1 Taxonomy Flashcards.docx - Dr Magrann

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1
Taxonomy


1


1.

Who was LINNAEUS?

Established the system of scientific nomenclature:
Genus and species.

2.

Name all of the organisms in Kingdom Monera:




BACTERIA



ARCHAEBACTERIA



VIRUSES

3.

What are the characteristics of Bacteria?





Prokaryotes (no nucleus)



Reproduce by binary fission



Peptidoglycan cell walls



Uses organic (heterotrophs) and inorganic
chemicals (Chemoheterotrophs) or
photosynthesis (autotrophs) for energy



Shapes are rod, coccus, spiral

4.

What are archaebacteria?

The oldest bacteria.

5.

What are 3 characteristics of
ARCHAEBACTERIA?

PROKARYOTIC (like bacteria)

Reproduce by binary fission

(like bacteria)

L
ACK

peptidoglycan

(unlike bacteria)

They are extremophiles (Live in extreme
environments; unlike bacteria)

6.

What
are the three types of extremophiles,
and what conditions do they thrive in?

Methanogens (like methane gas)

Extreme Halophiles (like salt)

Extreme Thermophiles (like extreme heat or cold)

7.

What is the definition of normal microbiota?

Bacteria that normally

live on our bodies but do not
cause disease.

8.

Three main types of bacteria

Gram Positive

Gram Negative

Acid Fast

9.

Four main shapes of bacteria

Cocci (ball shaped)

Vibrio (comma shaped)

Bacillus (rod shaped)

Spirochetes (spiral shaped)

10.

Types of Cocci
arrangements

staphylococcus (grape like clusters)


Staphylococcus
aureus

diplococcus (pairs of two)

tetrads (groups of four)

streptococcus (bead necklace)
-
Streptococcus
pyogen
e
s (strep throat)

11.

Types of
Bacillus

arrangements

Singles

Chains:
streptobacillus



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Taxonomy


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12.

What are the 4 characteristics of a VIRUS?



Acellular



Consist of DNA or RNA core



Core is surrounded by a protein coat



Coat may be enclosed in a lipid envelope



Obligate intracellular parasites; live at the
expense of host



Smallest of all
microbes



Replicates in living host cell



Antibiotics do not work; requires antiviral
agents

13.

Where do viruses replicate?


Viruses are replicated only when they are in a living
host cell. Therefore, they are obligate intracellular
parasites.

14.

What do
these
have in common
:

HIV, the
Common cold, and Hepatitis A?

They are all viruses

15.

Do antibiotics work on viruses?

No

16.

How do antibiotics work?

By interfering with cell wall synthesis or metabolism.
Viruses do not have these features

17.

What is an antiviral
medicine used for Herpes
Simplex 1? Does it cure the disease?

Acyclovir treats but does not cure the virus

18.

What can vaccines do that antibiotics cannot?

Vaccines can prevent some viral infections

19.

What are 3 examples of Protista?

ALGAE

PROTOZOA

FUNGI

20.

What are 3 characteristics of ALGAE?





EUKARYOTES



Cellulose cell walls (like plants)



Use photosynthesis for Energy (autotrophs,
like plants)

21.

How do algae differ from plants?



They lack roots, stems, and leaves, and may
be unicellular.

22.

What do Algae use
for Energy?

They use photosynthesis

23.

What do Algae produce?

They produce molecular oxygen and organic
compounds.

24.

What type of cell walls are Algae composed
of?

Cellulose cell walls

25.

What are characteristics of
Protozoa
?

-


Eukaryotes

-


I
ngest organic
chemicals

(heterotrophs)

-


Are usually
motile (can move)
either
by
pseudopods (false foot), cilia (hairs) or flagella
(tail).

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Taxonomy


3


26.

Name two diseases caused by protozoa

M
alaria (carried by mosquitoes)

Amoebiasis

(food and water poisoning).

27.

What are the
characteristics of fungi?

Eukaryotes

Cell walls made of chitin

Heterotrophic (cannot make own food; have to eat
something)

Use only
organic chemicals for energy

28.

Are fungi plants? Why or why not?

No, because they are not autotrophs (don’t use
photosynthesis)

29.

What are the t
hree
types of fungi?

Molds, mushrooms, and yeasts

30.

What is the difference between molds and
yeasts?

Molds are multicellular; Yeasts are unicellular

31.

What are two types of yeasts we will cover?

Saccharomyces (used to make
beer)

Candida albicans (vaginal yeast infections)

32.

What are the characteristics of plants?

Photosynthetic

(use sunlight to make food)

Autotrophs (make their own food)

Have roots, stems, and leaves

33.

