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Adams R (2007) Communication of Innovations: A Journey with Ev Rogers. Technovation 27:797

Aerts K, Matthyssens P, Vandenbempt K (2007) Critical role and screening practices of European business
incubators. Technovation 27:254
Business incubators guide starting enterprises through their growth
process and as such constitute a strong instrument to promote innovation and entrepreneurship. In this article
we sketch the European business incubator landscape. Then we describe screeni
ng practices by European
business incubators in 2003 and compare these results with the American incubators in the 1980s. In the last
phase an exploratory link between screening practices and performance, measured in terms of tenant failure,
is established
. Most incubators do not screen potential tenants on a balanced set of factors, but concentrate
either on the characteristics of the tenant's market or on the characteristics of the tenant's management team.
However, we found that the tenant survival rate
is positively related to a more balanced screening profile.
Based on our study results, we propose some recommendations for the main stakeholders in the field:
authorities, incubators and innovative entrepreneurs.

Aggeri F, Segrestin B (2007) Innovation a
nd project development: an impossible equation? Lessons from an
innovative automobile project development. R & D Management 37:37
47 Product development
performance has become a key issue for car manufacturers. But innovation seeks to outperform domina
design, whereas project development targets well
defined areas (costs, lead times, quality, etc.). This article
provides an analysis of the extent to which innovation is compatible with recent managerial and technical
methods (project and multi
management, co
development, simulation tools and digital mock
etc.). The analysis is based on a recent development project conducted at Renault in which these various
techniques were used in an attempt to achieve highly ambitious targets simultaneousl
y in the areas of lead
times, costs and innovation. During the course of the project, unexpected design problems revealed failures
in co
ordination, monitoring procedures and expertise. We argue that recent project development methods
can induce negative e
ffects on collective learning processes and that these effects have managerial
implications for innovative developments.

Akgun AE, Byrne JC, Lynn GS, Keskin H (2007) Team stressors, management support, and project and
process outcomes in new product devel
opment projects. Technovation 27:628
639 Stress is an important
research area in the group and organizational behavior literature, yet it is underestimated in the new product
development scholarship. In particular, the impact of team stressors on proje
ct and process outcomes was
not empirically investigated in NPD project teams. In this study, we test the influence of team stressors,
consisting of team crisis and anxiety, on the project/process outcomes, such as team learning, speed
market, new produ
ct success and proficiently executing the each stage of product development process,
including the degree of management support during the project. By investigating 96 NPD projects, we found
that when a high degree of management support is seen during tile

project, team crisis positively influences
team learning, speed
market and new product success, and team anxiety positively impacts speed
market. Interestingly, when low management support was noted during the project, we were not able to find
any s
tatistical association between team crisis and anxiety, and project outcomes. Also, we found that when
there was a high level of management support, team anxiety is positively related to the proficiency in
executing the idea generation, market/technologica
l assessment, product development, and product
commercialization stages; and team crisis is positively related to the market/technological assessment,
product development, product testing, and product commercialization stages. Further, we found that team
nxiety influences the proficiency in the product development stage regardless of low or high level of
management support. Next, managerial and theoretical implications were discussed.

Akgun AE, Keskin H, Byrne JC, Aren S (2007) Emotional and learning capa
bility and their impact on
product innovativeness and firm performance. Technovation 27:501
513 Learning capability, as a part of
organizational capabilities, is an important factor for product innovativeness. The antecedents of the learning

of the firm should be expanded to leverage the understanding of how firms can develop new
products with success. The human resources management and organization behavior literature indicates that
emotional capability of a firm has an impact on learning ca
pabilities. Nevertheless, emotional capability in
general and its impact on learning capability, product innovativeness, and firm performance in particular is
not discussed in the technology and innovation management (TIM) literature. In our investigation
of 106
firms., we found that: (1) a firm's level of emotional capability (including the dynamics of display freedom,
experiencing, reconciliation, and identification constructs) has a significant affect on the firm's learning
capability (composed of the ma
nagerial commitment, systems perspective, openness and experimentation,
and knowledge transfer and integration); (2) a firm's emotional capability influences its product
innovativeness via learning capability; and (3) a firm's product innovativeness, influ
enced by emotional and
learning capability, significantly impacts the firm performance.

Allen J, James AD, Gamlen P (2007) Formal versus informal knowledge networks in R&D: a case study
using social network analysis. R & D Management 37:179
196 The ex
istence of informal social networks
within organizations has long been recognized as important and the unique working relationships among
scientific and technical personnel have been well documented by both academics and practitioners. The
growing interest

in knowledge management practices has led to increased attention being paid to social
network analysis as a tool for mapping the nature and membership of informal networks. However, despite
the knowledge
intensive nature of research and development (R&D)
activities, social network analyses of
the R&D function remain relatively rare. This paper discusses the role of informal networks in the
development, exchange and dissemination of knowledge within the R&D function. A case study using social
network analys
is is used to compare and contrast formal and informal knowledge networks within ICI.
Marked differences between the informal organization and ICI formal structures for knowledge exchange
are revealed and a series of insights into the working habits of tec
hnical staff are presented. The implications
for managers are clear: through a better understanding of the informal organization of R&D staff, they can
more successfully capture and exploit new ideas; more efficiently disseminate information throughout the

function; and more effectively understand the working habits and activities of employees.

Ancona DG, Caldwell D (2007) Improving the performance of new product teams. Research
Management 50:37
43 2007 is Research
Technology Management's 50
th year of publication. TO mark
the occasion each issue reprints one, of RTMs six most ffrequently referenced articles. The articles were
identified by N. Thongpopanl and Jonathan D. Linton in their 2004 study of technology innovation

a citation
based study; in which RTM ranked third out of 25 specialty journals in that
field (see RTM, May
June 2004, pp. 5
6). The article reprinted here was originally published in 1990 and
has been updated with its authors reflections. '' Addressing th
e question of how sucessful product
development teams interact with other groups in the organization, the article describes some qfthe.first
research efforts to systeniatically understand how such teams deal with outside groups. It lays out the
patterns of

activities used to coordinate with otherparts of the organization and indicates how these patterns
can influence both the internal functioning (of the team and its overall performance.

Anderson TR, Daim TU, Lavoie FF (2007) Measuring the efficiency of un
iversity technology transfer.
Technovation 27:306
318 Universities provide education as well as innovations resulting from their
research. This paper focuses on the service of transferring research results into other sectors. Many
stakeholders such as
academic researchers, technology transfer offices (TTOs) and private industry are
involved in technology transfer which calls for a comprehensive approach. A data envelopment analysis
(DEA) approach is used as a productivity evaluation tool applied to univ
ersity technology transfer. The
methodology included weight restrictions providing a more comprehensive metric. The results include an
examination of efficiency targets for specific universities as well as peer count of inefficient universities.
Evidence o
f significant efficiency in university technology transfer is found in many leading universities. An
examination of differences between public versus private universities and those with medical schools and
those without indicated that universities with med
ical schools are les
s efficient than those without.

Antcliff RR (2007) Three tsunamis cresting move R&D lab of the future. Research
Management 50:2

Augustine NR (2007) Competitiveness: Late but not too late. Research
Technology Manageme
nt 50:9

Caro JM (2007) What type of faculty member interacts with what type of firm? Some reasons for
the delocalisation of university
industry interaction. Technovation 27:704
715 While there is significant
interest in improving univer
industry interaction, literature on the university side has tended not to focus
on the characteristics of the personnel involved and has largely ignored the issue that there are differences
between types of faculty member in their degrees of interacti
on. This question is especially relevant at
regional level, as those faculty members who do interact with industry may show a preference for firms that
are larger and technologically superior to those in the region. Most analysts, however, have tended to f
on the national level, particularly on those countries at the forefront of technological innovation. In the
absence of any formal theory, we propose a two
step method to formulate the hypothesis that only selected
faculty members interact with selecte
d firms. First, we identify the type of faculty member who interacts
with firms. Second, we examine whether this type of faculty member interacts with every type of firm. A
test sample is drawn from the Valencian Community of Spain, a region with low absor
ptive capacity, where
firms may show undesirable properties for university interaction. The results allow Lis to challenge the view
that certain individual universities may show a higher propensity for interaction once we take into account
differences betw
een the individual characteristics of their faculty members. We also claim that in a region
like the Valencian Community, faculty members who usually participate in contracts (male, holding an
administrative position) do so mainly with larger firms, but no
t with firms from their own region, where they
find lower technological standards. This partly explains the delocalisation of university
industry interaction.

