* Goffman E. (1967)
Interaction Ritual: Essays on Face
-
to
-
Face Behaviour
. Doubleday, Anchor
Books (esp. essay 'Embarrassment and social organization'). See also: Schudson M. (1984)
Embarrassment and Erving Goffman's idea of human nature.
Theory and Soc
iety
. 13: 633
-
48.


* Hochschild A. (1983)
The Managed Heart: The Commercialization of Human Feeling
.
Berkeley: UCLA Press (Appendix on 'Social theories of emotions'). AND/OR: Hochschild, A.R.
(2003)
The Commercialization of Intimate Life: Notes from Home a
nd Work
. Berkely, CA:
University of California Press.


Kemper, T. (1990) Social relations and emotion: a structural approach. In Kemper T. (ed)
Research Agendas in the Sociology of Emotions
. New York: Sate University of New York
Press.


Olesen

V. (2000) Emotions and gender in US health care contexts: implications for change and
stasis in the division of labour. In Williams S.J. et al. (eds).
Health, Medicine and Society: Key
Theories, Future Agendas
. London: Routledge. See also: Olesen V. and B
one, D. (1998)
Emotion in rationalizing organizations: conceptual notes from professional nursing in the USA.
In Bendelow, G. and Williams S.J. (eds.)
Emotions in Social Life
. London: Routledge.


* Wouters C. (1992) On status competition and emotion manag
ement: the study of emotions as
a new field.
Theory, Culture and Society
. 9: 229
-
252.



iii) The dilemmas of the (un)managed heart: manufactured emotions or collective effervescence
in late/postmodernity?



* Maffesoli, M (1996)
The Time of the Tribes
. Lon
don: Sage.


* Mellor, P. and Shilling, C. (1997)
Re
-
Forming the Body
. London: Sage.


* Shilling C. (1997) Emotions, embodiment and the sensation of society.
Sociological Review
.

20




195
-
219


21




WEEK 8
.


AGEING BODIES



Traditionally a relatively neglected or
under
-
researched area of sociological study, issues of
ageing have come to the fore in recent years, within and beyond the sociology of health and
illness and the sociology of the body. This session therefore examines the question of ageing
both as an impo
rtant topic in its own right and as a vehicle for further exploring the nature and
status of bodies and related sociological questions of risk and identity, including the so
-
called
‘mask of ageing’.


Seminar questions:



1.

What questions and issues does agei
ng pose for the sociology of the body?


2.

What purchase or currency do concepts such as ‘active ageing’, the `mask of
ageing’ and more fluid notions of the postmodern life course have for theorising and
doing ageing, both now and in the (near) future?


3.

Is ‘a
nti
-
ageing’ best explained as a failure to live up to the inevitable limits of the
body, or a misplaced desire to transcend them?





1. Core/Essential Readings:


1. Bury, M. (2000) Health, ageing and the lifecourse. In Williams S.J. et al. (eds.)
Health,
Medicine and Society: Key Theories, Future Agendas
. London: Routledge.


2. Gilleard, C and Higgs, P. (2005) Ageing and its embodiment, in Fraser, M. and Greco, M.
(eds.)
The Body: A Reader
. London: Routledge. OR: Gilleard, C. and Higgs, P. (1998) Ageing
a
nd the limiting conditions of the body.
Sociological Research Online
. 3, (4).


3. Featherstone, M. and Hepworth M. (1991) The mask of ageing and the postmodern life
course. In M. Featherstone, M. Hepworth and B.S. Turner (eds.),
The Body: Social Process an
d
Cultural Theory
. London: Sage. OR: Hepworth, M. (1998) Ageing and the emotions, in
Bendelow G. and Williams S.J. (eds.)
Emotions in Social Life
. London: Routledge.


PLUS


Williams, S.J., Katz, S and Higgs, P. (Draft Paper) on ‘Neuroculture

and the Older Brain:
Where Cognitive Function Meets Active Ageing’…(SW handout)



2. Further (Key *) Readings (on specific topics):


22






Arber, S. and Ginn, J. (eds.) (1995)
Connecting Gender and Ageing: a Sociological Approach
.
Buckingham: Open University P
ress.


Bytheway, B. and Johnson J. (1998) The sight of age, in S. Nettleton and J. Watson (eds.)
The
Body in Everyday Life
. London: Routledge.


de Beauvoir, S. (1972)
Old Age

(Transl. By P. O’Brian). London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.