Do plants cause microbiological diseases?

No

34.


What are the two types of animals we will
cover?

Helminthes (flat worms and tapeworms)

Nematodes (roundworms)


35.

What are characteristics of HELMINTHES AND
NEMATODES ? (parasitic worms)





Eukaryotes



Helminthes: parasitic flat worms and
tapeworms



Nematodes:

parasitic roundworms



Endoparasites: animals that live insi
de other
animals through fecal c
ontamination

36.

What are the Taxonomic Ranks?


Domain


Kingdom


Phylum


Class


Order


Family


Genus


Species

37.

What is a mnemonic to remember the
order of
the
Taxonomic Ranks?

Dashing

King Phillip

Came

Over

From

Greece
Singing

38.

Define BIOTECHNOLOGY


The manipulation of biological organisms to make
products that benefit human beings.


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Taxonomy


4


39.

Give 4 examples of uses for biotechnology

Food production

Waste disposal

Mining

Medicine

40.

What is Microbial ecology?


the study of the relationship between
microorganisms and their environment

41.

What is Microbial genetics?


The study of the mechanisms by which
microorganisms inherit traits.

42.

What is Microbial physiology?

the study of the metabolism of microbes

43.

What is Molecular biology?

the science of dealing

with DNA and protein synthesis
of living organisms.

44.

What is Genomics?

the study of an organism

s genes; used to classify a
microorganisms.

45.

What is Bioremediation?


Any process that uses microorganisms to return the
environment altered by contaminants to its original
condition. It is when bacteria are used to clean up
pollutants such as oil spills and industrial toxic
wastes, mercury,
degrade organic matter in sewage.


46.

What is pharmacology?

Production of pure chemicals as pharmaceuticals

47.

What are some examples of pharmaceuticals
derived from pure chemicals?

Insulin, growth factors, Antibodies

48.

What are probiotics?

Live microorganisms which when administered in
adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the
host

49.

How are probiotics commonly used?

They are bacteria added to milk, yogurt, and other
foods.

50.

What is the most common group of microbes
used for probiotics?

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB)

51.

What provides the

characteristic sour taste of
fermented dairy foods?

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB)

52.

What acts as a preservative, by lowering the
pH and creating fewer opportunities for
spoilage organisms to grow?

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB)

53.

What is Genetic engineering?


Making b
acteria and fungi produce a variety of
proteins including vaccines and enzymes.

54.


Describe how Bacterial Genetic Engineering
works within BIOTECHNOLOGY




Restriction enzymes cut the DNA strands of
any organism at precise points.



This is how the
sequence of a person’s DNA
can be determined.



A specific gene can be removed from one
1
Taxonomy


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bacterium and inserted it into another using
restriction enzymes.

55.

What
are t
ransgenic bacteria?


bacteria to which a gene from a different species has
been transferred

56.

What is an example of use for transgenic
Bacteria?

Inserting a gene in
to E coli bacteria, t
o make it
produce insulin for us

57.

What is Recombinant DNA?

DNA which is
manipulated and inserted into an
organism to give it traits we want.

58.

What is the
function o
f
E.coli in our intestines?

helping to digest food that we cannot digest.

59.

What do our colon bacteria do for us? How
does this affect the body?

Microbes produce folic acid, biotin, and vitamin K,
substances we need to survive but cannot make
ourselves.
Useful microbes compete for nutrients in
our body, keeping out harmful bacteria.

60.

What leads to evolution of bacteria

Mutation leads to evolution of bacteria

61.

What happens to some bacteria that are
exposed to insufficient doses of antibiotics, or
for a
duration that is not long enough?

Antibiotic use causes resistance and evolution of
bacteria

62.

How does travel affect the body in terms of
microbes?

Travel exposes us to microbes we are not used to

63.

How does deforestation (removal of trees,
especially in
the tropics, Africa, Central
America) affect the ecosystem and microbes?

Deforestation destroys the ecosystem and disturbs
natural balance of microbes

64.

What is a Nosocomial disease and how is it
acquired?

Acquired in hospitals; an infection that develops
d
uring the course of a hospital stay and was not
present at the time the patient was admitted.

65.

Define Neonate?

Newborn

66.

What does it mean to be
Immunocompromised?

Immune system is not working properly, so person is
vulnerable to disease caused by normal
microbiota

67.

What do bacteria recycle?

Carbon, Nutrients, Sulfates & Phosphates

68.

What is a natural alternative for pesticides?

Bacteria

69.

What are the benefits of using bacteria in
place of pesticides?

Environmentally friendly, Little or no effect on
humans,

wildlife, pollinators and most other
beneficial insects