Backman M, Borjesson S, Setterberg S (2007) Working with concepts in the fuzzy front end: explor
ing the
context for innovation for different types of concepts at Volvo Cars. R & D Management 37:17
Automotive firms are balancing the increasing needs for cost and time efficiency with the necessity of
developing more innovative products to stand
out on in a competitive market. The strive for efficiency has
led to an increasingly structured development process with limited allowances for deviations. Previous
academic work has pointed out the importance and embedded potential of the fuzzy front end,

where new
concepts still have the possibility to impact the new product development (NPD) process. However, most
research has focused on the transfer of new technologies, while concepts based on e.g. customer or market
knowledge have been more or less neg
lected. This paper discusses the need for alternative and contingent
approaches in the front end of NPD to also consider the transfer of other types of concepts. More
specifically, it addresses the need to distinguish between different types of concepts an
d to explore their
different prerequisites in NPD. It is argued that customer

and market
based concepts experience certain
difficulties due to the history and power of technology in research and development (R&D) domains in the
automotive context as well
as a lack of support from the existing, formal processes. In this paper, we argue
that all new concepts need to be conceptualized before being introduced to the NPD process, but that does
not always suffice. Concepts other than technology concepts also nee
d a contingent package to enable an
evaluation in the context of the R&D process

they need to be contextualized. This paper draws on an in
depth case study of Volvo Cars within a long
lasting collaborative research setup. It is based on an interview
y with key persons in the areas of concept work and NPD, and uses an insider/outsider approach.

Badawy MK (2007) Managing human resources. Research
Technology Management 50:56
74 2007 is
Technology Management's 50th year of publication. To ma
rk the occasion, each issue reprints one
of RTM's six most frequently referenced articles. The articles were identified by N. Thongpapanl and
Jonathan D. Linton in their 2004 study of technology innovation management journals, a citation
study in whi
ch RTM ranked third out of 25 specialty journals in that field (see RTM, May
June 2004, pp. 5
6). The article reprinted here was originally published in 1988 and has been updated with its author's
reflections." It surveys what had been learned about the ma
nagement of human resources during the
previous 50 years since the Industrial Research Institute's founding in 1938. The focus is on the effective
utilization of technical professionals, which the author breaks into four "distinct, yet, interrelated
ents or sub
systems": an effective human resource planning, reward, performance appraisal, and
career planning system. After discussing the major research findings and lessons for each element, the
article concludes with a research agenda for the next 50 y

Baek DH, Sul W, Hong KP, Kim H (2007) A technology valuation model to support technology transfer
negotiations. R &

D Management 37:123
138 The development and commercialization of advanced
technologies will depend increasingly on efficient technology transfer and technology trading systems. This
requires the development of technology markets or exchanges and hence

a reliable technology valuation
methodology. This paper develops a methodology for an objective and impartial valuation of fully
developed technologies. A web
based technology valuation system is developed with which interested users
can make efficient an
d real
time evaluations of technologies.

Baker WE, Sinkula JM (2007) Does market orientation facilitate balanced innovation programs? An
organizational learning perspective. Journal of Product Innovation Management 24:316
334 There
appears to be wides
pread agreement that optimal new product development programs require a balance
between customer
led and lead

customer innovation practices. The former is associated with adaptive
learning inspired incremental innovation, whereas the latter is associa
ted with generative
radical innovation. There is debate, however, as to whether a strong market orientation can facilitate this
balance. Some believe that a strong market orientation causes firms to overemphasize customer
innovations. Others believe that a strong market orientation can facilitate this balance but assert
that traditional measures of market orientation only capture the types of behaviors associated with customer
led incremental innovations. This latter concer
n has led some to abandon the single
operationalization of market orientation and to introduce two constructs
responsive and proactive market
into the literature. The purpose of this research is to address these developments. The stud
makes use of a national sample of marketing executives and employs a cross
sectional survey design.
Measures used are market orientation, radical and incremental innovation priority, generative and adaptive
learning priority, and new product success. Con
firmatory factor analyses and structural equations models are
employed to develop measures and to test hypotheses. The study's results reaffirm the position that a strong
market orientation helps facilitate a balance between incremental and radical innovat
ion by shifting firms'
innovation priority more toward radical innovation activities. It also suggests that the abandonment of
traditional conceptualizations and measures of market orientation are premature.

Ball A (2007) Knowledge at work: Creative colla
boration in the global economy. R & D Management

Ball A (2007) The exceptional manager: Making the difference. R & D Management 37:89

Barczak G, Sultan F, Hultink EJ (2007) Determinants of IT usage and new product performance. Jou
rnal of
Product Innovation Management 24:600
613 Explosive growth of information technologies (IT) has
prompted interest in examining the role of IT in new product development (NPD). Through desktop
software and Web
based tools, IT has been used to aid

idea generation and product testing as well as for
NPD activities such as process and portfolio management. Recent research suggests, however, that a gap
exists between IT availability and usage. Given the importance of IT in creating business value throu
gh the
development of new products and services, the present study seeks to identify factors that affect IT usage.
Further, anecdotal evidence and conceptual studies intimate that the usage of IT tools for NPD can shorten
time to market, can improve produc
t quality, and can increase productivity. However, empirical
substantiation of this impact is mostly nonexistent. The current study investigates the relationship between
IT usage and two measures of new product performance: speed to market and market perfo
Employing a mail
survey methodology, the study uses data from a sample of practitioner members from the
Product Development & Management Association to examine the effect of project risk, existence of a
champion, autonomy, innovative climate, IT in
frastructure, and IT embeddedness on the extent of IT usage.
These data are also used to explore the impact of IT usage on speed to market and market performance. The
results indicate that project risk, existence of a champion, and IT embeddedness positive
ly affect the extent
of IT usage for NPD. Additionally, IT usage positively and significantly influences the performance of the
new product in the marketplace. Surprisingly, and contrary to popular belief, IT usage does not have any
impact on speed to mark
et. An important implication of this study is that IT usage influences performance
but not in the way managers expect. Specifically, IT usage does not seem to affect speed to market but rather
positively impacts the performance of the new product in the ma
rketplace. This result suggests that IT usage
in NPD provides far more value to firms than previously thought and provides evidence to support greater
investments in IT for product development efforts. Other implications of the study are that unless IT is
embedded into the NPD process and champions for IT tools exist, chances are that IT will not be used and
its benefits will not be realized.

Bart C, Pujari A (2007) The performance impact of content and process in product innovation charters.
Journal of Pr
oduct Innovation Management 24:3
19 The significance of product innovation charters
(PICs) cannot be overemphasized, as they provide understanding and a tool for setting organizational goals,
charting strategic direction, and allocating resources for n
ew product portfolios. In a unique way, a PIC
represents a sort of mission statement mutation for new products. With the backdrop of strategy formulation
and product innovation literatures, this article investigates the impact of both content specificity w
ithin PICs
and satisfaction with the PIC formulation process on new product performance in North American
corporations. A survey was undertaken among executives knowledgeable about their organization's new
product development process. The respondents inclu
ded chief executive officers, vice presidents, directors,
and managers. The findings demonstrate that significant differences exist both in PIC content specificity and
process satisfaction between highly innovative and low innovative firms. The study also
shows that PIC
specificity in terms of the factors mission content and strategic directives positively influences new product
performance. Further, the study demonstrates that satisfaction with the process of formulating PICs plays a
positive and powerful
mediating role in the PIC specificity
performance relationship. The results suggest
that product innovation charters, like their mission statement cousins, may be of more value than most
managers realize. The study shows that achieving a state of organizat
ional satisfaction with a PIC's
formulation process is critical for obtaining better new product performance. Directions for future research
also are suggested.

