RECENT TRENDS IN PHARMACY EDUCATION

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5 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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RECENT TRENDS IN PHARMACY
EDUCATION



Dr. Mohammad Ismail Hamed



Distinguished Professor of Clinical Pharmacy

& University Academic Advisor


Misr University for Science & Technology,

Sixth of October City, EGYPT



INTRODUCTION

I. Quotations


Pharmacists

are

involved

in

the

management

of

pharmacotherapy

in

clinical

scenes

more

extensively

than

they

did

ever
.

Changes

in

medical

environments

such

as

collapse

of

doctors'

paternalism,

the

rising

role

of

patients'

autonomy

in

the

decision

making

on

their

own

medical

therapy,

and

the

increased

accountability

of

medical

care

givers

to

patients

have

obliged

pharmacists

to

participate

in

pharmacotherapy

as

patient's

advocates
.




To

meet

these

social

needs

the

education

of

students

in

pharmaceutical

colleges

should

be

reconstructed

extensively

from

a

traditional

research
-
oriented

system

to

a

patient
-
centered

system
.

In

particular

the

education

of

applied

pharmacotherapy

is

to

be

strengthened

and

enforced
.

A

drastic

reform

of

pharmacist

education

should

be

brought

in

effect
.


INTRODUCTION, Contin.

I. Quotations
.


Pharmacists

have

extended

their

influence

on

medication

safety

from

accurate

dispensing

to

prescribing,

patient

monitoring,

and

patient

education
.

This

broader

professional

focus

benefits

us

all
.




The

involvement

of

a

pharmacists

on

rounds

in

intensive

care

and

general

medicine

units

reduces

preventable

adverse

drug

events
.

Also,

pharmacist
-
managed

anticoagulation

therapy

is

safer

than

traditional

care
.



Clinical

pharmacists

have

certainly

become

integral

members

of

the

health

care

team

and

have

expanded

their

influence

to

include

safe,

appropriate,

and

cost
-
effective

medication

use
.



The

pharmacy

academy

is

well

positioned

to

prepare

graduates

to

become

more

proactive

in

creating

a

safer

health

care

environment

for

patients
.

None

of

these

roles

requires

major

curricular

revisions
.


Morbidity & Mortality Rounds on the Web, 2006


INTRODUCTION, Contin.

II. Rising Professional Criteria



The

Center

for

the

Advancement

of

Pharmaceutical

Education

(CAPE)

recommendation

to

Implement

Changes

in

Pharmaceutical

Education

defined

3

sole

educational

outcomes,

comprising

(
1
)

Pharmaceutical

Care,

(
2
)

Systems

Management,

and

(
3
)

Public

Health
.




Pharmacy

education

is

constantly

changing

and

evolving
;

as

such,

updates

of

the

CAPE

Educational

Outcomes

are

paramount
.




It

is

questionable,

however,

whether

schools

of

pharmacy

are

prepared

to

meet

these

broad

goals

in

their

present

curricula
.


INTRODUCTION, Contin.

II. Rising Professional Criteria




Lifelong

learning

for

community

pharmacists

is

shifting

from

continuing

education

(CE)

towards

continuing

professional

development

(CPD)

in

some

countries
.




A

literature

search

and

an

Internet

search

on

the

web

sites

of

professional

pharmacy

associations

and

authorities

in

8

countries
.

showed

that

the

concept

of

CPD

has

been

implemented

primarily

in

countries

that

have

a

long

tradition

in

lifelong

learning,

such

as

United

Kingdom
.

However,

most

countries

have

opted

for

the

CE

approach,

e
.
g
.

France,

or

for

a

combination

of

CE

and

CPD,

e
.
g
.

New

Zealand
.

This

approach

combines

the

controllability

by

regulatory

organizations

that

CE

requires

with

the

advantage

of

sustained

behavior

change

seen

in

successful

CPD

programs
.



American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education

2007;


71 (3) Article 52.





INTRODUCTION, Contin.

II. Rising Professional Criteria



Pharmacists

are

required

to

collect

a

minimum

number

of

credit

points

in

a

defined

period

of

time,

usually

3

to

5

years
.

