TIA Prime PSO with ETSI inputs

workablejeansΚινητά – Ασύρματες Τεχνολογίες

21 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

40 εμφανίσεις

21/11/2013

Ad
-
Hoc Networking


TIA Prime PSO with ETSI inputs

1

GSC
-
9, Seoul

SOURCE:

TIA

TITLE:

Prime PSO: Ad
-
Hoc Networking

AGENDA ITEM:

GRSC Item 5.3

CONTACT:

David Thompson,
dthompson@tiaonline.org
, +1.703.907.7749/7727 (Fax)

GSC9/GRSC_026

21/11/2013

Overview of Ad Hoc Networks

GSC
-
9, Seoul

Initial Architectures

-

Low power sensors networks


“surveillance” web


-

small, relatively static, embedded ad hoc networks


`“bluetooth
-
type” networks


-

Small
-
to
-
medium sized, mobile ad hoc networks


“802.11
-
style”

GSC
-
9, Seoul

Terminlology

Mobile Ad Hoc Networking =


= Mobile, Multi
-
hop, Wireless Networking


= Mobile Mesh Networking


= Mobile Packet Networking

GSC
-
9, Seoul

Hybrid Communication Networks

No fixed infrastructure Fixed/static infrastructure

MANET

High
-
speed

backbone

network

Satellite overlay

GSC
-
9, Seoul

Properties of Ad Hoc Networks


Allows devices to establish communication, anytime and
anywhere without the aid of a central infrastructure.


Autonomous, self
-
organizing terminals


Unknown number of terminals, may vary


Topology unknown in advance, may vary


Distributed routing


Every terminal is a router


Information needed for routing is learned adaptively


Distributed network control


Admission, security


Flow control


Quality of service

MOBILITY

Mobile Ad Hoc
Networks
(MANETs)

Fixed Ad Hoc
Networks
(
e.g
., “Mesh”)

GSC
-
9, Seoul

Mesh Networks


Fixed or low
-
mobility wireless ad hoc networks


Emphasis on self
-
configuration in a variety of situations, including failure
of components


Emphasis on adaptive, distributed network management

IEEE 802.11 ESS Mesh

802.11 BSS
(Basic service set)

802.11 ESS

(Extended service set)

Example:

Proposed extension to
IEEE 802.11 to specify
means for a wireless ad
hoc formation of a
backbone network of
access points (APs) to
form an ESS

GSC
-
9, Seoul

Mobile Ad Hoc Networks


High mobility


Communication over


wireless

radio links


Emphasis on rapid deployment of

autonomous
mobile users


Decentralized structure


Dynamic topology


Stand
-
alone or connected to larger
network via gateway


Nodes in network can serve as
routers and hosts


Can forward packets on behalf
of other nodes and run user
apps.


Contends with effects of radio
communication interference or
congestion


Applicable to PPDR, military,
commercial enterprise, etc.


i.e
., MANETs

GSC
-
9, Seoul

Smart Sensor Ad Hoc Networks


Sensors spread across a
geographical area


Large number of (mostly
stationary) sensors


Low energy use


Network self
-
organization


Collaborative signal processing


Querying ability


Each sensor has wireless
communication capability and
sufficient intelligence for signal
processing and networking of the
data


Node classifications: Individually
addressable, and whether the data
in the network is aggregated


Military, environmental, traffic,
surveillance


Can assist in the national efforts to
increase alertness to potential
terrorist threats.

GSC
-
9, Seoul

Network Architecture of

Wireless Ad Hoc Networks


Peer
-
to
-
peer: flat architecture, though may organize into “clusters”
for network management purposes


Adaptable to varying topology and traffic conditions


Robust: Degrades gracefully in face of node / link failures and local
congestion


Efficient (bandwidth, power consumption, user capacity) through
multihop communications & spatial reuse


Possibility of QoS provision


Scalable



GSC
-
9, Seoul

Mobile Ad Hoc Networking (MANET)

-
Dynamic topologies


-
Bandwidth
-
constrained


-
Asymmetric links with variable capacity


-
Energy constrained


-
Multiple technologies can be used simultaneously


GSC
-
9, Seoul

MANET Routing Algorithm Criteria


Dynamic

routing algorithms: Must adapt to


Entering/departing nodes


Changes in link quality and terrain


Traffic patterns and interference


Rate of topological change


Fast run time compared to rate of topology change


Low overhead and storage requirements


High throughput and low packet delay time


Preserve network requirements (
e.g
., security)


Efficient use of power

GSC
-
9, Seoul

MANET Routing Protocols

(Present or past IETF drafts, some inactive)


Dynamic Source Routing (DSR)


Ad Hoc On
-
Demand Distance Vector (AODV)


Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR)


Topology Broadcast based on Reverse
-
Path Forwarding (TBRPF)


Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP)


Temporally
-
Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA)


Landmark Routing Protocol (LANMAR) for Large Scale Ad Hoc
Networks


Fisheye State Routing Protocol (FSR) for Ad Hoc Networks

GSC
-
9, Seoul

IETF MANET standardization


MANET
-

established in 1997 chartered working group within
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)


Focussed on studying routing specification with the goal of
supporting network scaling up to hundreds of routers


* Unicast routing protocol


* Multicast routing protocol


Work on routing for large and small scale networks


Work relies on the existing IETF standards such as mobile
-
IP
and IP addressing


For large
-
scale MANET the lack of interest has put this work in
question


Flooding: work on requirements had started


GSC
-
9, Seoul

Comment on IETF MANET work


Early approval constraints due to the accumulation of variant
ad hoc routing protocols and the need to identify a “killer
application.”