Moriones A, Lera
Lopez F (2007) A firm
level analysis of determinants of ICT adoption in
Technovation 27:352
366 The purpose of this paper is to analyse the role played by five groups of factors
in ICT adoption: environment, firm structural characteristics, human capital, competitive strategy, and
internal organization. In order to
achieve this goal, the data collected in a survey with a sample of 337
Spanish workplaces are used. The paper overcomes some of the limitations found in the empirical literature
since it examines several ICT infrastructure and usage indicators at the same
time, using a sample of
workplaces of different sizes in all activity sectors in a context of a developed country with a low rate of ICT
incidence. Results highlight the need to study the different ICT separately as well as the importance of
size, multinational ownership, and high
skilled workforce in ICT adoption. Quality control
systems and team
based organization of work also play a relevant role in the diffusion of certain. elements
of ICT within firms. The need of reviewing the traditiona
l public support for ICT implementation on small
workplaces arises, together with the existence of complementarities with policies aimed to attract foreign
investments and to increase the workforce education level as a way to spread ICT implementation. Res
also show that managers need to align ICT adoption and the strategic focus of the firm more consistently.

Bayus BL, Kang W, Agarwal R (2007) Creating growth in new markets: A simultaneous model of firm
entry and price. Journal of Product Innovation M
anagement 24:139
155 Sales in a new market generally
follow a hockey
stick pattern: After commercialization, sales are very low for some time before there is a
dramatic takeoff in growth. Reported sales takeoffs across products vary widely from a few y
ears to several
decades. Prior research identifies new firm entry or price declines as key factors that relate to the timing of a
sales takeoff in new markets. However, this literature considers these variables to be exogenous and only
finds unilateral eff
ects. In the present article, new firm entry and price declines are modeled as being
endogenous. Thus, the simultaneous relationship between price declines and firm entry in the introductory
period of new markets when industry sales are negligible is studi
ed. Using a sample of new markets formed
in the United States during the last 135 years, strong support for a simultaneous model of price and firm
entry is found: Price decreases relate to the competitive pressures associated with firm entry, and, in turn,

firm entry is lower in new markets with rapidly falling prices. Furthermore, a key driver of firm entry during
the early years of a new market involves the level of patent activity, and a key driver of price decreases is
the presence of large firms. In co
ntrast to the recommendations from other research, these results indicate
that rapid price declines may further delay sales takeoff in industries by dampening new firm entry. Instead,
rapid sales takeoffs in new markets come from encouraging greater innova
tive activity and the entry of large

Berkowitz L (2007) Unobviousness now less obvious. Research
Technology Management 50:7

Berkowitz L (2007) Supreme court says you can license and sue. Research
Technology Management 50:9

Biemans W
, Griffin A, Moenaert R (2007) Twenty years of the Journal of product innovation management:
History, participants, and knowledge stock and flows. Journal of Product Innovation Management 24:193
213 The Journal of Product Innovation Management (JPIM) s
erves as a marketplace for science
innovative ideas that are produced and consumed by scholars and businesspeople. Now that JPIM has
existed for 20 years, two intriguing questions emerge: (1) How has the journal evolved over time in terms of
ge stock, that is, what are the characteristics of the growing stock of knowledge published by JPIM
over the years; and (2) how has the journal evolved in knowledge flow, that is, how is JPIM influenced by
other scientific publications and what is its impa
ct on other journals? In terms of knowledge stock, over 35%
of the articles published over the 20 years investigate processes and metrics for performance management.
The next most frequently published area was strategy, planning, and decision making (20%),

followed by
customer and market research (17%). The dominant research method used was a cross
sectional large
sample survey, and the focus most usually is at the project level of the firm. The large majority of JPIM
authors (60%) have a marketing backgrou
nd, with the remaining 40% representing numerous functional
domains. Academics at all levels publish in JPIM, and though most authors hail from North America, the
Dutch are a significant second group. JPIM was analyzed from a knowledge
flow perspective by
looking at
the scientific sources used by JPIM authors to develop their ideas and articles. To this end a bibliometric
analysis was performed by analyzing all references in articles published in JPIM. During 1984
2003 JPIM
published 488 articles, containin
g 10,314 references to journals and 6,533 references to other sources. Some
20% of these references (2,020) were self
references to JPIM articles. The remaining 8,294 journal
references were to articles in 287 journals in the fields of management (25%), ma
rketing (24%), and
management of technology (14%). However, it should be pointed out that many domains were dominated by
a limited number of journals. The second component of knowledge flow concerns the extent to which the
ideas developed in JPIM are consu
med by other authors. Again, bibliometric analysis was used to analyze
data from the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) about citations to JPIM in other journals. For the period
2005, the SSCI registered 7,773 citations to JPIM in 2,067 articles pu
blished in 278 journals (including
the 2,020 self
citations in JPIM). The functional areas most frequently citing JPIM are management of
technology (25%), marketing (15%), management (14%), and operations management and management
science (9%). Again, seve
ral domains were found to be dominated by a limited number of journals. At the
level of individual journals the analysis shows a growing impact of JPIM on management of technology
journals. The knowledge
flow analysis demonstrates how JPIM functions as a b
ridge between the
knowledge from various domains and the body of knowledge on management of technology. It suggests a
growing specialization of the field of technology innovation management, with JPIM being firmly
entrenched as the acknowledged leading jou

Blau J (2007) Philips tears down Eindhoven R & D fence. Research
Technology Management 50:9

Blau J (2007) Entrepreneurship popping in Silicon Fjord. Research
Technology Management 50:2

Blau J (2007) New EU partnerships aim to boost
competitiveness. Research
Technology Management 50:7

Blau J (2007) IBM's Germany lab holds onto skilled high
paid engineers. Research
Management 50:5

Brodie CH (2007) Innovation games: Creating breakthrough products through collaborative play by luke
hohmann. Journal of Product Innovation Management 24:629

Brown C, Markham S (2007) Innovation learning at BP. Research
Technology Management 50:9

Brown S (2007) Making common sense common practice

models for manufacturing excellence.
Technovation 27:89

Bruce M, Daly L, Kahn KB (2007) Delineating design factors that influence the global product launch
process*. Journal of Product

Innovation Management 24:456
470 Preparing for and managing the global
product launch process offers unique challenges as each targeted country can pose unique differences across
the design categories of channel parameters, country mores, language and

colloquialisms, and technology
infrastructure. Though not an exhaustive list, these have a predominant influence on the global product
launch process on a per
region basis. Using a case
study methodology, this article draws on the
global product la
unch experiences of two firms, showing that such influences preclude use of a mass
marketing, standardization approach. Though it appears that certain elements of global product launch may
be standardized for purposes of efficiencies, a global product laun
ch appears to require at least some degree
of customization. Such thinking parallels a design perspective, which mandates a tailoring of product and
marketing mix to encourage early acceptance within the intended global market. To suggest when
n should be employed, four design categories of channel parameters
country mores, language
and colloquialisms, and technology infrastructure
appear to have strong propensity to dictate customized
design requirements for a worldwide launch, where greater di
fferences across these design categories would
mandate more customization toward each respective global region. Post hoc comments by managers in the
focal case studies support this and further delineate that these four design factors necessitate keen
deration in the course of planning and enacting activities during the global product launch process. The
two cases studies especially show that customized design decisions will likely pertain to launch schedule
due to local retailers' calendars, product ae
sthetics due to local consumer preferences, point
sale and other
marketing communications due to language requirements, and technology enhancements in light of local
market acceptability and both social and regulatory expectations. Managers involved in
planning a global
product launch should therefore heed channel owners
brand owners, retailers, and distributors
so that they
give preference to, promote, and sell the respective company's product relative to competitors' products. To
assist toward securing

such preference status, channel owners should have a role in advising the timing of
launch and design considerations (e.g., color and form). Logistic issues, such as delivery and after
support via this channel, are keen considerations as well. Logis
tics has to be thought through to ensure that
demand can be met across all regions for a new product. And with the growing prevalence of Internet
worldwide, managers must pay keen attention to cultural references and language used on any Internet site
to e
nsure that the product is properly represented and promoted during its global launch. The process of a
global product launch is therefore more than the company's ability to gain access to a particular market; it is
the company's ability to understand key d
esign issues per each global region respectively and to respond to
pressing global region differences by customizing the total product offering to meet the needs of that global