The

credit

points

are

reflection

of

the

time

spent

on

an

approved

activity,

e
.
g
.

1
-
hour

lecture

or

3
-
hour

practice

results

in

1

credit

point
.




The

term

accreditation

is

commonly

used

for

both

CE

and

CPD

programming
.

In

Germany

and

the

Netherlands,

the

term

accreditation

refers

to

approved

CE

activities

whereas

in

the

United

States

accreditation

refers

to

approved

CE

providers
.




Systems

that

are

based

on

CPD

tend

to

have

comprehensive

competency

standards,

against

which

pharmacists

have

to

compare

their

own

level

of

competence

as

an

integral

part

of

the

CPD

process
.

Shifts in the Pharmacy Profession Toward

More Patient Care


The

Pharmacy

Manpower

Project’s

2009

National

Pharmacist

Workforce

Survey

indicate

shifts

in

the

pharmacy

profession

toward

more

patient

care
.




The

pharmacy

profession

currently

has,

and

will

continue

to

build,

capacity

for

contributing

to

the

reforming

healthcare

system

to

meet

patient

care

needs

that

are

rooted

in

improving

the

effectiveness,

safety

and

value

of

medication

therapy
.




Female

practicing

pharmacists

have

increased

significantly,

comprising

46
%

of

the

workforce

in

2009
,

up

from

31
%

in

1990
.




An

aging

population

of

pharmacists

with

37
%

over

age

55

in

2009
,

compared

to

30
%

in

2004

and

only

21
%

in

2000
.


Business Services Industry,
March 01, 2010


Pharmaceutical Education & Biotechnology



Pharmaceutical

biotechnology,

pharmacogenomics,

combinatorial

chemistry,

screening

technologies,

and

bioinformatics

are

major

advances

that

give

a

new

direction

to

pharmaceutical

sciences
.




To

meet

with

this

new

dynamic

era

of

pharmaceutical

research

and

health

care

environment,

pharmaceutical

education

has

to

set

new

priorities

to

keep

pace

with

the

challenges

related

to

genomic

technologies
.




Educators

and

pharmacy

school

members

have

the

responsibility

of

deciding

how,

to

what

extent,

by

which

methods,

and/or

in

which

way

these

changes

and

new

directions

in

the

education

programs

should

be

developed
.

Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. 15, 243
-
250, 2002

Pharmacy Education in Selected Countries



In

Canada
,

the

education

of

pharmacists

is

built

upon

a

foundation

of

strong,

research
-
intensive

publicly
-
funded

universities

and

a

universal

health
-
care

system

that

balances

government

and

private

financing
.



Current

challenges

include

the

need

to

better

integrate

internationally

educated

pharmacists

within

the

domestic

workforce

and

professional

development

and

maintenance

of

competency

of

practitioners
.




Academic

pharmacy

is

currently

debating

how

best

to

manage

the

need

to

enhance

the

pharmacy

curriculum

to

meet

current

and

future

skills

needs,

and

whether

a

doctor

of

pharmacy

(Pharm

D)

degree

ought

to

become

the

standard

entry
-
to
-
practice

qualification

for

pharmacists

in

Canada
.




Am J Pharm Educ.
2008 December 15; 72(6): 128.


Pharmacy Education in Selected Countries,
Contin.


In

Japan
,

The

six
-
year

system

of

pharmaceutical

education

has

started

in

2007
.

This

new

system

is

expected

to

raise

the

level

of

pharmaceutical

care

in

the

national

medical

care

system
.

The

practical

training

for

pharmaceutical

care

that

future

pharmacists

will

have

is

an

important

safety

measure

for

pharmaceuticals

in

the

medical

care

system,

so

that

producing

qualified

pharmacists

would

be

supported

by

the

people
.





For

this

purpose

the

authorities

will

help

to

improve

the

training

system,

and

the

circumstances

where

future

pharmacists

will

be

able

to

provide

their

ideal

pharmaceutical

care
.



“Perspectives on educational reform of pharmaceutical science,

Yakugaku Zasshi 2007 127(2):227
-
30.”

Pharmacy Education in Selected Countries,
Contin.



In United Kingdom.