Fairhurst, E. (1998) `Growing old gracefully' as opposed to `mutton dressed as lamb': the social
construction of recognising older women, in S. Nettleton and J. Watson (eds.)
The Body in
Everyday Life
. London: Routledge.


* Featherstone, M. (1995) Post
-
bod
ies, aging and virtual reality. In M. Featherstone and A.
Wernick (eds.),
Images of Aging: Cultural Representations of Later Life
. London: Routledge.


* Featherstone M and Wernick A. (eds.) (1995)
Images of Aging: Cultural Representations of
Later Life
. Lo
ndon: Routledge.


* Gilleard, C. and Higgs, P. (2001)
Cultures of Ageing; Self, Citizen and the Body
. London:
Prentice Hall.


* Hepworth, M. (1998) Ageing and the emotions, in Bendelow G. and Williams S.J. (eds.)
Emotions in Social Life
. London: Routledge.


Hockey, J. and James, A. (1993)
Growing Up and Growing Old: Ageing, Dependency and the
Lifecourse
. London: Sage.


* Katz, S. (1996)
Disciplining Old Age: The Formation of Gerontological Knowledge.

Charlottesville and London: Univeristy Press of Virginia.


* Phillipson C. (1998)
Reconstructing Old Age: New Agendas in Social Theory and Practice
.
London: Sage.





23





WEEK 9
.


BIOMEDICALISED BODIES: FROM THERAPY TO ENHANCEMENT?



Recent developments in biomedicine, bioscience and biotechnology raise a host of
important
questions and issues regarding the nature and status of the body, including not simply what it is
but what it might become. From plastic surgery, organ transplants and new pharmaceuticals to
the possibilities of 'regenerative' or ‘virtual’ medici
ne and the multiple implications of the new
genetics a variety of prospects and possibilities are opening up, including the prospects and
possibilities of a new (posthuman?) era of ‘enhancement’. In this session, therefore, we
examine some of these issues
through a selection of case studies of particular aspects of
biomedicine, bioscience and biotechnology and their implications for debates on the nature and
status of bodies and our (posthuman?) futures…



Seminar questions:



To what extent are development
s in biomedicine, bioscience and biotechnology moving
us from us from an era of biological ‘control’ to an era of biological ‘customisation’ (cf.
Clarke et al. 2003)?



How useful is the leaky notion of figure of the cyborg in thinking through the
biopolit
ics of postmodern bodies (cf. Haraway 1990)?



What issues do these developments raise for our concepts of self and identity?



Are we on the verge of a ‘posthuman’ future, and if so would this be so bad?



What ethical issues are rai
sed?



1. Core/Essential Readings:



1.Williams, S.J. (2003)
The Body, Health and Medicine.

London: Sage (Chpt. 8 `High
-
Tech
bodies).


2. Clarke, A., Mamo, L., Fishman J., Shim, J K and Fosket J.F (2003) Biomedicalization:
technoscientific

transformations of health, illness and US biomedicine.
American Sociological
Review
. 68 (April): 161
-
94


3. Rose, N. (2007) Molecular Biopolitics, Somatic Ethics and the Spirit of Biocapitalism.
Social Theory and Health
. 5, 1: 3
-
29;


4.
Fraser, M. and Greco, M. (eds.) (2005)
The Body: A Reader
. London: Routledge (Part Six:
Bodies and Technologies: Chpts by Novas and Rose, Haraway, Walbdy, Springer, and Lock,

24




and Part Eight: Chpt by Orlan)



2. Further (Key *) Readings (on specific topics)
:

(i) General:



Brown, N. and Webster, A. (2004)
Innovative Medical Technologies and the Body
.
Cambridge: Polity Press;


* Fukuyama, F. (2002)
Our Posthuman Future.
London: Profile Books.



Habermas, J. (2003)
The Future of Human Nature
. Cambridge: Polit
y.


*
Miller, P. and Wilsdon, J. (eds.) (2006)
Better Humans? The Politics of Human Enhancement
and Life Extension
. London: Demos
(
http://www.demos.co.uk/publications/betterhumansco
llection
);


*
Rose, N. (2007)
The Politics of Life Itself: Biomedicine, Power and Subjectivity in the
Twenty
-
First Century
. Princeton: Princeton University Press);



(ii) Cosmetic Surgery:



* Davis, K. (1994):
Reshaping the Female Body: the Dilemmas of
Cosmetic Surgery
. London:
Routledge. See also: Davis, K. (1997) Pygmalions in plastic surgery.
Health

1, 2: 227
-
43.


