Water-Energy-Carbon Nexus in Delhi Key indicators, drivers and implications

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24 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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Water
-
Energy
-
Carbon Nexus in Delhi


Key indicators, drivers and
implications




By:

Pratima Singh

Supervisor: Dr. Arun Kansal (TERI Univ.)

Co
-
supervisor: Dr. Cynthia Carliell Marquet (UOB)

Water
-
energy
-
carbon nexus and under rated issues

ENERGY FOR WATER



US
-

4% for WT,5% GHG emission
from water sector
(1)

(no embodied
energy)



S.A (eThekwini)
-

water distribution
-
0.10 kWh/m
3
, GHG emission 0.139 kg
CO2e/m
3

(2)



Belgium
-

WWTP’s (0.05 to 1.34)
MGD was (0.19 to 0.31)kWh/m
3

(3)



NW Spain
-

Aeration (0.177 to 0.70)
MGD was (1.13 to 2.07) kWh/m
3

(4)



Toronto
-

WT
0.68 kWh/m
3
and GHG
0.11 kg CO2e/m
3

yr.
(5)



UK
-

3% for WS 41 million tonnes
CO
2
e/yr
(6)

(no embodied energy)


WATER FOR ENERGY
(7)



Coal production
-

0.164 m3/GJ



Crude oil
-

1.058 m3/GJ



Natural gas
-

0.109 m3/GJ



Hydropower
-

5.4 m3/MWh



Solar heating
-

0.954 m3/MWh



Nuclear plant
-

2.726 m3/MWh



Solar thermal power plant
-

4
m3/MWh



Thermoelectric power plant
-

3.7 m3/MWh


4.
Gallego

et L., 2008

5. Racoviceanu et al.,2007

6.
Rothausen.S
;
Conway.D
, 2011

7. World energy council report, 2010

Sources:

1.
Rothausen.S
;
Conway.D
, 2011

2. Friedrich et al. 2007

3.
Lassaux

et al., 2007

2

Knowledge Gaps


Lack

of

energy

studies

for

urban

water

sector

in

Asia

&

Middle
-
East
.

(More

focus

on

agriculture,

industries

and

infrastructure)



Only

electrical

energy

consumption

has

been

considered

for

the

energy

use

in

almost

all

the

studies
.


Lack

of

information

related

to

emission

from

wastewater

system

including

various

treatment

processes
.


Lack

of

water
-
energy
-
carbon

nexus

study

in

South
-
Asian

nation

on

water

system


3

Aim & Objective



The

study

aims

to

look

into

the

water
-
energy

nexus

in

a

integrated

manner

for

the

entire

urban

water

cycle
.

The

nexus

will

focus

on

the

criticality

of

one

influencing

the

other
.

Total

energy

and

forms

of

energy

used

in

various

aspect

of

urban

water

sector

will

be

assimilated

and

also

water

used

for

energy

generation

will

be

accounted
.

The

study

will

also

look

into

the

energy

nexus

to

find

its

influence

on

the

climate

action

plan

of

the

city
.

4

Objectives


To

find

the

energy

intensity,

various

form’s

of

energy

consumption

of

urban

water

system
-

the

factors

that

influence

the

energy

use


To

find

how

different

forms

has

influenced

overall

energy

consumption

and

climate
.


To

find

water

requirement

of

energy

generation


Comparative

analysis

of

Birmingham

and

India

water

system

lesson’s



5

Scope


System

boundary

commences

at

the

point

of

raw

water

abstraction

and

ends

with

discharge

of

treated

wastewater
.


Various

forms

of

energy

used

for

operation

&

maintenance

will

be

accounted

(Electrical,

manual,

petroleum)
.

Energy

for

construction,

embodied

energy

and

chemical

energy

are

not

considered
.


Carbon

emission

(off
-
site

and

on
-
site)

and

potential

fugitive

emission

during

treatment

process

will

be

taken

into

account
.


Impacts

associated

with

carbon

emission’s

are

not

considered
.


The

end

use

of

water

is

not

taken

into

account
.


6

Key research questions


What

is

the

energy

share

of

water

sector

to

the

city’s

total

energy

demand

?


What

is

energy

elasticity

with

respect

to

scale

of

treatment

units

and

technology

?



Does

other

forms

of

energy

has

any

significance

in

total

energy

estimate

?




