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17 Φεβ 2014 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 5 μήνες)

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6LoWPAN


Speaker:
施創宏


Date:2010
-
06
-
02

Outline


Overview


What is a Smart Object


IETF
(Internet Engineer Task Force)


ISA
(Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society)



Problem of 6LoWPAN


Vision


Reference


Overview


6LoWPAN

is an acronym of IPv6 over Low power
Wireless Personal Area Networks.




A simple low throughput wireless network comprising
typically low cost and low power devices.



Common topologies include


star, mesh, and
combinations of star and mesh.



The Phy and MAC layers
conform

to IEEE 802.15.4
-
2003
standard


6LoWPAN Characteristics


Small packet size (127Byte)



16
-
bit short or IEEE 64
-
bit extended media
access control addresses



Low bandwidth. (250kbps)



Low power, typically battery operated



Relatively low cost


What is

The Internet Of Things ?



It is fundamentally the idea of
connecting SmartObjects to enable a
myriad of new applications !



It is in fact about connecting Smart
Objects using IP: either via a (virtual)
private network OR the Internet.


What is a Smart Object?


An intelligent tag (RFID),



A sensor: device that measures a physical quantity
and converts it to a analog or digital signal: power
consumption and quality, vibration of an engine,
pollution, temperature, CO, motion detection,




An Actuator: device that controls a set of equipment
(e.g. control and/or modulates the flow of a gas or
liquid, control electricity distribution, perform a
mechanical operation)



Any combination of the above features to form a more
complex entity.


Typical Applications

Protocol and Architecture


High number of proprietary or semi
-
closed
solutions:Zigbee, Z
-
Wave, Xmesh,
SmartMesh/TSMP,


at many layers
(physical, MAC, L3) and most chip vendor
claim to be compatible with their own
standard.


Many non
-
interoperable

solutions


addressing specific problems.


Different
Architectures
,


Different
Protocols



Which protocol and architecture ?


The architecture and protocol MUST have a
specific properties.


Based on open standards: for interoperability,
cost reduction and innovation




Flexibility in many dimensions:


Support a wide range of media


Support a wide range of devices


Always favor global than local optimum.



Highly secure


Plug & Play


Scalable


IP: The perfect fit !


Based on
open standards
:
for interoperability, cost
reduction and innovation



Flexibility
in many
dimensions:


Support a wide range of media


Support a wide range of
devices



Always favor global than local
optimum:



Highly secure



Plug & Play



Scalable




Open standard: The Internet
Engineering Task Force.



Flexibility
in many dimensions:


Serial, SDH, FR, ATM, Ethernet,
Wireless, Optical



From cell phone to high speed
routers


Always favor global than
local optimum
:

IP if good
enough for everything: from
email to video to realtime
protocols




A very secure and well proven



Biliions of connected
devices



IP to the Sensors


New services and applications


M2M, remote management


New Markets


Process Control for factories


Control and Automation for home, building, cities


Larger Core Market


Open standards to the sensor


Lower cost


More connected devices and new applications


A wider Internet


Shaping the future


Internet of things


Why IPv6?


Advantage


More suitable for higher density
Statelessness mandated.


No NAT necessary.


Possibility of adding innovative
techniques such as location aware
addressing.


Defect



Larger address width(128bit).


Complying to IPv6 node requirements.

IETF


網際網路標準主要是由網際網路工程任務小組
(Internet Engineer Task Force,
IETF)
負責研究發展和制定的。
IETF
是一個屬性相當開放的組織,是由來自於全世
界關心網際網路技術發展的網際網路設計者、營運業者、使用者和研究人員

所組
成。最特別的是,
IETF
由眾多名為「工作群組」
(Working Group, WG)
的委員
會所組成,這些工作群組絕大多數都是針對特殊問題或程序而建立起來的,所以都
是以短暫性的存續運作為常態,只要工作目標完成就會終止該工作群組的運作。目
前在
IETF
的網站上,可以看到各個工作群組的相關資料和運作現況。








6LoWPAN


The Working Group will generate the necessary
documents to ensure interoperable
implementations of 6LoWPAN networks and will
define the necessary security and management
protocols and constructs for building 6LoWPAN
networks.



6lowpan will work closely with the Routing
Over Low power and Lossy networks (roll)
working group which is developing IPv6 routing
solutions for low power and lossy networks
(LLNs).

ROLL


ROLL: defining the routing
solution within the LLN (Low
power and Lossy Network).


Description of Working Group


Low power and Lossy networks (LLNs) are made up of
many embedded devices with limited power, memory,
and processing resources. They are interconnected by a
variety of links, such as IEEE 802.15.4, Bluetooth, Low
Power WiFi, wired or other low power PLC (Powerline
Communication) links.