* Gilman, S. (1999)
Making the Body Beautiful: A Cultural History of Aesthetic Surgery
.
Princeton, NJ: University of Princeton Press.



(ii
i) New Reproductive and New Genetic Technologies:



* Denny E. (1994) Liberation or oppression? radical feminism and in vitro fertilisation.
Sociology of Health and Illness
. 16 (1): 62
-
80. OR: Denny E. (1996) The new reproductive
technologies: the views of

women undergoing treatment. (Chpt. 10) in: Williams S.J. and
Calnan M. (eds.)
Modern Medicine: Lay Perspectives and Experiences
. London: UCL Press.


* Franklin, S. (2001) Culturing biology: stems cells for the new millenium.
Health

5, 3: 535
-
354 (Part of

a special issue on medical innovation and public knowledge edited by
Margaret Lock).


* Kerr, A. and Shakespeare, T (2002)
Genetic Politics: From Eugenics to Genome
.Cheltenham:
Clarion Press.


25






* Le Breton, D. (2004) Genetic fundamentalism or the cult of
the gene.
Body &
Society. 10 (4):
1
-
20


*
Rose, N. (2007)
The Politics of Life Itself: Biomedicine, Power and Subjectivity in the
Twenty
-
First Century
. Princeton: Princeton University Press);


Steinberg, D.L. (2000) Recombinant bodies: narrative, metapho
r and the gene. In Williams S.J.
et al. (eds.)
Health, Medicine and Society: Key Theories, Future Agendas
. London: Routledge.
See also Steinberg, D.L. (1997)
Bodies in Glass: Genetics, Eugenics, Embryo Ethics
.
Manchester: Manchester University Press.


Throsby, K. (2002) Negotiating ‘normality’ when IVF fails.
Narrative Inquiry
. 12 (1): 43
-
65.


* Van Der Ploeg, I (2004) ‘Only angels can do without skin’: on reproductive technology’s
hybrids and the politics of body boundaries.
Body & Society
. 10 (2
-
3): 1
53
-
81.



(iv) Organ donation/transplantation/trafficking:



* Scheper
-
Hughes, N. (2001a) Bodies for sale


whole or in parts.
Body & Society
. 7. 2
-
3: 1
-
8.
See also Scheper
-
Hughes, N. (2001b) Commodity fetishism in organs trafficking.
Body &
Society
.

7, 2
-
3: 31
-
62. NB. This is part of special issue of
Body & Society

on the commodified
body: follow up other interesting articles, including Lock (2001) on the Human Genome
Diversity Project (HGDP). Now published as a book: Scheper
-
Hughes, N. and Wacqua
nt, L.
(eds). (2002)
Commodifying Bodies
. London: Sage.



(v) Virtual medicine/Cyborgs and Cyberspace:


Benedikt M. (ed.) (1991)
Cyberspace: First Steps
. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press (Esp. Chpt 6. by
Stone A.R., Chpt. 5 by Heim M. and Chpt. 4 by Stenger N.).


* Gray C.H. (ed.)
The Cyborg Handbook
. London: Routledge. (Esp. Foreward by D. Haraway,
Introduction by C.H. Gray and Part 3: `Medicine'). AND/OR: Gray, C. (2002)
Cyborg Citizen.

London: Routledge. AND/OR: Kirkup, G., Janes, L, Woodward, K and Hovenden,
F. (2000)
The Gendered Cyborg: A Reader
. London: Routledge, OR: Bell, D. and Kennedy, B.M. (eds.)
(2000)
The Cybercultures Reader
. London/New York: Routledge (many useful reprints).


Cyberspace/Cyberbodies/Cyberpunk.
Body & Society
, 1, 3
-
4. (esp. articles

by Featherstone M.
and Burrows R., Tomas D., Balsamo A. and Wilson R.R. (This is also published as an edited
book by Featherstone M. and Burrows R. (1996)
Cyberspace, Cyberbodies, Cyberunk: Cultures
of Technological Embodiment
. London: Sage).



26




* Haraway,
D. (1991)
Simians, Cyborgs and Women
. London: Free Association Books. See
also Haraway, D. (1997)
Modest
Witness@Second
_

Millennium. Femaleman_Meets_
OncoMouse
. London: Routledge.