Challenges

for

UK

pharmacy

education

over

the

coming

years

are

the

prevention

of

easy

access

to

MPharm*

programs

by

graduates

of

other

subjects
;

the

possibility

of

a

shortage

of

employment

opportunities

for

pharmacy

graduates
;

the

potential

for

accelerated

progression

of

pharmacy

technicians

to

pharmacy

graduates

and

the

possibility

of

providing

part
-
time

courses

in

pharmacy
.

In

addition,

the

requirement

to

introduce

more

therapeutics

into

the

courses

to

cater

for

the

new

roles

of

supplementary

and

independent

prescriber

must

be

faced,

at

the

same

time

debating

the

relative

weighting

of

science

and

practice

within

the

course
.



*

“undergraduate

masters

program,”

that

permits

registration

with

the

Royal

Pharmaceutical

Society

of

Great

Britain


Pharmacy Education in Selected Countries,
Contin.


In

China
.


Pharmacy

in

China

involves

the

preparation,

standardization

and

dispensing

of

drugs
;

its

scope

includes

cultivation

of

medicinal

plants,

synthesis

of

compounds

of

medicinal

value

&

analysis

of

medicinal

agents
.

Pharmacists

are

responsible

for

the

preparation

of

different

drug

dosage

forms
.



There

are

two

streams

of

pharmacy

practice,

traditional

Chinese

medicine

and

modern

pharmacy
.

Around

50

colleges

offer

pharmacy

education,

half

of

which

provide

a

Western

medicine

approach

and

the

other

half

traditional

Chinese

medicine
.

Both

types

of

colleges

offer

a

four
-
year

curriculum

with

options

for

specialization
.




Recently,

clinical

pharmacy

services

in

China

have

been

developed
.

Curricula

with

specialization

in

clinical

pharmacy

had

begun
.

Pharmacy Curricula in a Developing Country:

Thailand


The

curricula

for

both

the

bachelor

of

science

degree

(BS

Pharm)

and

doctor

of

pharmacy

(Pharm

D)

degree

programs

included

the

minimum

content

required

by

the

8

competency

domains
.




The

dominant

content

area

in

BS

Pharm

degree

programs

was

product
-
oriented

material
.

The

content

ratio

of

patient

to

product

to

social

and

administrative

pharmacy

was

2
:
3
:
1
,

respectively
.

However,

the

content

ratio

suggested

by

the

Thai

Pharmacy

Council

was

3
:
2
:
1
,

respectively
.




The

predominant

content

area

in

the

Pharm

D

programs

was

patient
-
oriented

content
.

Social

and

administrative

pharmacy
-
oriented

content

was

low

in

both

the

BS

and

Pharm

D

curriculums
.




As

Thai

pharmacy

schools

further

revise

their

curricula,

it

may

be

useful

to

decrease

the

product
-
oriented

content

and

expand

patient
-
oriented

material
.


Am J Pharm Educ.

2008 February 15; 72 (1): 9.

Ranking of Colleges of Pharmacy in USA

Ranked in 2008

Rank

College Name

Score

1

University of California

San Francisco

4.7

2

University of North Carolina

Chapel Hill

4.4

3

University of Minnesota

4.3

4

University of Texas
--
Austin

4.2

5

Ohio State University

4.1

5

University of Kentuky

4.1

5

University of Michigan

An Arbor

4.1

5

University of Washington
--
Seattle

4.1

9

Purdue University

4.0

9

University of Arizona

4.0

List of Top 10 Pharmacy Schools in America


Ranked in 2009/2010


Purdue University
: The College of Pharmacy, Nursing and
Health Sciences.


Ohio State University
: The College of Pharmacy.


University of California
: The School of Pharmacy University
of California, San Francisco.


University of Cincinnati
: College of Pharmacy.


University of Kentucky
: College of Pharmacy.


Ferris State University
: College of Pharmacy.


University of Minnesota
-

Twin Cities
: The College of
Pharmacy.


University of North Carolina: Eshelman School of Pharmacy.



University of Tennessee
: College of Pharmacy.


University of Oklahoma
: College of Pharmacy.