7

Main activities of proposed research

Energy intensity (elect., manual, petroleum)

On
-
site & fugitive emissions

Groundwater

Surface water

Intermediate pumping

Off
-
site emissions

Energy intensity (elect., manual, petroleum)

On
-
site emissions

Water pumping

Tanker
-
fuel

Domestic Booster pump

Domestic purifiers

Off
-
site emissions

Wastewater pumping

Off
-
site emissions

Intermediate pumping

On
-
site emissions

Energy for water

Water for energy

Abstraction

Disposal

WW
Treatment

WW
collection

Distribution

Treatment

Thermal
power
plants

Hydro
power
plants

Extraction
& refining

Fuel
production

Growing
and
producing
bio
-
fuels

8

Case study
-

Delhi

9

Preliminary results
-
LU/LC

1977

2006

<delhi
-
masterplan.com>

(Sharma et al. 2008)

(Sharma et al. 2011)

NOIDA

10

Data Sources
: <indiastat.com>, Census of India; Data Sources:
<http://urbanindia.nic.in/theministry/subordinateoff/tcpo/DMA_Report/CHAPTER_3.pdf>


Population growth in NCR

11

Photo courtesy
: Central Pollution Control Board, <www.google.com>

Yamuna basin

Yamuna

Population migration

Resource migration

Population and
resource
migration
-

Yamuna
River basin

12

Existing water sources in Delhi

Water resources Delhi

Total amount (MGD)

Yamuna Water

339 MGD

Ganga Water

240 MGD

Bhakra Beas Management Board water

150 MGD

Ground water

100 MGD

Data Sources
: MPD
-
2021, 2003.

Department of Environment and Forest, 2010

Hathnikund barrage

Western Yamuna Canal,
113 km, 100MGD

Bhakra
-
Nangal
storage/Sutlej river, 230 km,
140 MGD

Nangloi waterworks

Bawana
waterworks

Dwarka
waterworks

Haiderpur waterworks
I

Najafgarh drain

Supplementary
drain

Eastern Yamuna Canal, 25 km, 240 MGD

Chandrawal waterworks, 3 km

Wazirabad waterworks, 3 km

Bhagirathi
waterworks

Sonia
vihar

waterworks

Shahdara Drain

Okhla

Agra Canal

Hindon Cut

228km

231km

Haiderpur waterworks II

20 km

25 km

112.4 km

Wazirabad barrage
(210 MGD)

Sources of raw water, Delhi

Data Sources:
DHI, 2010;
http://www.urbanindia.nic.in/programme/uwss/uiww/PPT
_4th_Meeting/DJB_Water_PPT.pdf


Thermal Power Plant

Tehri

Dam/Upper Ganga
Canal, 226 km, 240 MGD

14

MPD
-
2021, 2003


MPD
-
2021, 2003


15

Data Sources
: Shekhar et al.2009 CGWB; NCRPB

Declining trend in groundwater, NCR

16

Ground water

Units

Avg.

daily withdrawal
(m
3
/d)

Avg.

Depth (m)

Energy
estimated
(kWh/d)

Delhi


Private


DJB

Gurgaon

Borewell
and

Tubewell

Noida

Borewell
and

Tubewell

Energy consumption for
groundwater
extraction

17

Energy demand forecast for
groundwater pumping

Year

Estimated
depth (m)

Estimated
abstraction

(m
3
/d)

Estimated Energy
consumed (MWh/d)


Indirect GHG emission
(Gg
-
CO
2
-
e/d)

2001

2011

2021

18

Public water supplies WTPs

Photo courtesy
: www.stupco.com

Data Source
: DJB

Name

Capacity (MGD)

Estimated Energy consumption (MWh/d)

Wazirabad (I, II & III)

120

Hayderpur

200

Sonia Vihar

140

Bhagirathi (North Shahdara)

100

Nangloi

40

Chandrawal (I & II)

90

Bawana

20

TOTAL

710

19


Trend of increasing gap between
water treatment

and water demand

Data sources
: Department of environment and Forest, 2010

20

Private water purifiers

Filter

Filter + U.V.

Reverse osmosis

1980s

1990s

2000s

Photo courtesy
: www.google.com

21


Water consumption through
purifiers

Daily production for water for cooking and drinking is found to be 40 liters/day per household

Data Source

for energy consumption of RO & Filter + UV system: Uniphil Electronics Private Limited

Purifiers

Estimated energy consumption (MWh/d)

Filter + UV

2.74

R.O

122.35

TOTAL

125.09

Categories

Filter

Filter + UV

R.O (domestic + water markets)

Nothing

HIG

2%

40%

43%

15%

MIG

4%

48%

31%

17%

LIG

13%

37%

12%

38%

22

Water distribution

23

Water distribution by tankers

Zones

Summer months

Rest of the year

No. of tankers

used
per week

Avg. capacity of the
tankers (gallons)

No. of tankers

used
per week


Avg. capacity of
the tankers
(gallons)

Central

NA

NA

NA

NA

City & Sp

120

4500

120

4500

Civil lines

3620

trips

3000
-
10000 lit.

