To understand architecture of Mobile computing & Necessity in recent era.

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24 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 24 μέρες)

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To understand architecture of Mobile computing & Necessity in
recent era.


Abstract:

There is a tremendous amount of interest in developing mobile enterprise
computing applications, driven by recent advancements in mobile technologies and
standards, as wel
l as an increasing mobile workforce population. However, many
enterprises are uncertain of the various options they may have due to the emerging nature
of mobile computing technologies. Additionally, they are concerned about the
integration of mobile t
echnologies with existing IT infrastructure and applications. In
this paper, we propose a methodology to help enterprises develop business strategies and
architectures for mobile computing. A generic mobile technical infrastructure is
presented to assist

enterprises in evaluating and implementing mobile applications.
Software standards that may have major impacts on mobile technical architectures and
application development are discussed. Finally, the implications of the proposed
methodology for mobile

computing for practitioners and researchers are discussed in the
conclusion.

1.

Emerging trends of mobile computing


The twenty
-
first century workforce is becoming increasingly mobile. A recent IDC study
predicted the number of mobile workers in the U.S.
will rise from 92 million in 2001 to 105
million in 2006 while the non
-
mobile workforce will decline by 2 million to 53.8 million by
2006 [
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,
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].
Therefore, two
-
thirds of U.S. employees will be mobile workers by 2006. Mobile workers are
defined in this study as workers who spend more than 20% of their time away from theirs desks
attending meetings, traveling, or telecommut
ing from home.


Some players in the mobile computing market focus on consumer oriented contents and
service, such as ring
-
tones, MP3 music, and MMS [
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].
However, a
ccording to studies from

IT research firms, 40% of companies will use wireless
technology for business applications by 2003, up from just 5% in 1999 [
Error! Reference
source not found.
]. According to this trend, mo
re than
50% of companies have o
r will have
wireless connectivity to corporate systems by 2005. The aggressive deployment of mobile
computing is in part
driven by recent advancements in mobile computing technologies and

high
payback for effective application of mobile technologies. Som
e studies show that the
productivity of mobile workers may be improved by 30% when proper mobile technologies are
deployed
[
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].





The abundance of emerging mobile technologies and
standards as well as expanding
opportunities to capitalize on them has created a lot of confusion among business managers and
IT architects. We have developed a methodology to help organizations plan and build
enterprise
-
wide mobile computing applications
. The methodology proposed in this paper is an
attempt to provide a comprehensive strategic framework to identify business opportunities for
mobile business and commerce, as well as a roadmap and action plans to develop and deploy
mobile applications. T
his methodology is intended to help firms to realize the potential benefits
of mobile technologies more easily. Section 2 of this paper presents the life
-
cycle phases of the
methodology. Section 3 discusses how to analyze the mobility of business process
es. Section 4
is a detailed discussion of the development of a mobile computing architecture and emerging
mobile technologies. Section 5 presents several important software standards that are important
to mobile architectures and application development.

This paper is concluded with a discussion
of how this proposed methodology may be improved and validated, as well as a call for further
research to advance our understanding of the development and deployment of mobile computing
in enterprises.

2.

Develop
a mobile computing technical architecture



Gartner, an IT research firm, predicted that "more than 50 percent of mobile applications
deployed at the start of 2002 will be obsolete by the end of 2002 [
Error! Reference source not
found.
]." Many applications get outdated quickly due to the complexity of the various mobile
technologies involved. The best practice in managing these constantly evolving and competing
technologies is to define and develop a standard
-
based mobile

computing technical architecture.
A sound mobile technical architecture is an extension and enhancement of existing IT
infrastructure components to facilitate the integration between mobile applications and existing
IT applications. A comprehensive mobi
le architecture can also enhance efficiency in developing
and deploying new mobile applications [
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].



Figure 2

A Mobile Computing Technical Architecture

2.1

Mobile clients



Mobile

clients consist of mobile devices, mobile operating systems (OS), and client
-
side
mobile application software. Mobile devices include cell phones and low
-
end PDAs that have
Web access, as well as high
-
end PDAs and notebook computers that have wireless ne
twork
connections. There are many mobile operating systems for PDAs (e.g., Pilot Research's Palm
OS and Microsoft's Pocket PC). Additional programming frameworks (i.e., virtual machines)
such as J2ME and .NET Compact Framework, specifically designed to r
un on mobile devices,
may be required to deploy some offline applications. For consumer oriented cell phones,
Symbian OS is a popular mobile OS for phone
-
based devices supporting 2.5G and 3G networks
and Multimedia Message Service (MMS) [
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Reference source not found.
].
All mobile
devices are expected to have a wireless Internet connection, Web browsing capability, and some
degree of local process capability.