* Thacker, E. (1999) Performing the
technoscientific body: real video surgery and the anatomy
theatre.
Body & Society
. 5, 2
-
3: 317
-
36.


* Waldby, C. (1997) The body and the digital archive: the Visible Human Project and the
computerization of medicine.
Health
. 1, 2: 227
-
43. See also:
Waldby,

C. (2000)
The Visible
Human Project: Informatic Bodies and Posthuman Medicine
. London: Routledge.








27





WEEK 10
.


THE BODY IN PAIN: VULNERABLITY, SUFFERING AND THE HUMAN
CONDITION


In this session we explore the vicissitudes of embodiment with particular

reference to issues of
pain, suffering and the human condition.


Seminar questions:


What is pain?


To what extent does pain disrupt or shatter our taken
-
for
-
granted world and relationship to our
bodies (cf. Leder, Scarry)?

Does pain reinforce or challenge mind/body dualisms?


What light does pain shed questions on issues of vulnerability, suffering and the human
condition? (cf. Turner, Das etc.)?


Is it time to ‘reclaim’ pain from exclusive biomedical jurisdiction (cf. Mor
ris)?




1. Core/Essential Readings:



1.
Williams S.J. and Bendelow G. (1998)
The Lived Body
. London: Routledge. (Chpt. 8).



2. Leder D. (1984
-
85) Toward a phenomenology of pain.
The Review of Existential Psychology
and Psychiatry
. 19: 255
-
266. AND/OR:
Leder D. (1990)
The Absent Body
. Chicago/London:
Chicago University Press. (esp. Chpt. 3 and 5).


3. Morris D. (1994) Pain's Dominion.
Wilson Quarterly

(Autumn): 8
-
26. AND/OR:

Morris, D.
(1991)
The Culture of Pain
. Berkley/London: University of California

Press.


4. Fraser, M. and Greco, M. (eds) (2005)
The Body: A Reader.

London: Routledge (Part Eight:
Chapts by Frank and Scarry).


5. ANY OF THE FOLLOWING: (i) Turner, B.S. (2008)
Body &
Society. London: Sage (Chpt.
13 ‘Epilogue: Vulnerablity and Values’);

(ii) Turner, B.S. (2003) ‘Biology, politics and
vulnerablity’ in Williams, S.J. et al (eds)
Debating Biology
. London: Routledge; (iii) Turner,
B.S. and Wainwright, S.P. (2003) Corps de Ballet: the case of the injured ballet dancer.
Sociology of Health and

Illness
. 25, 4: 269
-
88.



2. Further (Key *) Readings:




28




(*) Bendelow G. and Williams S.J. (1995) Transcending the dualisms? Towards a sociology of
pain.
Sociology of Health and Illness
.

17 (2): 139
-
165. And/or: Bendelow G. and Williams S.J.
(1995) Pain and the mind
-
body dualism.
Body & Society

1 (2): 83
-
103. See also Bendelow, G.
(2000)
Gender and Pain
. Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education Ltd.


(*) Bury M. (1982) Chronic illness as biograph
ical disruption.
Sociology of Health and Illness
.
4, (2): 167
-
182.


(*) Frank A.W. (1995)
The Wounded Storyteller
. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.



(*) Kleinman A. (1988)
The Illness Narratives: Suffering, Healing and the Human Condition
.
Basic Book
s.


(*) Kleinman, A., Das, V. and Lock, M. (eds.) (1997)
Social Suffering
. Berkeley: University of
California Press.



(*) Scarry E. (1985)
The Body in Pain: The Making and Unmaking of the World
. New York:
Oxford University Press.


Turner, B.S. (2004)
Th
e New Medical Sociology: Social Forms of Health and Illness.

New
York/London: Norton & Co. (Chpt. 4 ‘Time , self and disruption’).


(*) Wilkinson, I. (2004)
Social Suffering: A Sociological Introduction
. Cambridge: Polity.


(*) Williams G.H. (1984) The

genesis of chronic illness: narrative reconstruction.
Sociology of
Health and Illness
. 6: 175
-
200.



Disability/Politics of Disablement:



(*) Albrecht, G., Seelman, K.D. and Bury, M. (eds.) (2003)
Handbook of Disability Studies.

London:
Sage.