1045

6000
-
10000 lit

Karol Bagh

1000

trips

850

350

850

Mehrauli

91

1500

42

1500

Najafgarh

NA

NA

NA

NA

Rohini

1791

1350

714

1350

RWS
-
N

721

8667

221

2657

Shah/N

2100

5000

1000

5000

Shah/S

1700

1000

1150

1000

South

1365 trips

1320

450

1320

West

860

6000

660

6000

Data Source
: TERI Report No. 1999EE44

24


5741 Gallons of water is distributed everyday by
private tankers.


On an avg. 1910 private and 400
a

public tankers
distribute water all over Delhi.


Individual tankers travels 18 km on an avg. and makes
4 trips per day.


Tankers use diesel as fuel and they still run on old
engine technology
.


Photo’s courtesy
:
www.google.co.in/images

a
-

www.ccsindia.org

25

Area without sewerage facility

Data source
: DJB, 2010

Status
-
categories

No.

of colonies/villages

Unauthorized colonies

1639

JJ clusters

1080

Rural villages

201

26

Gap between sewage generated
and treated

Data source
: DJB, 2010

640

513

360

0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
WW generated
WWTP installed
capacity
WW treated
MGD

Wastewater scenario

MGD
27

Methodology


Literature

Review


Data

collected


a)
field

observations,

primary

data

collection

b)
interactions

with

plant

operators

and


c)
One
-
on
-
one

interviews


d)
time

inventory

of

various

activities

on

field

for

manual

energy

using

stopwatch
.



e)
comprehensive

inventorization

of

activities

and

their

sub
-
activities

in

STP

demanding

energy

(manual,

fuel,

electrical)

f)
Validation

of

data

with

log
-
book

and

records

of

operation

in

plant

g)
Equal

representation

of

weekdays

and

weekends

was

considered

for

monitoring



28

Methodology

Estimation of electrical energy input


The electrical energy input is estimated by considering the electrical
load of the pump/motor (kW), time in hours (h) for which the motor
is operated and total amount of wastewater treated.







Where, E
p
is the electrical energy kWh/m
3
; is determined using



Q is the total flow of wastewater in m
3
/d



P is the rated power of the electrical motor in kilo Watt (kW)



T is the operation hours in a day (h/d)




The motor efficiency is assumed as 80% (Fadare DA 2010).


29

Estimation of manual energy input





Where, E
m

is manual energy in kWh/m
3

is determined using



n is the number of nature of activities (light, active, and heavy)



m is the number of gender (male, female)



E is the human energy equivalent (kW)



N is the number of persons engaged in an activity



T is the total time devoted in the activity (h/d)

Human power equivalent (E) in kW




Input

Male

Female

Activities in the treatment plant

Light

0.13

0.10

Switch on/off the raw water pump, maintain the log
-
book, check motor temperature

Moderate

0.14

0.11

Open/close the sludge drain valve, operation of valves for backwashing

Heavy

0.54

0.44

Prepare the chemical solution for dosing, fill the chemical solution in the dosing tank,
collect the dried sludge in gunny bags

30

Estimation of fuel energy use



Fuel energy (E
f
) kWh/m
3

is calculated using eq.





Where, 15.64 is the unit energy value of diesel in kWh/l (Devi
2007a)




D

is the amount of diesel consumed in l
/d.


Diesel consumption is also used for oiling and repairing of
machineries

Estimation of energy use
(
booster pumps) for domestic purpose


Interview based survey with the help of questionnaire having close ended
and quantity based questions. Pilot study will be conducted





31

Estimation

of

GHG

emission’s


Calculation

of

direct

and

in
-
direct

emissions

associated

with

electricity

generation


P
CO
2
,

electricity

=

E
required

×


(Fi

×

EFi)



Where,
P
CO2, electricity

is GHG production of the plant (kg CO2e/m
3
)




E
required

is the electricity demands of the plant in kWh/m
3


Fi is the % contribution of the fuel
(i)

to satisfy electricity generation needs


EFi is the GHG emission factor of fuel
(i)

in producing electricity in kg
CO2e/kWh





32

Process wise energy distribution

ASP

32.99%

Ext
-
Aer

32.1%

Phy
-
chem+bio
-
fil

31.71%

Aer+Bio filt

3.2%

% share to different process

33

Total electrical energy
consumption by centralized
WWTPs

0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0.45
0.5
45
40
40
40
37
30
25
20
20
20
16
12
10
10
10
10
10
5
3
2.2
2.2
2.2
Electrical energy kWh/m3
34

Total fuel energy consumption by
centralized WWTPs

Series1, 1.71E
-
04

0.00E+00
1.00E-02
2.00E-02
3.00E-02
4.00E-02
5.00E-02
6.00E-02
Energy kWh/m3

Total fuel energy consumption

35

0
0.0002
0.0004
0.0006
0.0008
0.001
0.0012
0.0014
0.0016
0.0018
0.002
Manual energy kWh/m3