Strengths of Pharmacy Curricula: The Case of

University of California


Development of Interdisciplinary Programs:


1
)

At

UCSF
,

major

changes

began

in

1970

with

a

required

4
th


year

clerkship

to

expand

the

role

of

pharmacists

as

members


of

the

clinical

care

team
.

Students

combined

required

and


elective

courses

(e
.
g
.

chemotherapy

and

clinical

oncology)
.


2
)

The

UCSF

in

2002

revamped

its

professional

curriculum

to


allow

students

emphasize

one

of

3

areas
:

Pharmaceutical


Care,

Pharmaceutical

Health

Policy

&

Management

or


Pharmaceutical

Sciences
.

It

has

also

launched

joint

degree


programs

(Pharm

D/MPH,

Pharm

D/PhD)
.


3
)

At

UCSD,

pharmacy

students

take

many

basic

science

courses


with

medical

students

developing

common

preclinical


knowledge
.

Following

a

year

of

distinct

course

and

training


for

each

profession,

pharmacy

and

medical

students

share


common

clinical

experience

in

UCSD

hospitals

and

clinics
.

Strengths of Pharmacy Curricula: The Case of

University of California, Contin


4) In 2005, UCSD launched a Pharm D/PhD program and a

Pharm D/MBA program


5) In 2009, the mission of both colleges adopted the follwing

goals:


Preparation of Future Pharmacy Faculty.


This is achieved through accredited advanced level training
including residency and fellowship programs.



Advanced
-
Level Clinical Training for Practicing Pharmacists.



Professional Preparation of Industry Leaders and Researchers.


UCSF & UCSD through their broad
-
based curricula and
advanced training achieve this goal.



The Case of

School of Pharmacy, University of Purdue


The

professional

curriculum

leading

to

the

Pharm
.

D
.

requires

four

years

of

study

and

admission

into

this

program

requires

completion

of

the

Pre
-
Pharmacy

requirements
.




A

new

Pharm
.

D
.

curriculum

and

Pre
-
Pharmacy

curriculum

were

approved

in

2009

for

students

entering

the

professional

program

beginning

in

2012
.

The

entire

curriculum

is

highly

structured,

allowing

time

for

only

a

modest

amount

of

elective

study
.



Also,

to

complete

the

professional

program

in

four

years,

students

must

consistently

be

successful

in

their

completion

of

all

of

the

required

courses

in

each

year

of

the

program
.




In

addition

to

the

required

practical

experience,

students

have

the

option

of

gaining

experience

in

research
.

Several

research

fellowships

for

undergraduate

research

are

available

on

a

competitive

basis
.


Vision & Mission of Selected

Colleges of Pharmacy


University of Arizona:


Vision
: To be the Preeminent college of pharmacy in education,
research and service.


Mission
: To promote the health and well
-
being of our citizens.



University of Minnesota:


Vision
: Through our program of innovative teaching, research and
scholarship, we will achieve the distinction of being a premier
college of pharmacy.


Mission
: To educate professionals who will address the
pharmacy
-
related needs of society.

Vision & Mission of Selected

Colleges of Pharmacy


University

of

Michigan
:


Vision
:

To

be

the

most

respected

academic

clinical

pharmacy

as

measured

by

the

quality

of

our

graduates,

professional

and

clinical

service

and

scholarly

contributions
.


Mission
:

To

create,

disseminate

and

apply

knowledge

regarding

drug

therapy
.



University

of

Illinois
:


Vision
:

The

College

of

Pharmacy

enhances

individual

and

community

health

through

preeminent

pharmaceutical

education,

research,

service

and

entrepreneurial

activity
.


Mission
:

The

College

of

Pharmacy

provides

leadership

in

education,

research,

public

service,

entrepreneurship

and

business

activities,

and

patient

care

to

guide

and

serve

the

pharmaceutical

care

needs

of

the

society
.




Vision & Mission of Selected

Colleges of Pharmacy


University of Southern California



Vision
:

In

keeping

with

a

long

tradition

of

innovation

in

pharmaceutical

education

and

research,

the

USC

School

of

Pharmacy

shall

be

the

global

leader

in

the

development

of

new

paradigms

for

pharmacy

practice
;

pharmaceutical

and

interdisciplinary

health

care

education

and

research

that

emphasizes

pharmacotherapeutic

planning,

management

and

outcome

assessment
;

as

well

as

the

creation

of

new

therapeutic

agents,

targeting

strategies

and

monitoring

modalities
.