Bruque S, Moyano J (2007) Organisational determinants of information t
echnology adoption and
implementation in SMEs: The case of family and cooperative firms. Technovation 27:241
253 The
current work attempts to identify the factors behind the intensity and speed of adoption of information
technology in small and medium
sized firms (SMEs) in which family or cooperative character play an
important role. For this purpose, we have used a qualitative perspective, in which we have taken into
account the opinions of entrepreneurs and managers of SMEs that have been involved in
change processes in recent years. Our results indicate that there are a number of internal factors that
influence the success of the adoption decision, on the one hand, and the implementation process, on the
other hand. Among these, we might
mention various systems for the socialisation of the workers, the
rotation of personnel for exemplary purposes, the simultaneous implementation of information technology
and quality systems, and professionalisation in the case of family firms. There are al
so inhibiting factors of
the adoption and implementation, such as the modification of the firm's hierarchy and power structures, as
well as the absence of qualified personnel.

Bryde DJ, Joby R (2007) Product
based planning: the importance of project and p
roject management
deliverables in the management of clinical trials. R & D Management 37:363
377 As the cost of clinical
trials continues to rise organisations are looking at ways of managing this part of the drug development
process as effectively and

efficiently as possible. As a tactical response, many pharmaceutical companies
outsource the management of clinical trials to clinical research organisations on a fixed
price contract basis.
This paper presents an alternative approach based on the concept

of Product
Based Planning. Key elements
of the approach are the creation of a deliverables budget and the establishment of project management
related deliverables. The conceptual developments described in the paper are supported by a telephone
survey of 1
0 UK practitioners. The survey confirms the prevalence and limitations of fixed
price contracts
while highlighting a willingness to try a deliverable
based approach

initially through small pilot studies.
The key barrier to implementing a new approach is
resistance from key stakeholders, such as finance
departments, which can be addressed through selling of the business case.

Buggie FD (2007) Follow these product development "rules". Research
Technology Management 50:12

Calantone RJ, Griffith DA
(2007) From the special issue editors: Challenges and opportunities in the field of
global product launch. Journal of Product Innovation Management 24:414

Calantone RJ, Stanko MA (2007) Drivers of outsourced innovation: An exploratory study. Jour
nal of
Product Innovation Management 24:230
241 The outsourcing of innovation has been on the rise for years,
but research in this area lags behind industry practice. Interviews with managers and a theory base grounded
in transaction cost analysis are
used to guide the development of an exploratory model that details potential
drivers of the outsourcing of innovation activities. Using industry
level data, the proposed model is partially
tested using two distinct regression analyses that reveal significa
nt effects both contemporaneously and
persisting over time. Several of the proposed drivers of outsourced innovation are shown to be significant,
including exploratory research performed and profit margin. The finding that exploratory research
performed is

significantly related to the outsourcing of innovation activities represents a significant
contribution to the innovation and organizational learning literatures. As well, finding a relationship between
margins and organizational sourcing fills a gap in t
he business to business marketing literature. Managerial
implications are drawn for both managers of the innovation process in traditional firms and those in firms
wishing to garner outsourced innovation contracts. The drivers found to be significant in th
is study should
allow for better resource planning from innovation managers in traditional firms as well as better targeting
of perspective clients from firms seeking contract innovation business.

Calia RC, Guerrini FM, Mourac GL (2007) Innovation network
s: From technological development to
business model reconfiguration. Technovation 27:426
432 This case study presents an example of how a
technological innovation network provides the necessary resources to change the business model, in order to
e global competitiveness. It describes the R&D investments of a family
operated business that
supplies the aluminum industry with metals and non
ferrous metal alloys. Seven years ago, when the
company was facing a severe financial crisis, it ignited a "re
birth" process through research activities,
which developed a product known as "aluminum tablets". The company established changes and brought
product innovations by introducing tablets from steel scraps with aluminum alloys through "water
atomization" tec
hnology. The impact of this innovation was not limited to the new product's technological
aspect, but it also changed the company's operational and commercial activities, which ultimately resulted in
a more comprehensive customer base focused in foreign tr
ade. The present work appraises the evolution and
development of this product, supported by a theoretical reference focused on innovation net
works and
business models.

Matos LM, Afsarmanesh H (2007) Results assessment and impact creation in coll

An example from the ECOLEAD project. Technovation 27:65
77 Assessing research progress
and results in collaborative projects is a rather difficult subject for which there are no clear effective
methods, and yet researchers are acco
untable to their funding sponsors. Based on some experiences with
European projects, this paper contributes to the discussion of assessment methods and their limitations in the
case of collaborative projects. The impact creation process is also analyzed an
d linked to the assessment

Canez L, Puig L, Quintero R, Garfias M (2007) Linking technology acquisition to a gated NPD process.
Technology Management 50:49
55 In today's competitive business and technology
environment, the considerat
ion of acquiring technology from industry leaders to deliver technology based
solutions is an imperative. Although there is an increased recognition of the need to establish collaborative
arrangements for technology acquisition, there is evidence that the
success rate of alliances is less than 50
percent. This finding highlights the need for a structured approach to technology acquisition. The approach
adopted in the Mexican oil industry not only assists managers in considering relevant factors for establis
more successful collaborations for technology development in a new product development (NPD) context, it
also encourages organizations to regularly scan available technologies in the marketplace before deciding on
house technology development.

tellion G (2007) Hard facts, dangerous half
truths, and total nonsense: Profiting from evidence
management. Journal of Product Innovation Management 24:506

Castellion G (2007) Manage for profit, not for market share: A guide to greater profits in highly contested
markets. Journal of Product Innovation Management 24:404

Castellion G (2007) Kellogg on branding: By the marketing faculty of the Kellogg
School of Management.
Journal of Product Innovation Management 24:184

Cegarra Navarro JG, Dewhurst FW, Briones Penalver AJ (2007) Factors affecting the use of e
in the telecommunications industry of Spain. Technovation 27:595
604 e
Government has become one of
the most important keywords for the public sector reform with proponents claiming that it guarantees
transparency; Accountability; Interface with citizen; Business; And other local and national administrations.
Few, if any, st
udies have investigated the factors that might contribute to the integration or implementation
of e
Government in business; Particularly SME. This paper examines the relative importance and
significance of company size; Business performance and three types

of information communication
technology on the use of e
Government through an empirical investigation of 321 businesses in the Spanish
Telecommunication sector using a multinomial logistic regression. The main conclusions are that there is a
significant l
ack of use of the internet for e
Government by SMEs and that any use of e
Government is
significantly affected by the size of business and the extent of use of information communication technology
within the business. Although the targets set by the Eu for

government might be achieved it is unlikely that
many businesses will take advantage

Chang SL, Chen CY, Wey SC (2007) Conceptualizing, assessing, and managing front
end fuzziness in
innovation/NPD projects. R & D Management 37:469
478 Front
end fuz
ziness (FEF) within
innovation/NPD projects remains unclear and under
explored. In this research, FEF is clarified to have three
change patterns of dynamic fuzziness levels and to have both positive and negative effects on the success of
an innovation/NPD
project. In this context, FEF sources are categorized into front
end environment, means,
and goals, and FEF dimensions are extended to include uncertainty, equivocality, complexity, and
variability. Accordingly, a management template is developed to help i
nnovators track specific FEF to
relative sources, assess FEF quantitatively, and manage both the positive and the negative effects of FEE
Finally, the article concludes with suggestions of the applications of the FEF management template.