(*) Barnes C. and Mercer G. (eds.) (1996)
Exploring the Divide: Illness and Disability
. Leeds: The
Disability Press.


Barnes, C., Mercer, G. and Shakespeare T. (1999)
Understanding Disability: a Sociological Approach
.
Cambridge: Polity Press.


(*) Freund,
P.E.S. (2001) Bodies, disability and spaces: the social model of disability and disabling
spatial organisations.
Disability and Society
.16, 5: 689
-
706.


(*) Hughes B. and K. Patersen (1997) The social model of disability and the disappearing body: towards
a sociology of impairment.
Disability & Society
. 12, 3: 325
-
40.


(*) Oliver M. (1990)
The Politics of Disablement
. London: Macmillan.



29




Oliver, M. (1996)
Understanding Disability: From Theory to Practice
. London: Macmillan.


Seymour, W. (1998)
Remaking the

Body: Rehabilitation and Change.

London: Routledge.


(*) Shakespeare, T. (2006)
Disability: Rights and Wrongs
. London: Routledge.


Shakespeare, T. and Erickson, (2000) Different strokes: beyond biological determinism and social
constructionism, in Rose, H
. and Rose, S. (eds.)
Alas Poor Darwin: Arguments Against Evolutionary
Psychology
. London: Jonathan Cape.


Swain J., French, S., Barnes, C. and Thomas, C. (eds.) (2004)
Disabling Barriers
-

Enabling
Environments
. (2
nd

Edition) London: Sage.


(*) Thomas, C.

(2007)
Sociology of Disability and Illness
. Basingstoke: Palgrave.


(*) Williams G.H. and Busby, H. (2000) The politics of `disabled' bodies. In Williams S.J. et al. (eds.)
Health, Medicine and Society: Key Theories, Future Agendas
. London: Routledge.


Williams, S.J. (1999) Is anybody there? Critical realism and the disability debate.
Sociology of Health
and Illness
. 21, 6: 797
-
819.


30




WEEK 11
.


`DORMANT'/`MORTAL' BODIES: SLEEP, DEATH AND DYING.


In this final session we consider two other key aspects or
dimensions of the body, namely, sleep
and death. Whilst the sociology of death and dying is now well established, sleep has only
relatively recently come to the attention of sociologists as a topic worthy of investigation. Both
nonetheless are critical iss
ues for the sociology of body. Instructive parallels, moreover, may be
drawn between sleep and death which date back to Greek mythology
--

in which both sleep
(
Hypnos
) and death (
Thanatos
) were born of mother night (nyx)
--

and recall Shakepeare’s
famous d
epiction of sleep as death’s ‘counterfeit’.



Seminar questions:




What sociological light does sleep shed on body/society relations?



To what extent have death and dying become `medicalised', `sequestrated' experiences in
contemporary society?



Can fru
itful points of comparison and contrast be struck between the dormant body, both
past and present?



1. Core/Essential Readings:



(i) Sleep and Society:


1. Williams, S.J. and Crossley, N. (2008) Introduction: Sleeping Bodies.
Body & Society
.
PLUS papers

by Crook, T, and Wolf
-
Meyer, M.


2.
Kroll
-
Smith, S. and Guntner, V. (2005) Governing Sleepiness: Somnolent bodies,
discourse and liquid modernity.
Sociological Inquiry
. 75, 3: 346
-
71.



(ii) Death and dying:


1. Mellor P. and Shilling C. (1993) Modernity, self
-
identity and the sequestration of death.
Sociology
. 27, (3).


2. Lawton, J. (1998) Contemporary hospice care: the sequestration of the unbounded body and
`dirty dying’.
Sociology of Health and Illness
.
20, 2: 121
-
143. See also Lawton, J. (2000)
The
Dying Process: Patients’ Experiences of Palliative Care
. London: Routledge. (NB. This is not
for the faint hearted, given some of the descriptions of dying contained in Lawton’s work).


3. Bauman, Z. (1998) Po
stmodern adventures in life and death, in G. Scambler and P. Higgs

31




(eds.)
Modernity, Medicine and Health
. London: Routledge. OR: Bauman Z. (1992) Survival as
a social construct.
Theory, Culture and Society
. 9: 1
-
36. See also: Bauman Z. (1992)
Mortality,
Im
mortality and Other Life Strategies
. Cambridge: Polity Press;



NB. See also: Fraser, M. and Greco, M. (eds.)
The Body: A Reader
. London: Routledge (Part
Five, Chpt. by Lock, and Part Eight, Chpt. by Bauman).