Mission
:

By

creating

a

curriculum

that

balances

the

basic

knowledge

components

of

pharmacy
-
biomedical

sciences,

pharmaceutical

sciences,

social

and

administrative

science,

clinical

sciences

and

experiential

training,

the

School

provides

students

with

a

multidisciplinary

educational

experience

which

prepares

them

for

contemporary

pharmacy

practice
.


Vision & Mission of Selected

Colleges of Pharmacy


University of Purdue:


Vision
:

Providing

education

that

enables

students

to

acquire

in
-
depth

expertise

in

the

pharmaceutical,

social/economic

management,

and

related

sciences,

Serving

the

community

leading

to

improvements

in

healthcare

delivery

and

enhance

health

outcomes,

Fostering

innovation

in

research

through

interdisciplinary

collaboration

and

Contributing

to

the

profession

of

pharmacy

by

participation

in

leadership

roles

in

pharmaceutical

organizations

and

community

programs




Mission
:

Is

to

demonstrate

excellence

through

performance

in

the

areas

of

discovery,

learning,

and

engagement
.

The

experience

and

knowledge

of

the

faculty

provide

students

with

excellent

didactic

and

experiential

training

necessary

to

become

well
-
rounded

practitioners
.


DETAILED MISSION, UCSF


UCSF

is

dedicated

to

improving

human

health

worldwide

and

advancing

scientific

discovery

.

The

school
:




Conducts

exceptional

pharmaceutical

research
,

including

basic

science,

translational

science,

clinical

science,

health

policy,

and

health

services

research
.



Delivers

world
-
class

education

to

our

Doctor

of

Pharmacy,

graduate,

postdoctoral

students

and

others
.



-

We

educate

Pharm

D

students

to

be

leaders

and

effective

team

members

in

health

care

and

to

be

lifelong

experts

in

the

safe

and

effective

use

of

medicines
.



-

We

educate

graduate

students

to

be

outstanding

researchers

across

the

spectrum

from

the

basic

to

the

health

sciences
.



Develops

and

delivers

outstanding

and

innovative

pharmaceutical

care
.




Serves

the

community

by

sharing

our

expertise

with

the

public,

industry

leaders,

and

policy

makers
.


The Case of MUST College of Pharmacy


MUST Pharm D Program


Fourth Level




First Semester
:



BIOC

421

Clinical Biochemistry


3 (2+1)


PHLG

411

Pharmacology II


4 (3+1)


PHCT

411

Sterile Preparations


3 (2+1)


PHCL

431

Pharmacotherapy I


3 (2+1)


MICR

421

Public Health & Hygiene

3 (2+1)


PHCM

431

Pharmaceutical & Medicinal





Chemistry II



2 (2+0)


BUAD

411

Pharmacy Administration

2 (2+0)




Total




20


MUST Pharm D Program

Fourth Level




Second Semester
:



PHID

412

Industrial Pharmacy I


3 (2+1)


PHCL

432

Pharmacotherapy II


2 (2+0)


PHCL

412

Clinical Pharmacy Practice

4 (3+1)


PHCT

432

Design & Formulation of



Dosage Forms I



3 (2+1)


PHCG

432

Biotechnology in Drug





Production I



3 (3+0)


ELEC


Elective




3


PHCL

424

Pharmacy Practice II


3 (0+3)




Total




21

MUST Pharm D Program

Fifth Level




First Semester:



PHLG

531

Toxicology & Forensic





Chemistry



4 (3+1)


PHCL

531

Pharmacotherapy III


3 (2+1)


PHID

511


Industrial Pharmacy II



4 (3+1)


PHCT

541

Community Pharmacy &



Pharmacy Practice


3 (2+1)


PHCL

521

Clinical Laboratory & Physical






Assessment Techniques


3 (2+1)


ELEC


Elective




2


PHCL

523

Clinical Pharmacokinetics

2 (1+1)