LLNs are transitioning to an end
-
to
-
end IP
-
based
solution to avoid the problem of non
-
interoperable
networks interconnected by protocol translation
gateways and proxies.


Protocol Translation Gateways


Complex to manage, expensive!


Lack of end to end routing consistency, Multi
-
topology
routing, management, security,



ISA


Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation
Society
is a non
-
profit technical society for engineers,
technicians, businessmen, educators and students,
who work, study or are interested in industrial
automation.



It was originally known as the
Instrument Society
of America
.



ISA provides leadership and education in the
instrumentation and automation industries, assisting
engineers, technicians, and research scientists, as
well as many others, in keeping pace with the rapidly
changing industry.


ISA100.11a Working Group
Charter


This project addresses:


Low energy consumption devices, with the ability to scale
to address large installations.



Wireless infrastructure, interfaces to legacy infrastructure
and applications, security, and network management
requirements in a functionally scalable manner.



Robustness in the presence of interference found in harsh
industrial environments and with legacy systems.



Coexistence with other wireless devices anticipated in the
industrial work space.



Interoperability of ISA100 devices.


ISA100.11a, IP technology


ISA 100.11a endorsed 6LoWPAN


IPv6 packets but not stack (ND, ICMP)


Internet Control Message Protocol(TCP/IP

定中
IP
協定的上層
,
通過
ICMP
可對發信人進行通知
和檢測通訊前對方節點是否存在
)


Backbone Router draft @ 6LoWPAN


Proposing an IPv6 based best practice


To promote full IPv6 in ISA100.11a


And WSN in general by contagion

Problem


No method exists to make IP run over IEEE 802.15.4
networks


Stacking IP and above layers

as is


may not fit within one
802.15.4 frame


IPv6 40 octets, TCP 20 octets, UDP 8 octets + other layers
(security, routing, etc) leaving few bytes for data


Not all adhoc routing protocols may be immediately suitable
for LoWPAN


DSR (
Dynamic Source Routing)

may not fit within a packet.



AODV (
Ad hoc On
-
Demand Distance Vector)

needs more
memory.


Limited configuration and management necessary


Security for multi hop needs to be considered


Challenges of LoWPAN

Impact

Analysis

Addressing

Routing

Security

Network
management

Low power

(1
-
2 years lifetime on
batteries)

Storage
limitations, low
overhead

Periodic sleep
aware routing,
low overhead

Simplicity (CPU
usage), low
overhead

Periodic sleep
aware
management, low
overhead

Low cost

(<$10/unit)

Stateless
address
generation

Small or no
routing tables

Ease of Use,
simple
bootstrapping

Space constraints

Low bandwidth
(<300kbps)

Compressed
addresses

Low routing
overhead

Low packet
overhead

Low network
overhead

High density

(<2
-
4? units/sq ft)

Large address
space


IPv6

Scalable and
routable to *a
node*

Robust

Easy to use and
scalable

IP network interaction

Address routable
from IP world

Seamless IP
routing

Work end to
end from IP
network

Compatible with
SNMP, etc

Goals


Support stateless auto configuration of IPv6
addressing.





In all cases, reuse existing protocols before creating
new ones .



Specify/use header compression schemes.



Specify encoding/decoding for device discovery
mechanisms.



Define security mechanisms, security configuration.


Vision


Building automation


Today:


Highly fragmented market


Limited to no IP/wireless


Potential for:


open standards


ISA100.11a extension


Applications


Energy savings


Regulation


Security

Vision


Smart cities


Today:


Slowing development of mesh networks


Few applications (surveillance, muni info)


Potential for:


WIFI/WIMAX integrated Mesh


ISA100.11a


IPv6 networking


Applications


Energy/Water savings


Water leak detection


Traffic Regulation


Physical Security


Air quality monitoring



Vision


Home Automation


Today:


Lot of wires


Some powerline (homeplug)


Potential for:


WIFI Low Power 802.15.4


IP home networking


Applications


Energy/Water savings


Home security


Home Safety


Remote healthcare


Air quality monitoring


The golden path


Vision


Sensors and actuators using Internet
technology.


That

s Billions of devices in the next 10 years.


Enabling new services and applications.


Steps


IP for automation open standards (ISA100.11a).


IP for LLN (Low power and lossy networks)
(6LoWPAN and ROLL).


Reference




http://solomon.ipv6.club.tw/Course/ProtocolEn
gineering/internet_of_things.pdf



http://solomon.ipv6.club.tw/Course/ProtocolEn
gineering/cisco_thubert_m2mworkshop.pdf



http://solomon.ipv6.club.tw/Course/ProtocolEn
gineering/6lowpan
-
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