Chang WC, Li ST (
2007) Fostering knowledge management deployment in R&D workspaces: a five
approach. R & D Management 37:479
493 In recent years, R&D institutes have encountered various
intensified challenges. New instruments are needed to manage knowledge
d activities more effectively
and efficiently. This paper presents and discusses the lessons learned from a case study in fostering
knowledge management (KM) initiatives and systems in a research
oriented institute serving the metal
industry, specifically
the Metal Industries Research and Development Centre (MIRDC) in Taiwan. We
perform a comparative review of the experience of embarking on KM among Taiwanese R&D institutes, a
very rarely performed job. Following this, we investigate, by conducting the prim
ary and secondary
researches, how MIRDC has adopted a five
stage approach to develop a deliberate framework of KM
deployment in order to manipulate the KM operations in the context of a Chinese R&D institute. The
MIRDC case demonstrates a sophisticated KM
process that provides an activity
based perspective of the
plan, control, coordination and evaluation framework in an R&D workspace. This paper argues that well
defined deployment frameworks embody qualities of goal pursuing that are important to KM activi
ties and
compel managers to examine more closely how to realize the KM initiatives. This paper also reveals that a
rigid hierarchical R&D structure inhibits the dynamics of the knowledge cycle due to technology
segmentation. A parallel R&D structure suppor
ted by mission offices and a 'pioneer and innovation program'
that is cross
departmental and industry
focused can positively motivate horizontal 'coopertition' networking
so as to better exploit and leverage knowledge assets. The practices applied in these

elemental KM activities
are useful to other R&D organizations by suggesting how each of the KM activities can be configured and

Chao CC, Jen WY, Hung MC, Li YC, Chi YP (2007) An innovative mobile approach for patient safety
services: The cas
e of a Taiwan health care movider. Technovation 27:342
351 As the importance of
patient safety increases for hospital management, many health care providers have begun to use innovative
mobile technology to make their procedures more accurate and effic
ient, and to reduce the risk of human
error. This paper explores an innovative mobile approach for patient safety and health care services in a
Taiwan hospital, where a web
based patient safety services (PSS) system was implemented to enhance the
y of diagnosis and patient safety. The functions and operating procedures of the PSS system are
introduced. Furthermore, the contributions of the PSS system over a six
month period of clinical use are
analyzed. Finally, the managerial implications of mobil
e PSS are discussed.

Chao CC, Yang JM, Jen WY (2007) Determining technology trends and forecasts of RFID by a historical
review and bibliometric analysis from 1991 to 2005. Technovation 27:268
279 Radio frequency
identification (RFID) has been identif
ied as one of the ten greatest contributory technologies of the 21st
century. This technology has found a rapidly growing market, with global sales expected to top US $7
billion by 2008. An increasing variety of enterprises are employing RFID to improve th
eir efficiency of
operations and to gain a competitive advantage. To shed light on RFID trends, and contributions, a historical
review and bibliometric analysis are included in this research. The bibliometric analytical technique was
used to examine this t
opic in SCI journals from 1991 through November of 2005. Also, a historical review
method was used to analyze RFID innovation, adoption by organizations, and market diffusion. From the
analysis of the study's findings, supply chain management (SCM), health

industry, and privacy issues
emerge as the major trends in RFID. Also, the contributions of the RFID industry and forecasts of
technological trends were also analyzed, concluding that RFID will be more ubiquitously diffused and
assimilated into our daily
lives in the near future.

Chen SH (2007) The national innovation system and foreign R&D: the case of Taiwan. R & D Management
453 R&D internationalization has increasingly involved countries outside the developed world. In
addition, there has b
een a growing trend for countries in East Asia to seek to attract the R&D facilities of
multinationals (MNCs). For such countries, they are faced with a fundamental question as to what kinds of
impact MNCs' offshore R&D facilities will have on their own co
untries, especially in terms of technological
innovation and industrial development. Set against the above backdrop, this paper sets out to examine a
relatively new aspect of R&D internationalization related to global innovation networks and to open up the

blackbox of the spillover effect regarding foreign R&D by examining the interplay of foreign R&D and
Taiwan's national innovation system. The empirical part of the paper draws mainly upon intensive case
studies of four high
profile foreign R&D facilities
in the IT industry. The way foreign R&D interplays with
Taiwan's NIS is examined in terms of the market & technology linkages.

Cheng SH, Wang YD, Horng RY, Huang YC (2007) Person
project fit and R&D performance: A case study
of industrial technology resea
rch institute of Taiwan. R & D Management 37:209
220 This study
examined the relation between the research and development (R&D) performance and the fit between a
researcher's cognitive type and the task demand of the project that was implied in Wang,
Wu & Horng's
(1999) study. Three hundred and eighteen research projects completed by 205 project leaders in the 3 years
were classified into Unsworth's four creativity types along two dimensions: (1) whether the research
addressed an open

or closed
problem and (2) whether the project was assigned or actively sought by
the researcher. Each researcher's personal traits were assessed using Myers
Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
and Kirton's Adaptor
Innovator Scale (KAI). Results show that researchers with a

conforming, feeling, or
type cognition performed better with assigned projects for solving closed problems. Those with an
originality and intuitive
type cognition performed better on self
initiated projects for solving open
problems. Researc
hers with sensing
type cognition performed better with assigned projects for solving
ended questions. Thus, a careful match between a researcher's cognitive type and the task demand of
project is important for R&D management.

Chesbrough H, Schwartz K

(2007) Innovating business models with co
development partnerships.
Technology Management 50:55
59 Business model innovation is vital to sustaining open
innovation. External technology partnerships allow, open business models to accomplish ev
en more. One
important mechanism for innovating one's business model is through establishing co
relationships. The proper character of these relationships varies, depending on the context for the
relationship. To sustain co
developinent relatio
nships, one must carefully, define the business objectives and
align the business models of each firm. One should also determine whether the various R&D capabilities are
core, critical or contextual. The decision to partner externally will have different i
niplications for each of

Chiesa V, Frattini F (2007) Exploring the differences in performance measurement between research and
development: evidence from a multiple case study. R & D Management 37:283
301 Researchers and
practitioners have rece
ntly paid great attention to research and development (R&D) performance
measurement, although it is acknowledged to be a very challenging task because of R&D intrinsic
uncertainty and complexity levels. In this paper, the problem of designing a performance

system (PMS) for R&D activities is addressed; specifically, we investigate if and how the design of the PMS
is influenced by the type of activity it is applied to, namely Basic and Applied Research or new product
development (NPD). We first de
velop a theoretical framework that comprises the main constitutive elements
of a PMS for R&D. Then the framework is used for supporting a multiple case study analysis involving
eight Italian technology
intensive firms. The research results show that the cr
iteria for designing the
constitutive elements of the PMS are radically different in Basic and Applied Research and NPD. The
reasons behind the observed dissimilarities in the design criteria are widely discussed in the paper, as well as
their implications

for R&D managers.

Chiva R, Alegre J (2007) Linking design management skills and design function organization: An empirical
study of Spanish and Italian ceramic tile producers. Technovation 27:616
627 Design management is an
increasingly important con
cept, research into which is very scarce. This paper deals with the fit between
design management skills and design function organization, ranging from solely in
house to solely
outsourced and including a mixture of the two. We carried out a survey in the
Spanish and Italian ceramic
tile industry, to which 177 product development managers responded. Our results revealed that companies
have different degrees of design management skills depending oil tile approach to design function
organization. Solely in
use design approach companies are the most skilled firms and solely outsourced
ones are the least skilled. Despite the fact that the design function has apparently evolved towards
outsourcing, this research supports the idea that., under certain conditions
, the in
house design department is
the best option in order to attain higher degrees of design management skills. Implications of the findings for
both academics and practitioners are examined.