2. Further (Key *) Readings:



i) Sleep and
Society:



* Arber, S., Hislop, J. and Williams, S.J. (2007) Sleep, Gender and the Life Course. Introduction to a
special issue of
Sociological Research Online

on ‘Sleep, Gender and the Life Course’ (September
2007) http://www.socresonline.org.uk/home.htm
l



* Aubert, V. and White, H. (1959a) Sleep: a sociological interpretation I.
Acta Sociologica
. 4, 2:
46
-
54.


* Aubert, V. and White, H. (1959b) Sleep: a sociological interpretation II.
Acta Sociologica
. 4,
3: 1
-
16.


* Brown, M. (2004) Taking care of business: self
-
help and sleep medicine in American
corporate culture.
Journal of Medical Humanities
. 25, 3 (Fall): 173
-
187.


Chatzitheochari, S. and Arber, S. (2009) Lack of sleep, work and the long hours culture: evidence

from the UK Time Use Survey.
Work, Employment and Society
, 23(1): 30
-
48.


Flanagan, O. (2000)
Dreaming Souls
. Oxford: Oxford University Press.



* ANY OF THE FOLLOWING: (i) Hislop, J. and Arber, S. (2003a) Sleepers wake! The
gendered nature of sleep
disruption among mid
-
life women.
Sociology
. 37, 4: 695
-
711; (ii)
Hislop, J. and Arber, S. (2003b) Sleep as a social act: a window on gender roles and
relationships, in S.Arber, K. Davidson and J. Ginn (eds.)
Gender and Ageing: Changing
Roles and Relationsh
ips
. Maidenhead and Philadelphia: Open University Press; (iii) Hislop,
J. and Arber, S. (2003c) Understanding women’s sleep management: beyond medicalization
-
healthicization?
Sociology of Health and Illness
. 25, 7: 815
-
37.

(NB See also the Williams


Hisl
op and Arber debate: Williams, S.J. (2004) Beyond medicalization
-
healthicization? A
rejoinder to Hislop and Aber.
Sociology of Health and Illness
. 26, 4: 453
-
59 and Hislop and
Arber, S. (2004) Understanding women’s sleep management: beyond medicalization
-
h
ealthicization: A response to Simon Williams.
Sociology of Health and Illness
. 26, 4: 460
-
63.)



32





* Kroll
-
Smith, S. (2003) Popular media and ‘excessive daytime sleepiness’: a study of
rhetorical authority in medical sociology.
Sociology of Health and Illnes
s
. 25, 6: 625
-
43


*. Kroker, K. (2007)
The Sleep of Others and the Transformation of Sleep Research
. Toronto:
University of Toronto Press (esp. Introduction and Chapters 8 and 9).
Moriera, T. (2006) Sleep,
health and the dynamics of biomedicine.
Social Sc
ience and Medicine
. 63: 54
-
63.


Martin, P. (2003)
Counting Sheep: The Science and Pleasures of Sleep and Dreams.

London:
Flamingo.


* Meadows, R. (2005) The ‘negotiated night’: an embodied conceptual framework for the
sociological study of sleep.
The
Sociological Review
. pp 240
--
254.


Moriera, T. (2006) Sleep, health and the dynamics of biomedicine.
Social Science and Medicine
. 63: 54
-
63.


* Schwartz, B. (1970) Notes on the sociology of sleep.
Sociological Quarterly
. 11, (Fall): 485
-
99.



* Steger, B.
and Brunt, L. (2003)
Night
-
time and Sleep in Asia and the West: Exploring the
Dark Side of Life
. London: Routledge Curzon.


* Taylor, B. (1993) Unconsciousness and society: the sociology of sleep.
International Journal
of Politics, Culture and Society
.

6, 3: 463
-
71.


Weisgerber, C. (2004) Turning to the internet for help on sensitive medical problems: A
qualitative study of the construction of a sleep disorder through online interaction.
Information,
Communication & Society
. 7, 4: 554
-
74.