Research now assigned to IRTF (research component of
IETF), and the IETF group is working toward implementable
unicast and multicast protocols in the near term.

GSC
-
9, Seoul

Ad Hoc Routing Protocol Example 1:

the DSR Protocol


Data

packets

have

source

routes

stored

in

their

headers
.

Each

node

on

the

path

transmits

the

packet

to

the

next

hop

identified

in

the

source

route
.


Each

node

maintains

a

Route

Cache

to

store

the

source

routes

it

has

learned
.

When

a

node

needs

to

send

a

data

packet,

it

first

checks

its

route

cache

for

a

route

to

the

destination
.

If

no

route

is

found,

it

attempts

to

find

one

using

the

route

discovery

mechanism
.



A

monitoring

mechanism,

called

route

maintenance
,

is

used

in

each

operation

along

a

route
.

T h i s

me c h a n i s m

c h e c k s

the

validity

of

each

route

used
.

GSC
-
9, Seoul

Ad Hoc Routing Protocol Example 2:

the AODV Routing Protocol


Each node maintains a table of hop distances and next
-
nodes for
different destinations.


Routes are built on demand using a route request (RREQ)/ route
reply (RREP) query cycle.


Once the source stops sending data packets, the links will time out
and eventually be deleted from the intermediate node routing
tables.


If a link breaks while the route is active, the node upstream of the
break propagates a route error (RERR) message to the source
node to inform it of the now unreachable destination(s).

GSC
-
9, Seoul

Example NIST/WCTG MANET Work

Analysis:


Development of network performance measures, standard evaluation
scenarios, analysis of multihop network properties and performance

Simulation:


OPNET simulation/evaluation of multihop routing protocols, “cost
-
adaptive mechanisms” for choosing paths

Embedded Implementation:


Development of Linux kernel implementation of AODV


Development and testing of communication and localization system
prototype based on ad hoc networking


URL:
http://w3.antd.nist.gov/wctg/manet/


GSC
-
9, Seoul

NIST Distributed Testbed for First Responders


Hardware:


Compaq iPAQs running Linux, dual
PCMCIA card backpack with battery,
802.11b cards, full
-
duplex audio.


Capabilities:


Multihop packetized voice: broadcast,
multicast, unicast; group IDs, etc.
Packets include terminal sensor data.


Indoor localization: 1 to 3 m using
signal strengths; display of terminal
locations.


External communication: Interface to
external networks using Session
Initiation Protocol.


GSC
-
9, Seoul

Emerging Applications of Ad Hoc Networking


Mesh applications may be becoming popular alternatives to building new
wired infrastructure


Commercial/personal ad hoc networking capabilities


Including Peer
-
to
-
peer


Emerging sensor networks


Ad hoc principles are proposed to enable multihop extensions of
WLAN/RLAN structures


Complete solutions are needed before the special features of ad hoc
networking may be considered advantageous


i.e
., network management, distributed database, VoIP, capacity for multimedia,
etc.

these solutions are emerging as different types of wireless systems
converge


IEEE, ITU
-
R and other standards bodies have existing and initiated
evolutions to existing standards that may be beneficial to ad hoc
networking applications (including security, RLAN, etc.)


Other standards activity:


Project MESA (part of proposed PPDR capabilities)

GSC
-
9, Seoul

Ad Hoc Network Applicability



Scale



Small scale Large scale


Network type

(few nodes) (many nodes)



Commercial home/office personal mobile cellular like


i
ndustrial local


networks


Government specific Public Safety Large
-
scale military


network

Community/urban “covert” networks local communications

networks

GSC
-
9, Seoul

Ad Hoc Networking


Lack of specific network layer standards for Ad Hoc
networking.


Note the term "ad hoc" can also be used in a more general
sense, applying to networking modes involving Bluetooth
-
like
abilities and other WPANs as well as use of 802.11 as the
radio protocol.


Need for GSC/GRSC Resolution?


Clarify and focus subject


GSC
-
9, Seoul

Open issues

A

optimisation network layer and radio layers for different systems
(incl. 802.11, HiperLAN)


B

QoS support


C

secuirity


D

mobility



B, C, D issues could be orthogonal, joint optimization is very
difficult (system design choice)



tradeoff between centralized and distributed algorithms for
B,C,D

GSC
-
9, Seoul

Relevant ETSI activities



MESA Project
-

ad hoc network on future Public Safety
communications



BRAN
-

HiperLAN
-
2, other



3GPP
-

UTRA TDD



Standardization challenges =>



There is need for standard
-
based approach at the network
layer.

GSC
-
9, Seoul

Ad Hoc Networking

Thank You!