Course: Broadband Media Communications Systems Lecture 1 ...

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Autumn 2013

Budapest


Course: Broadband Media Communications
Systems


L
ECTURE

1

I
NTRODUCTION

Csaba A. Szabó

Budapest University of Technology and Economics

Department of Networked Systems and Services

Contents of this lecture


Objective of the course


Short history of communications systems designed or used
for multimedia delivery


Structure of the course


Teaching/learning methodology, evaluation

BMCS
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Lecture 1

2

© Dept. of Networked Systems and Services,
Budapest Univ. of Technology and Economics

Comments on the course title


Broadband?


It was originally used to refer to “quality” media comm. (i.e.
broadcasting quality, broadcasting systems) as opposed to then
much lower quality Internet
-
based multimedia. Now the Internet is
usually “broadband” too thus the attribute is not really necessary


Media?


Media
vs

multimedia (also “multimedia content”): we use them as
synonyms. None of them is perfect: media has a related but
different meaning (mass media), and in multimedia the “multi” prefix
is unnecessary, it is nowadays very rare that only one media (i.e.
one kind of content, e.g. voice) is used


What would be a better term?


Networked media/multimedia


(
Multi)media

communications




BMCS
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Lecture 1

3

© Dept. of Networked Systems and Services,
Budapest Univ. of Technology and Economics

Focus of the course


OK, title is one thing, what we are going to deal with?


Media or multimedia
communications systems and services


Focusing on
transmission/delivery of multimedia over all kinds
of electronic communication means
(e.g. wireless, cable,…)


Assuming that the media (content) has been


created/produced


properly processed (A/D converted, compressed, packaged etc.)


thus we do not deal with the media creation/production and
processing within this course

(however, we will take into account
the properties and requirements of different coding methods and
systems)


Assuming that the user possesses the suitable/preferred
device(s
)
for consuming the multimedia


thus we do not deal with multimedia presentation technologies
(however, we will take into account the capabilities/limitations of the
user devices)

BMCS
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Lecture 1

4

© Dept. of Networked Systems and Services,
Budapest Univ. of Technology and Economics

Objective of the course


Students who have successfully finished this module


will understand the different media distribution systems and
will be capable of analyzing their pros and cons and their
roles in multimedia delivery and consumption,


will be familiar with the trends in multimedia consumption
and delivery,


will be capable of designing multimedia communications
applications and services.

BMCS
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Lecture 1

5

© Dept. of Networked Systems and Services,
Budapest Univ. of Technology and Economics

S
HORT

HISTORY

OF

MULTIMEDIA

COMMUNICATIONS

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Lecture 1

6

© Dept. of Networked Systems and Services,
Budapest Univ. of Technology and Economics

Telephony: the beginning…


As usual with major inventions, several people contributed to the
birth of the telephone.


The invention of telephone commonly attributed to
Alexander
Graham Bell
who first patented it in the USA in 1876, ”an
apparatus for transmitting vocal or other sounds telegraphically”.
Elisha Grey
(also in the USA) designed his telephone the same
year and it is unclear who was the first.


Tivadar

Puskás

invented the telephone exchange. The first
exchange was built based on his idea by Bell Telephone Co in
Boston in 1877. In 1887 he introduced the multiplex switchboard,
another important development.


Tivadar

Puskás
’ next important invention was the

Telefonhírmondó



telephone news service


which started in
Budapest in 1893 and can be considered the
first multimedia
delivery system…

BMCS
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Lecture 1

7

© Dept. of Networked Systems and Services,
Budapest Univ. of Technology and Economics

Wireless communications and radio
broadcasting (1)


Scientists whose research results made the invention
of radio transmission possible:


1867
-

Maxwell
predicts existence of EM waves


1887
-

Hertz
proves existence of EM waves; first spark
transmitter generates a spark in a receiver several meters
away


1890
-

Branly

develops “
coherer”
for detecting radio waves



First demonstrations of wireless transmission


1896
-

Guglielmo

Marconi
demonstrates wireless telegraph
to English telegraph office


1898


Nikola Tesla
demonstrates a radio controlled boat


1897


Alexander Popov
demonstrates transmission of
radio waves between different campus buildings in St.
Petersburg


BMCS
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Lecture 1

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© Dept. of Networked Systems and Services,
Budapest Univ. of Technology and Economics

Wireless communications and radio
broadcasting (2)


Who invented the “radio”?