Choi DY, Perez A (2007) Online piracy, innovation, and legit
imate business models. Technovation 27:168
178 This explorative paper examines the impact of online piracy on innovation and the creation of new,
legitimate businesses. While viewed only as a legal matter, online piracy has shown to be an important
rce of technological and strategic innovation to both industry incumbents and newcomers. This paper
briefly describes the evolution of pirate technologies and the associated online communities. Then, it
examines the processes by which pirate technologies a
nd communities have stimulated innovation and the
creation of pirate as well as legitimate business models. The paper concludes with some suggestions by
which incumbents and entrepreneurs may deal with and take advantage of piracy.

Citrin AV, Lee RP, McCu
llough J (2007) Information use and new product outcomes: The contingent role
of strategy type. Journal of Product Innovation Management 24:259
273 Information is an important
resource for firms to develop new products successfully, and firms must rely

on their ability to use
information effectively. This research builds on information processing and contingency theories to explore
the effect of firm strategy type and the conceptual and instrumental use of information on new product
outcomes. Firms oper
ating in high
tech industries are faced with high levels of uncertainty caused by rapidly
evolving technologies. Consequently, creating innovative and successful products becomes particularly
challenging. Past research examining organizational use of infor
mation points to the presence of strategic
contingencies that may impact the new product outcomes that accrue to a firm. A cross
sectional study was
conducted to examine how the impact of information use on new product outcomes varies by strategy type.
ng data from 150 software development firms based in a developing economy, the theoretical hypotheses
proposed are tested. After controlling for environmental turbulence, the research results demonstrate that
firms focusing on specific types of information

use innovate successfully only when that information use is
congruent with an appropriate strategic orientation. Specifically, the present study finds that prospector
firms focusing on conceptual information use enhance both their new product performance
and new product
creativity outcomes, whereas analyzer firms enhance only their new product performance outcomes. A focus
on instrumental information use has different effects for firms. Defender firms enhance both their new
product performance and creativi
ty outcomes only when focusing on instrumental information use. In
contrast, prospector firms detract from their new product creativity outcomes, and analyzer firms reduce
their new product performance outcomes when focusing on instrumental information use

Clarke T (2007) Teaching Chinese R&D managers. Research
Technology Management 50:4

Clarysse B, Bruneel J (2007) Nurturing and growing innovative start
ups: the role of policy as integrator. R
& D Management 37:139
149 Nurturing and growing
innovative start
ups have become an important
point on the political agenda. After the dotcom bubble, however, many financial schemes and incubation
initiatives initiated, in the mid
nineties, were cancelled or down scaled. There was a consensus that
ative start
ups need more than just money. Networking and coaching were identified as additional
needs. Besides this, there is a change in the intensity and nature of these needs during the different stages of
the early life cycle. In this paper we make an

depth study of three approaches to nurture and grow
innovative start
ups. Each of these initiatives embeds in a very different national innovation system:
Chalmers Innovation in Sweden and Anvar/Banque de Developpement des PMEs in France, and Sitra's
reSeed Service in Finland. Each approach is compared in terms of its financing, networking, and coaching
support, along the different stages of the start
up's life cycle.

Coates JF (2007) The lab in a box or the evolving laboratory. Research
Technology Ma
nagement 50:3

Coates JF (2007) Wanted: A theory of the Internet. Research
Technology Management 50:10

Coates JF (2007) Management from A to Z: 2057. Research
Technology Management 50:32
Continuity and change will mark the rubbery bo
undaries of a manager's worklife 50 years from now.
Information technologies will facilitate and improve the handling of such issues as education and training,
while cultural elements in a globalized world will raise new problems. While American English wi
ll be the
lingua franca, it will be far from the universal culture, which will demand new levels of managerial
sophistication. The unionization of R&D managers will create new benefits, including sabbaticals, profit
sharing on inventions and discoveries, a
nd sophisticated training to keep tip with new developments.
Anonymous electronic voting on merit and credibility will guide relations with a firm's top management.

Collins L (2007) Industrial/academic collaboration is 3
way win. Research
Technology Manag
ement 50:3

Collins L (2007) Embedding innovation into the firm. Research
Technology Management 50:5

Collins L (2007) Citizens' juries take hold in United Kingdom, Denmark. Research
Management 50:2

Collinson S (2007) High
tech industries in China. Technovation 27:322

Cooke Y (2007) SMEs and new technologies: Learning E
business and development. Technovation 27:413

Cooper RG (2007) Grappling with innovation. Research
Technology Management 50:7

per RG, Kleinschmidt EJ (2007) Winning businesses in product development: The critical success
factors. Research
Technology Management 50:52
66 2007 is Research
Technology Management's 50th
year of publication. To mark the occasion, each issue reprints

one of RTM's six most frequently referenced
articles. The articles were identified by N.. Thongpapanl andJonathan D. Linton in their 2004 study of
technology innovation management journals, a citation
based study in which RTM ranked third out of 25
lty journals in that field (see RTM, May
June 2004, pp. 5
6). The benchmarking study reprinted here
was originally published in 1996 and has been updated with its author's reflections. Their study of 161
business units uncovered the key drivers of new prod
uct performance at the business unit level. Ten
different performance measures were gauged, including percentage of sales by new products, profitability
and success rate. The ten gauges were reduced to two key performance dimensions
profltability and impac
which defined the "perfbrmance map." Nine possible drivers
including strategy, process, organizational
design, and climate
for innovation
were investigated, and four key drivers of performance were identified;
namely, a high
quality new product process,
the new product strategy for the business unit, resource
availability, and R&D spending levels. Merely having a formal new product process had no impact.

Cosner RR, Hynds EJ, Fusfeld AR, Loweth CV, Scouten C, Albright R (2007) Integrating roadmapping into

technical planning. Research
Technology Management 50:31
48 Developing a roadmap within a single
product line or a single autonomous business unit is relatively straightforward. A substantial body of
literature exists on the process of generating road
maps at the product, group or business
unit level. However,
additional factors need to be considered when extending roadmapping to an integrated view of several
highly autonomous business units. The customer base, the rate of product turnover, and the plan
ning horizon
will vary across business units. The architecture of the integrated roadmaps and the model for supporting the
process should fit the structure and organization of the company. Additional issues also can be anticipated in
areas including the sc
ope of roadmapping, the level of detail in the roadmaps, the security of the roadmap
information, and the use of a standard taxonomy to integrate information from diverse organizations.