Manual energy kWh/m3
Total manual energy consumption
by centralized WWTPs

36

Total energy consumption by
centralized WWTPs

Series1, 8.53E
-
02

0.00E+00
5.00E-02
1.00E-01
1.50E-01
2.00E-01
2.50E-01
3.00E-01
3.50E-01
4.00E-01
4.50E-01
5.00E-01
Energy kWh/m3

Total energy consumption

37

Percentage share of energy

Electricity

95%

Manual

0%

Fuel

5%

% of Energy forms

38

Technology wise energy distribution

Screening

0.46%

Grit removal

9.3%

Primary Settling tank

0.59%

Raw sludge pump house

0.71
%

Aeration

48%

Final settling tank

1.06%

Return sludge pump house

9.78%

Digester

1.90%

Gas holder

0.19%

Sludge
bed
filtrate

0.26%

Centrifuge
unit

0.06%

BIOFOR unit

18%

Pressdeg

unit

0.75%

Flash
mixer

0.75%

Densadeg

unit

0.86%

Pump
house

2.74%

Polishing
unit

0.025%

DAF unit

0.56%

H2S
scrubber

0.06%

Plant + Admin

3.94%

39

Zonal energy distribution

0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
1.40
1.60
1.80
2.00
Total electrical energy kWh/m3

Total electrical energy kWh/m3
Zone

Popl
.(mill)

Shahdara

1.1

Rithala

0.94

Okhla

2.86

Keshopur

2.29

CP

0.46

Outer Delhi

0.15

TOTAL

7.71

40

Zonal % energy distribution
(SPS+WWTP’s)

Shahadra

13%

Rohini
-
Rithala

5%

Okhla

67%

Keshopur

4%

Coronation pillar

3%

Outer Delhi

7%

41

Decentralized WWTP

WWTP

Size
of
the
Plant
(m
3
/d)

Energy Consumption

(
MWh
/d)

TERI WWTP

25

0.048

SMB School WWTP

50

0.25

IOCL WWTP

100

0.18

Delhi
Haat

WWTP

175

0.19

Escorts Hospital
WWTP

300

0.36

Fortis Hospital
WWTP

300

0.38

Apollo Hospital
WWTP

1000

1.03

42

Total energy consumption and CO
2

emission
in urban water cycle

Estimated

energy
consumed (MWh/d)

Indirect GHG
emission (
Gg

CO
2
e/d)

Abstraction

Ground

water

pumping

only

excluding

surface

water

conveyance

from

distance

Water treatment

Domestic/private Water Purifiers

Public

Distribution

Tankers

Pipeline

(water supply + sewage)

WWT

Centralized

TOTAL

43

Water for energy

Name

Fuel used

Capacity

Water requirement (MGD)

Indraprastha power
station

Coal based

247.5 MW

8.6

Rajghat

power house

Coal based

135 MW

4.7

GTPS

Gas based

282

MW

4.2

Pragati power station

Gas based

330 MW

4.9

Badarpur TPP

Coal Based

705 MW

24.6

TOTAL

1699.5 MW

Govt. of NCT
of Delhi 2001
-
02

44

Water for energy

Data Source:
http://www.thehindu.com/todays
-
paper/tp
-
national/tp
-
newdelhi/article2519668.ece


http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Delhi/article2525061.ece


45

Key indicators, drivers and Implications


Tension

between

water

and

energy

is

growing
.

Demand

of

energy

for

wastewater

treatment

WWTP’s

in

urban

water

cycle

is

increasing

with

increasing

population,

which

is

found

to

be

2
.
65
Wh/m
3

(
3
.
9
%

of

the

total

power

demand

of

the

city)

and

availability

of

water

for

energy

generation

is

reducing

resulting

in

less

power

generation

during

peak

season
.


Increasing

trends

of

energy

demand

for

sewage

pumping
:

In

Delhi

from

all

the

7

zones

the

total

energy

use

for

sewage

pumping

is

found

to

be

about

0
.
13
kWh/m
3

,

(
3
.
5
%

of

the

total

power

demand

of

the

city)


Process

having

the

greatest

impact

on

energy

consumption
:

Aeration

in

activated

sludge

process

that

the

highest

energy

use

of

1
.
28
kWh/m
3

(
48
%

of

the

total

energy

consumed

in

the

treatment

process)
.

46

Key indicators, drivers and Implications


Activated

sludge

process

dominated

the

energy

consumption

with

0
.
87
kWh/m
3


(
33
%

of

the

total

energy

consumed

in

the

treatment

process)

compared

to

other

technologies



Increase

in

energy

consumption

with

large

urban

spread
:

Out

of

the

seven

zonal

areas

in

Delhi,

it

was

found

that

Okhla

zone

consumed

the

highest

amount

of

energy

for

sewage

pumping

and

wastewater

treatment,

1
.
86
kWh/m
3

(
67
%

of

the

total

energy

consumed

in

treatment

and

pumping

process)
.

47

THANKS


48