All of the above


Common opinion: Marconi


Marconi patented his inventions, Popov did not (Tesla did some,
and there was a long “patent war” between him and Marconi)


Marconi received a Nobel Prize in 1909


Marconi put radio into commercial use


Transoceanic Communication


1901
-

Marconi successfully transmits radio signal across the
Atlantic Ocean from Cornwall to Newfoundland


1902
-

First bidirectional communication across Atlantic


Voice over Radio


1914
-

First voice over radio transmission


1920s
-

Mobile receivers installed in police cars in Detroit


1935
-

Frequency modulation (FM) demonstrated by Armstrong


1940s


Penetration of FM radio

BMCS
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Lecture 1

9

© Dept. of Networked Systems and Services,
Budapest Univ. of Technology and Economics

Mobile telephony, main milestones


1946
-

First interconnection of mobile users to public
switched telephone network (PSTN)


1960s
-

Improved Mobile Telephone Service (IMTS)
introduced in the USA; supports full
-
duplex


1976
-

Bell Mobile Phone has 543 pay customers using 12
channels in the New York City area; waiting list is 3700
people; service is poor due to blocking


1979
-

NTT/Japan deploys first cellular communication
system


1989
-

Groupe

Spècial

Mobile defines European digital
cellular standard


GSM
-

deployed in US in 1994


2000s


3
rd
, 4
th

generation cellular system standards,
Bluetooth, Wi
-
Fi



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Lecture 1

10

© Dept. of Networked Systems and Services,
Budapest Univ. of Technology and Economics

Analog b/w television


Systems based on mechanical picture scanning


Beginning:
Nipkow

scanning disk in 1884


1925, London: the first demonstration of a working
tv

system by
John Baird


Systems based on electronic transmitting tubes


Farnsworth “image dissector” (1927
-
1928)


Zworykin’s experiments (starting from 1923)


Kálmán

Tihanyi

impovement

by the charge storage principle (1924),
incorporated in RCA’s “iconoscope” in 1931.



Emitron
”, “super
-
emitron
” by Isaac Schoenberg in Britain (1932
-
1934)


Commercial transmitting tubes and broadcasting systems


“Super
-
iconoscope” by Zworykin in Germany (1934)


First public
tv

broadcasting in 1936 (Germany, Olympic games)


525
-
line
tv

system implemented in the USA (1941)


625
-
line
tv

standard in the Soviet Union (1946), then it became the
European (CCIR) standard


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Lecture 1

11

© Dept. of Networked Systems and Services,
Budapest Univ. of Technology and Economics

Analog
colour

television


First
colour

tv

demonstration using a mechanical system:
John Bird (1928), first broadcast (1938)


Many electronic systems were proposed.


A main requirement became evident: compatibility with b/w
systems.


NTSC in the USA (1953)


SECAM in France (patented in 1946, first broadcasting in
1967)


PAL in West Germany (1953), first broadcasts in 1967 in
the UK and in Germany


European countries adopted PAL or SECAM based on
technical and political decisions (e.g. Eastern block
countries choose SECAM)

BMCS
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Lecture 1

12

© Dept. of Networked Systems and Services,
Budapest Univ. of Technology and Economics

Digital television broadcasting


Advantages of digital as opposed to analog
tv
:


For subscribers


For broadcasters



DVB (Europe)


ATSC (USA)



Digital
tv

by satellite then cable and terrestrial (DVB
-
S/C/T)