Crawford JC (2007) Product innovation: Leading change through integra
ted product development. Journal
of Product Innovation Management 24:188

Cutler G (2007) R&D gets up to speak. Research
Technology Management 50:67

Cutler G (2007) Hank shakes the technical ladder. Research
Technology Management 50:67

Cutler G (2007) Mike leads his first virtual team. Research
Technology Management 50:66

Davenport S, Bibby D (2007) Contestability and contested stabil
ity: Life and times of CSIRO's New
Zealand cousins, the Crown Research Institutes. Innovation
Management Policy & Practice 9:181
The progress of the Crown Research Institutes (CRIs) since their formation in 1992 from the dismantling of
the centrali
sed Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR) is charted. Particular attention is
paid to the funding environment, characterised by the concept of contestability, in which the CRIs have
operated. In recent years, the CRIs have lobbied for mor
e funding stability arguing that contestability has
resulted in fickle funding decisions, eroding their ability to plan for the long
term and build human capital.
Certainly recent changes in policy reflect a greater concern with CRI capability. When the Go
moved to increase the amount of core funding for CRIs, however, the universities, concerned that this would
reduce their access to funding, argued that this 'stability' would result in ossification and less than excellent
science. The paper conclu
des with some reflections on the contrast between the CSIRO and CRI cousins,
and on the future for CRIs.

de Campos AL (2007) Renewing unilever: Transformation and tradition. Technovation 27:716

de Weerd
Nederhof P (2007) Innovation management: S
trategy and implementation using the pentathlon
framework. R & D Management 37:90

De Weerd
Nederhof PC, Wouters MJF, Teuns SJA, Hissel PH (2007) The architecture improvement
method: cost management and systemic learning about strategic product arc
hitectures. R & D Management
439 The architecture improvement method (AIM) is a method for multidisciplinary product
architecture improvement, addressing uncertainty and complexity and incorporating feedback loops,
facilitating trade
off decisio
n making during the architecture creation process. The research reported in this
paper demonstrates the ability of the AIM to contribute to cost management and systemic learning in the
creation of strategic product architectures, throughout the entire prod
uct life cycle. Application of the
method in five case studies within two divisions of Royal Philips Electronics shows that in cases of medium
uncertainty, substantial cost management benefits can be achieved and that the AIM facilitates systemic
through the accumulation of architectural competence, thus facilitating organizational memory.

Deck MJ (2007) Dealing with Darwin: How great companies innovate at every phase of their evolution.
Journal of Product Innovation Management 24:91

er M, Bennett D, Leseure M (2007) University to business technology transfer

UK and USA
comparisons. Technovation 27:145
155 University to business technology transfer offers specific
challenges, beyond those encountered in industry more widely. This

paper examines the issues in university
to business technology transfer in the UK and USA and presents the results of a survey of UK and US
university technology transfer officers. Findings indicate significant differences in the motivations of
es in each country to transfer technology, the consistency of university technology transfer policies
and the accessibility of university technologies to business. The study also looks at perceived barriers to
university to business technology transfer and

offers suggestions for possib
le improvements to the process.

Deevi SC (2007) The strategy paradox: Why committing to success leads to failure and what to do about it.
Technology Management 50:77

Deevi SC (2007) Permanent innovat!on: The

definitive guide to the principles, strategies, and methods of
successful innovators. Research
Technology Management 50:69

Dehoff K, Loehr J (2007) Innovation agility. Research
Technology Management 50:70

Dell'Era C, Verganti R (2007) St
rategies of innovation and imitation of product languages. Journal of
Product Innovation Management 24:580
599 Nowadays, design is recognized as a strategic resource.
Customers are increasingly paying attention to the aesthetic, symbolic, and emotional

value of products, a
value that is conveyed by the design language
that is, the combination of signs (e.g., form, colors, materials)
that gives meaning to a product. As a consequence firms are devoting increasing efforts to define a proper
strategy for th
e design language of their products. An empirical analysis was conducted on the product
language strategies in the Italian furniture industry; in particular, the present article explores the relationship
between innovation and variety of product languages.

Companies are usually faced by two major strategic
decisions. The first one concerns the innovation of product languages: To what extent should a firm
proactively propose new design languages or, rather, should adopt a reactive strategy by rapidly adoptin
new languages as they emerge in the market? The second decision concerns the variety and heterogeneity of
languages in their product range. Should a firm propose a single product language to communicate a precise
identity, or should it explore different
product languages? Of course, the two strategic decisions
innovativeness and variety of product languages
are closed connected. Analyzing more than 2.000 products
launched by 210 firms, the present article explores how the variety of product languages is a
pproached in the
strategy of innovators and imitators. The empirical results illustrate an inverse relationship between
innovativeness and heterogeneity of product signs and languages. Contrary to what is expected, innovators
have lower heterogeneity of pr
oduct languages. They tend to be strongly proactive and limit
experimentations of new languages in the market. Imitators, instead
which would be expected to have low
variety since they can invest only in languages that have been proven successful in the ma
tend on the
contrary to have higher product variety. Eventually, by having lower investments in research on trends of
sociocultural models, they miss the capability to interpret the complex evolution of products signs and
languages in the market. Stra
tegic decisions on innovativeness and variety of product languages are
therefore interrelated; counterintuitively companies should carefully analyze these decisions jointly.

Desouza KC, Awazu Y, Ramaprasad A (2007) Modifications and innovations to technol
ogy artifacts.
Technovation 27:204
220 What happens to a technology artifact after it is adopted? It has to evolve
within its particular context to be effective; otherwise, it will become part of the detritus of change, like the
many genes without a di
scernible function in a living organism. In this paper, we report on a study of post
adoptive behavior that examined how users modified and innovated with technology artifacts. We uncovered
three types of modifications made to technology artifacts: persona
lization, customization, and inventions.
Personalization attempts are modifications involving changes to technology parameters to meet the
specificities of the user; customization attempts adapt the technology parameters to meet the specificities of
the us
er's environment; and inventions are exaptations conducted to the technology artifact. This paper
presents a grounded theoretic analysis of the post
adoptive behavior based on in
depth interviews with 20
software engineers in one multi
national organizatio
n. We identify a life
cycle model that connects the
various types of modifications conducted to technology artifacts. The life
cycle model elaborates on how
individual and organizational dynamics are linked to the diffusion of innovations. While our resear
ch is
exploratory, it contributes to a deeper understanding of post
adoptive behavior and the dynamic relationship
between user innovations and organizational innovations.

Dew N, Read S (2007) The more we get together: Coordinating network externality
product introduction in
the RFID industry. Technovation 27:569
581 How organizations attempt to coordinate with one another
in markets increasingly marked by network externalities is an emerging topic of interest for researchers
working in the traditio
ns of innovation studies and new product development. New network externality
products often face complex "chicken
egg" coordination problems, since the user base and
complementary goods that add to product value are not yet established. In this paper
we highlight three
mechanisms of spontaneous coordination among large numbers of organizations: focal points, leadership
and common knowledge. We catalogue these three mechanisms at work using data from the RFID (radio
frequency identification) industry.

Dewett T (2007) Linking intrinsic motivation, risk taking, and employee creativity in an R&D environment.
R & D Management 37:197
208 Intrinsic motivation is thought to spur risk taking and creativity.
Nonetheless, the relationship between common creat
ivity antecedents and intrinsic motivation is seldom
clarified and the assertion that intrinsic motivation spurs risk taking and creativity has rarely been addressed.
The current study adopts an individual level of analysis and attempts to link several com
mon creativity
antecedents, intrinsic motivation, and one's willingness to take risks to employee creativity. Using survey
data collected from 165 research and development personnel and their supervisors, evidence is provided
showing that intrinsic motivat
ion mediates the relationship between certain antecedents and one's
willingness to take risks and that this willingness mediates the effect of intrinsic motivation on employee
creativity. However, starkly different findings emerge when using subjective ver
sus objective indicators of
employee creativity, suggesting that further theoretical development is in order to explain the differences.