* Williams, S.J. (2005)
Sleep and Society: Sociological Ventures into the (Un)
known. London:
Routledge


*

Williams, S.J. (2007) Vulnerable/dangerous bodies: The trials and tribuations of sleep, in
Shilling, C. (ed.)
Embodying Sociology
. Oxford: Blackwell.


www.sleepfoundation.org;



www.virtualmentor.ama
-
assn.org/2008/09/fred1
-
0809.html

(a special issue on ‘Ethical Issues
in Sleep M
edicine’)



ii) Death and Dying;



(*) Aries P. (1976)
Western Attitudes Towards Death: From the Middle Ages to the Present
.

33




London: Marion Boyers. And: Aries P. (1983)
The Hour of Death
. London: Penguine. (esp
Chpt. 12 and Conclusion).


(*) Bauman, Z. (1998) Postmodern adventures in life and death, in G. Scambler and P. Higgs
(eds.)
Modernity, Medicine and Health
. London: Routledge. OR: Bauman Z. (1992) Survival as
a social construct.
Theory, Culture and Society
. 9: 1
-
36. See also: Bauman

Z. (1992)
Mortality,
Immortality and Other Life Strategies
. Cambridge: Polity Press.



(*) Elias N. (1985)
The Loneliness of Dying
. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.


(*) Giddens A. (1991)
Modernity and Self Identity
. Oxford: Polity (Chpt. 5, esp pp: 144
-
169).


(*
) Hockey, J. and Draper, J. (2005) Beyond the womb and the tomb: (dis) embodiment and the
life course.
Body & Society
. 11 (2): 41
-
57.


Kellehear A. (1984) Are we a `death denying' society? A sociological view.
Social Science and
Medicine
. 18, 9: 713
-


(*) Mestrovic, S.G. (1997)
Postemotional Society.

London: Sage (Chpt. on `death and the end
of innocence’).


* Seale C. Heroic death.
Sociology
. 29, (4): 597
-
613. See also: Seale, C. (1999)
The Social
Construction of Death and Dying
. Cambridge: Cambridge U
niversity Press.


Walter T. (1989) Modern death: taboo or not taboo?
Sociology

25, (2): 293
-
301. Also reprinted
in Donaldson D and Johnson M. (eds.) (1993)
Op cit
.


* Walter T. (1995)
The Revival of Death
. London: Routledge.


Walter, T. (1999)
The Mournin
g for Diana
. Oxford: Berg.


Young M. and Cullen L. (1996)
A Good Death: Conversations with East Londoners
. London:
Routledge.




34





MODULE EVALUATION


At the end of this final session, some time will be set aside for student discussion and feedback
on the
organisation, content and delivery of the module. A module evaluation form will also be
handed out. Please co
mplete and return these to me (Alan Bradley
). Your (anonymous)
comments will be most valuable in future planning and revisions to the module. Many
thanks in
advance.

























35





UNIVERSITY OF WARWICK

DEPARTMENT OF SOCIOLOGY


THE SOCIOLOGY OF THE BODY, PAIN AND EMOTIONS


ESSAY TITLES


Module requirement
: One 5,000 word essay (please consult the
Dept. Postgraduate Student
Guide

for further details on essay requirements and regulations) on any of the following titles:


1. Critically assess Foucault’s legacy for the sociology of the body.


2. How useful is Elias’ notion of the `civilising process’ in thinking through body/society
relations historically? What criticisms can be made of Elias approach to these issues and what
contribution have subsequent Eliasian scholars made to overcoming them?


3. Critically evaluate feminist debates surrounding EITHER a) the corporeal matter of bo
dies
OR: b) the `medicalisation’ of women’s bodies, both past and present.


4. Intimate bedfellows or age
-
old adversaries? What is the relationship between reason and
emotion?


5. Critically examine the notion of `emotion work’ and the dilemmas of the
(un)managed heart
in late capitalism.


6. What do current ‘anti
-
‘ or ‘active’ ageing discourses and debates tell us about contemporary
relations between the body, self and society in late/postmodernity?


7. To what extent are recent developments in biomedi
cine, bioscience and biotechnology
ushering in new challenges and opportunities regarding the politics or biopolitics of ‘life itself’?


8. `Pain is never the sole creation of anatomy or physiology. It emerges only at the intersection
of bodies, minds and
cultures' (Morris 1991). Discuss.


9. What sociological issues does sleep raise and what light does it cast on the body and society?


10. To what extent has death become a `sequestrated' experience in contemporary Western
society? What does this tell us ab
out the relationship between the body and self
-
identity in the
late/post modern era?


11. Another
agreed

title.


Alan Bradley (September 2012
)
.