Total




21


MUST Pharm D Program


Fifth Level




Second Semester:



PHID

521

Pharmaceutical Quality Control

3 (2+1)


MARK

512

Pharmaceutical Marketing

2 (2+0)


PHCL

532

Drug
-
Poison Information &



Interactions



4 (3+1)


PHCL

534

Pharmacotherapy IV



3 (2+1)


PHCT

542

Hospital Pharmacy


3 (2+1)


ELEC


Elective




2


ELEC


Elective




2




Total




19


MUST Pharm D Program

Fifth Level




Summer Semester:



PHCT

545

Community Pharmacy Practice





Rotation




5 (0+5)


PHCL

534

Drug & Poison Information





Rotation




3 (0+3)





Total




8


MUST Pharm D Program

Sixth Level




First Semester:



PHCL

621

Ambulatory Care Rotation

5


PHCL

623

Critical Care Rotation


5


PHCT

645*

Community Pharmacy Practice



Rotation



5


PHCL

661

Analysis of Current Medical





Literature



1


PHCT

691

Seminar on Integrated





Therapeutics I



1


ELEC


Elective




2





Total




19

*A
n

elective

rotation

and

can

be

replaced

by

one

of

the

elective

rotations

listed

in

the

program
.



MUST Pharm D Program

Sixth Level




Second Semester:



PHCL

632

Paediatric Care Rotation

5


PHCL

652

Oncology Care Rotation


5


PHCT

642

Hospital Pharmacy Practice



Rotation



5


PHCL

662

Pharmacotherapeutics





Research



2


PHCT

691

Seminar on Integrated





Therapeutics II



1


ELEC


Elective




2





Total




20



N.B. Each rotation must be completed with a grade C or better.

MUST Non
-
Traditional

Pharm D Program

First Professional Year




First Semester:



PATH

321

Pathophysiology



2 (2+0)


PHCL

431

Pharmacotherapy I


3 (2+1)


PHCL

432

Pharmacotherapy II


2 (2+0)


BIOC

324

Clinical Nutrition



3 (2+1)


PHCT

541

Community Pharmacy &



Pharmacy Practice


3 (2+1)


PHCL

521

Clinical Laboratory & Physical






Assessment Techniques


3 (2+1)


PHCL

523

Clinical Pharmacokinetics

2 (1+1)


ELEC


Elective




2





Total




20


MUST Non
-
Traditional

Pharm D Program

First Professional Year




Second Semester:



PATH

312

Pathology



2 (2+0)


PHCL

531

Pharmacotherapy III


3 (2+1)


PHCL

532

Pharmacotherapy IV


3 (2+1)


PHCL

532

Drug
-
Poison Information &



Interactions



4 (3+1)


PHCL

542

Hospital Pharmacy


3 (2+1)


ELEC


Elective




2


ELEC


Elective




2





Total




19



MUST Non
-
Traditional

Pharm D Program

First Professional Year




Summer Semester
:



PHCT

545

Community Pharmacy Practice





Rotation




5 (0+5)


PHCL

534

Drug & Poison Information





Rotation




3 (0+3)





Total




8


MUST Non
-
Traditional

Pharm D Program

Second Professional Year



Same as the Traditional Pharm D Program



The Experiential Program

Required
Contents

Communi
ty

Ambulatory
Care

Critical
Care

Pediatrics

Oncology

Hospital
Pharmacy

Formal Case
Presentation

X

X

X

Special
Project for
Presentation

X

X

Clinical
Interventions

X (10)

X (10)


X (10)


Patient
Councelling

X (20)


X (10)


X (10)


X (20)


Patient
Medication
History

X (20)


X (10)


X (10)


X (20)


The number in parentheses is the minimum requirements for rotations.

Example for Student Learning Outcome


Evaluation

Module Rotation: Ambulatory Care



Students will be evaluated based on the following activities:

1.

Formal presentations (1) or Journal Club (1).

2.

Clinical Interventions (10).

3.

Patient Counseling Sessions (10).

4.

Patient Medication History (10).

5.

Attendance.







Thank you







Prof. M. Ismail