DVB 2
nd

generation

BMCS
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Lecture 1

13

© Dept. of Networked Systems and Services,
Budapest Univ. of Technology and Economics

The Internet

G
REAT

MEN

AND

THEIR

IDEAS


J.C.R.
Licklider

-


Man
-
Computer Symbiosis

, 1960,

The
Computer as a Communication Device
”, 1968


Paul
Baran
-

the principle of the decentralized network


Leonard
Kleinrock



the idea of packet switching (1961)


The birth of ARPANET

(1969)


TCP (1983)


Wannevar

Bush: “As We May Think” (1945). The idea of
associative search


(Sir)
Tim Berners
-
Lee
-

web server (1990), then WWW and
the “web generations” (currently Web 2.0, moving towards
Web 3.0)


BMCS
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Lecture 1

14

© Dept. of Networked Systems and Services,
Budapest Univ. of Technology and Economics

Overview of current comm. systems
used for multimedia delivery


Telecommunications networks (analog, ISDN)


Wireless broadcasting systems: analog, digital,
terrestrial, satellite


Cable tv distribution systems


Mobile communications networks (currently 3G, 4G)


Internet (fixed, over cable tv or satellite, over mobile)


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Lecture 1

15

© Dept. of Networked Systems and Services,
Budapest Univ. of Technology and Economics

S
TRUCTURE

OF

THE

C
OURSE

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Lecture 1

16

© Dept. of Networked Systems and Services,
Budapest Univ. of Technology and Economics

Three main parts



Multimedia systems and services


Technologies supporting multimedia service provisioning


Main application areas of multimedia communications

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Lecture 1

17

© Dept. of Networked Systems and Services,
Budapest Univ. of Technology and Economics

Multimedia systems and services


Terrestrial and satellite broadcasting, cable television
distribution systems.


Analogue sound broadcasting. Analogue b/w and
colour

television.


Digital radio broadcasting. Digital
tv

broadcasting: DVB
-
S,
DVB
-
C, DVB
-
T. Transition to digital terrestrial broadcasting.


Mobile multimedia.


Streaming technologies.


IPTV systems and services.


Media storage and distribution systems


OTT


Social media, social
tv

BMCS
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Lecture 1

18

© Dept. of Networked Systems and Services,
Budapest Univ. of Technology and Economics

Technologies supporting multimedia
service provisioning


AAA and billing systems.


Digital right management (DRM)


Service delivery platforms


IMS


the IP Multimedia Subsystems

BMCS
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Lecture 1

19

© Dept. of Networked Systems and Services,
Budapest Univ. of Technology and Economics

Main application areas of multimedia
communications


Audio
-
visual collaboration,
e
-
learning.


E
-
health and telemedicine systems.


Smart environments.

BMCS
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Lecture 1

20

© Dept. of Networked Systems and Services,
Budapest Univ. of Technology and Economics

T
EACHING
/
LEARNING

METHODOLOGY

AND

EVALUATION

BMCS
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Lecture 1

21

© Dept. of Networked Systems and Services,
Budapest Univ. of Technology and Economics

Methodology


Course material will consist of presentation slides and
additional literature.


Students expected to attend the classes and to become
familiar with the material in advance.


Classes will be conducted in a highly interactive way.


Each student will carry out a course project. Topic is to be
chosen from a set of topics closely related to the course
content. List will be distributed on the 1st week and
students are required to select one by the end of the 2
nd

week.


Students will present their topics in front of the class and
these materials will constitute an integral part of the course
for everyone.

BMCS
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Lecture 1

22

© Dept. of Networked Systems and Services,
Budapest Univ. of Technology and Economics

Evaluation


Attendance and activity: 20%


Coursework: 30%


Exam test: 50% (min. 25% is required for pass)



Grading:


<60%: 1


60
-
70%: 2


70
-
80%: 3


80
-
90%: 4


>90%: 5


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Lecture 1

23

© Dept. of Networked Systems and Services,
Budapest Univ. of Technology and Economics