Horizontal mobile applications include personal informat
ion management (PIM),
messaging services such as email, short message services, and multimedia message services
[
Error! Reference source not found.
]. Vertical mobile enterprise applications can be custom
-
built or are exten
sions of ERP, CRM, and SCM packages for mobile workforce. Enterprise
applications are the main driver of mobile computing growth in the United States. High
-
end
PDAs and notebook computers have better input mechanisms, large screen size, and more local
pr
ocessing power; therefore, they are better positioned to support online mobile enterprise
applications that require both online and disconnected offline processing

2.2

Wireless networks


Wireless deployments have been accelerated more recently, including

a rush to serve data
over cellular networks (2.5G
-
3G) and wireless LAN (Wi
-
Fi). In the near future, applications can
expect always
-
on connectivity from anywhere. IDC estimates that 85 million notebook PCs will
be sold in 2005. Most of them are expecte
d to contain Wi
-
Fi. There are three types of wireless
networks that compliment each other to serve different needs.










Table 1

A Comparison of Mobile Web Clients and Mobile Rich Clients

















2.3

Data synchronization


Data synchronization servers are necessary when client mobile devices such as PDAs and
notebooks are capable of handling data offline. Mobile devices using software such as
Microsoft Outlook and Lotus Notes ofte
n need to have access to "personal information"
including address book, to
-
do lists, e
-
mail, and a calendar.

Business data that need to be stored
offline on mobile device such as customer orders and product data may require the use of mobile
versions of
database management systems, such as SyBase SQL Anywhere, Microsoft SQL
Server CE, Oracle Lite, etc. Mobile database software packages have a much smaller memory
footprint. For example, SQL Server CE delivers its functionality in approximately one megaby
te
[
Error! Reference source not found.
]. A synchronization server may be needed to handle the
data synchronization between the mobile databases and centralized database servers. Data
synchronization services simplify

data exchange between mobile devices and back
-
office
systems.




Features

Mobile Web Clients

Mobile Rich Clients

Devices

Smart
-
phone, Cellular
phone, PDA

PDA, Notebook

Operating
System

Symbian, Palm OS

Pocket PC, Palm OS; Programming
frameworks: J2ME and .NET
Compact Framework

Online/Offline

Online only

Online or offline

High end offline applications may
require the instal
lation of J2ME or
.NET compact Framework.

User interface

Web browser interface
rendering markup web
pages encoded in WML,
cHTML, XHTML, etc.

More flexible user interface

Web browsers rendering HTML
web pages

Screen size

Smaller

Larger

Input

Stylus and

virtual keyboard

Keyboard and mouse


Locations of
business Logic
and data

Reside on the server side

Offline applications: Reside on the
client side

Online applications: reside on the
server
-
side

Client
-
side
installation and
configuration

No

Yes


2.4

Mobile application servers


Mobile application servers provide a broad range of functions, sometimes under different
product labels. Major functions in a typical mobile application s
erver include: content
adaptation, notification, and security.

1.

Content Adaptation or Transcoding Services.

Various markup languages are used by
different mobile devices. Building contents in formats specific for each mobile device is
very costly and imp
ractical. There are server
-
based solutions that dynamically translate
Web contents and applications into multiple markup languages and optimize them for
delivery to mobile devices. IBM's WebSphere Transcoding Publisher [
Error! Reference
source not found.
] and Oracle 9i Wireless are examples of such products. Microsoft takes a
different approach by providing a programming tool, Mobile Information Toolkit, to support
the development of mobile Web applications in one code b
ase.

2.

Notification services.

In an increasingly mobile environment, people want access to the
information they need regardless of where they are. Notification services can provide data
subscription and delivery mechanisms. Applications that use noti
fication services can
provide their customers and employees with the information they need when they need it to
empower them to make timely and informed decisions [
Error! Reference source not
found.
,
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]. The user is required to subscribe to the
service by specifying triggering events when the notification should be generated and sent to
the user.

3.

Security.

Securing information from unauthorized access

is a major problem for any
network


wire
-
line or wireless. In a mobile enterprise, anytime and anywhere access to
mission
-
critical data by mobile workers is necessary for them to perform effectively in the
field. Such a trend is a major security challe
nge for the mobile infrastructure because
wireless communications rely on public airways. For sensitive business data, proper
measures, such as secure end
-
to
-
end encryption, are required to protect the privacy and
ensure the integrity of the data.