Di Benedetto CA (2007) Untitled. Journal of Product Innovation Management 24:509

Di Benedetto CA (2007) From

the editor. Journal of Product Innovation Management 24:413

Di Benedetto CA (2007) Untitled. Journal of Product Innovation Management 24:283

Di Benedetto CA (2007) From the Editor. Journal of Product Innovation Management 24:191

Di Benedetto CA (2007) From the editor. Journal of Product Innovation Management 24:99

Di Benedetto CA (2007) From the Editor. Journal of Product In
novation Management 24:1

Dittrich K, Duysters G (2007) Networking as a means to strategy change: The case of open innovation in
mobile telephony. Journal of Product Innovation Management 24:510
521 The purpose of this article is to
how innovation networks can be used to deal with a changing technological environment. This
study combines different concepts related to research and development (R&D) collaboration strategies of
large firms and applies these concepts to R&D alliance proje
cts undertaken by Nokia Corporation in the
period 1985
2002. The research methodology is a combination of in
depth semistructured interviews and a
scale quantitative analysis of alliance agreements. For the empirical analysis a distinction is made
tween exploration and exploitation in innovation networks in terms of three different measures. As a first
measure, the difference between exploration and exploitation strategies by means of the observed
capabilities of the partners of the contracting firm
s is investigated. The second measure is related to partner
turnover. The present article argues that in exploration networks partner turnover will be higher than in
exploitation networks. As a third measure, the type of alliance contract will be taken; ex
ploration networks
will make use of flexible legal organizational structures, whereas exploitation alliances are associated with
legal structures that enable long
term collaboration. The case of Nokia has illustrated the importance of
strategic technology
networks for strategic repositioning under conditions of change. Nokia followed an
exploitation strategy in the development of the first two generations of mobile telephony and an exploration
strategy in the development of technologies for the third genera
tion. Such interfirm networks seem to offer
flexibility, speed, innovation, and the ability to adjust smoothly to changing market conditions and new
strategic opportunities. These two different strategies have led to distinctly different international inno
networks, have helped the company in becoming a world leader in the mobile phone industry, and have
enabled it to sustain that position in a radically changed technological environment. This study also
illustrates that Nokia effectively uses an open

innovation strategy in the development of new products and
services and in setting technology standards for current and future use of mobile communication
applications. This article presents one of the first longitudinal studies, which describes the use o
f innovation
networks as a means to adapt swiftly to changing market conditions and strategic change. This study
contributes to the emerging, but still inconsistent, literature on explorative and exploitative learning by
means of strategic technology netwo

Doak S, Assimakopoulos D (2007) How forensic scientists learn to investigate cases in practice. R & D
Management 37:113
122 The formation of organisational tacit knowledge has been studied in the most
part using only qualitative explanations such

as case studies including those on the workings of communities
of practice. From this perspective, tacit knowledge is submersed and consequently it is difficult to quantify.
In our community of communities of practice case study we use quantitative social

network analysis
techniques to explore the process of tacit knowledge exchange among expert knowledge workers

scientists. Conceptually, we search for more structured relational mechanisms that shape tacit knowledge
flows occurring between parti
cipant actors in communities of practice, in their day
day knowledge
intensive environments.

Du J, Love JH, Roper S (2007) The innovation decision: An economic analysis. Technovation 27:766
Studies of the determinants and effects of innovation
commonly make an assumption about the way in
which firms make the decision to innovate, but rarely test this assumption. Using a panel of Irish
manufacturing firms we test the performance of two alternative models of the innovation decision, and find
a two
stage model (the firm decides whether to innovate, then whether to perform product only, process
only or both) outperforms a one
stage, simultaneous model. We also find that external knowledge sourcing
affects the innovation decision and the type of
innovation undertaken in a way not previously recognised in
the literature.

Dutrenit G (2007) Globalization and technology. Technovation 27:640

Eriksson K, Nilsson D (2007) Determinants of the continued use of self
service technology: The case o
Internet banking. Technovation 27:159
167 This study focuses on buyers' continued use of self
technology (SST). This area is often neglected because most studies focus on buyers' adoption or acceptance
of SST. In comparison to new buyer acqui
sition, continued use is a cost
effective market strategy aimed at
retaining buyers. Based on a sample of 1831 Estonian Internet banking customers, we find that continued
use of SST is positively affected by buyers' perceived usefulness. We also find that
continued use of SST is
negatively affected by multichannel satisfaction. As our results show, two important issues are facing
developers of SSTs and sellers using SSTs: First, continued use of SST is achieved when the buyer finds the
SST useful. Second, S
STs need to be considered in the context of all channels in the buyer
seller interface
because the buyer does not separate the service offering of an SST from other channels. The benefits
associated with using SSTs will increase if these strategic issues a
re taken into account.

Ettlie JE (2007) PERSPECTIVE: Empirical generalization and the role of culture in new product
development. Journal of Product Innovation Management 24:180
183 Empirical generalization continues
to be a challenge in most applied
fields that favor publication of original results. The purpose of this study
was to report on a new product development exercise in one, controlled cultural setting, which replicates and
extends Ettlie (2002). Results from four recent graduate business cla
sses in Portugal show that the
background of students
technical versus other or mixed
is a nearly perfect predictor of the average or central
estimates the class makes tendency (median) of new product success in the exercise. Country matters little.
results have now persisted over nearly seven years, and implications are discussed concerning theory,
practice, and future research.

Ettlie JE, Elsenbach JM (2007) Modified Stage
Gate (R) regimes in new product development. Journal of
Product Innovation
Management 24:20
33 The purpose of this research was to explore the nature of the
Gate(R) process in the context of innovative projects that not only vary in new product technology
(i.e., radical versus incremental technology) but that also invol
ve significant new product development
technology (i.e., new virtual teaming hardware
software systems). Results indicate that firms modify their
formal development regimes to improve the efficiency of this process while not significantly sacrificing
ct novelty (i.e., the degree to which new technology is incorporated in the new offering). Four
hypotheses were developed and probed using 72 automotive engineering managers involved in supervision
of the new product development process. There was substant
ial evidence to creatively replicate results from
previous benchmarking studies; for example, 48.6% of respondents say their companies used a traditional
Gate(R) process, and 60% of these new products were considered to be a commercial success. About

a third of respondents said their companies are now using a modified Stage
Gate(R) process for new product
development. Auto companies that have modified their Stage
Gate lot procedures are also significantly more
likely to report (1) use of virtual teams
; (2) adoption of collaborative and virtual new product development
software supporting tools; (3) having formalized strategies in place specifically to guide the new product
development process; and (4) having adopted structured processes used to guide th
e new product
development process. It was found that the most significant difference in use of phases or gates in the new
product development process with radical new technology occurs when informal and formal phasing
processes are compared, with normal St
Gate(R) usage scoring highest for technology departures in new
products. Modified Stage
Gate(R) had a significant, indirect impact on organizational effectiveness. These
findings, taken together, suggest companies optimize trade
offs between cost and q
uality after they graduate
from more typical stage
process management to modified regimes. Implications for future research and
management of this challenging process are discussed. In general, it was found that the long
standing goal of
50% reduction in p
roduct development time without sacrificing other development goals (e.g., quality,
novelty) is finally within practical reach of many firms. Innovative firms are not just those with new
products but also those that can modify their formal development proc
ess to accelerate change.

Ettlie JE, Elsenbach JM (2007) The changing role of R&D gatekeepers. Research
Technology Management
66 Understanding connnunication flows in R&D laboratories for the last five decades has been
enhanced by illinninating
the role of'R&D gatekeepers. Simply put, for applied projects (as opposed to basic
or service R&D), the R&D gatekeeper usually the first
line supervisor in a research group
was traditionall))
the priniai
1; reservoir of ideas,for new and iinproi)ed product
s..4dd inarketing and one has the balanced
inodel qfidea sourcing. Have things changed? Dataftoin three studies conducted oi,er 15 'years on successfid
Soln'cinu of ideas.for new products and services, shoii, 7 that the profile.for the R&D gatekeeper has
volved aii,,cii;_fi
i;clepei7detice oii,fii
,,;. This role is now more broadl v
shared across several positions aboie (e.g., R&D middle management and VP qf'R&D) and below (e.g.,
engineering and R&D staffi the technicals
uper14sor, eslmciallly in S117all

and inediumsized enterprises.

Feldman LP (2007) The change function: Why some technologies take off while others crash and burn.
Journal of Product Innovation Management 24:186

Fredberg T (2007) Real options fo
r innovation management. Research
Technology Management 50:70

Fuller J, Matzler K (2007) Virtual product experience and customer participation

A chance for customer
centred, really new products. Technovation 27:378
387 This paper demonstrate
s how customers can be
virtually integrated into a company's innovation process. New interaction tools allow companies to gain
valuable input from customers via the Internet. First, we explain why too closely listening to customers may