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C
O N T E N T

Page No.

P
REFACE

................................
..............................

x

A
CKNOWLEDGEMENT

................................
..............

xi

L
IST OF
S
YMBOLS
/A
BBREVATIONS

............................

xii

C
hapter 1

: INTRODUCTION

................................
................

1

1.1

Basic Phenomena

................................
...............................

1

1.2

Ideal Elements

................................
................................
....

1

1.3

Electric
Circuit

................................
................................
...

1

1.4

Units

................................
................................
........

2

1.5

Definition of Various Terms

................................
.................

3

1.6

Symbols used for Average, Rms and Maximum

Values

................................
................................
...........

5

1.7

Steady State Analysis and Transient Analysis

......................

6

1.8

Assumptions in Circuit Theory

................................
............

6

Chapter 2

: BASIC CONCEPT
S OF DC CIRCUITS

................................
.......

7

2.1

Basic Elements of Circuits

................................
..................

7

2.2

Nodes, Branches and Closed path

................................
.......

9

2.3

Series, Parallel, Star and Delta Connections

........................

11

2.4

Open Circuit and Short Circuit

................................
...........

15

2.5

Sign Conventions

................................
................................

16

2.6

Ohm’s and Kirchoff’s Laws

................................
..................

17

2.7

Voltage and
C
urrent
S
ource

................................
................

19

2.7.1 Ideal and Practical Current Source

...........................

19

2.7.2 Source Transformation

................................
.............

20

2.7.3 Series
-

Parallel Connection of Voltage

Sources

................................
.............................

22

2.7.4 Series
-

Parallel Connection of
C
urrent

Sources

................................
...............................

26

2.8

Dependent Sources

................................
.............................

29

2.9

Power and Energy

................................
...............................

30

2.10

Resistance Parameter
................................
..........................

30

2.11

Current and Voltage Division Rules

................................
.....

34

2.11.1 Current Division in Parallel Connected

Resistances
................................
..........................

34

2.11.2 Voltage Division in Series connected

Resi
stances
................................
.........................

36

2.12

Star
-
Delta Transformations

................................
.................

37

2.12.1 Delta to Star Transformation

................................
...

37

2.12.2 Star to Delta Transformation

................................
...

41

2.13

Network Topology

................................
...............................

46

2.14

Analysis of Series
-
Parallel Circuits

................................
......

52

2.14.1 Single Loop Circuit

................................
..................

54

2.14.2 Sin
gle Node Pair Circuit
................................
...........

55

2.15

Network Reduction

................................
.............................

56

2.16

Solved Problems

................................
................................
.

58

2.17

................................
.............

73

2.18

Exercises

................................
................................
...........

78

Chapter 3:
MESH & NODE ANALYSIS

OF DC CIRCUITS

..........................

81

3.1

Mesh Analysis

................................
................................
....

81

3.2

Mesh Analysis of Resistive Circuits

................................
.....

81

3.3

Mesh Analysis of Circuits Excited by
B
oth Voltage

and Current Sources

................................
.........................

101

3.4

Mesh Analysis of Circuits Excited by Independent

and Dependent Sources

................................
......................

106

3.4.1 Circuits with Dependent Voltage Source

....................

106

3.4.2 Circuits with Depende
nt Current Source

...................

107

3.5

Node Analysis

................................
................................
.....

116

3.6

Node Analysis of Resistive Circuits

................................
......

117

3.7

Node Analysis of Circuits Excited by both Voltage

and Current Sources
................................
...........................

131

3.8

Node Analysis of Circuits Excited by Independent

and Dependent Sources

................................
......................

1
43

3.8.1 Circuits with Dependent Current Source

...................

144

3.8.2 Circuits with Dependent Voltage Source

....................

145

3.9

Exercises

................................
................................
...........

151

Chapter 4:
ANALYSIS OF DC CIRCU
ITS USING THEOREMS

...................

157

4.1

Superposition Theorem

................................
.......................

157

4.2

Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorem

................................
........

176

4.3

Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

................................
.....

202

4.4

................................
.............

214

4.5

Exercises

................................
................................
...........

219

Chapter 5

:BASIC CONCEPTS OF A
C CIRCUITS

................................
.........

223

5.1

Introduction

................................
................................
.......

223

5.2

AC Voltage and Current Source

................................
...........

223

5.3
Sinusoidal
Voltage

226

5.4

Sinuso
idal Current

................................
.............................

231

5.5
Inductance

P
arameter

................................
........................

2
32

5.6

Capacitance Parameter

................................
.......................

238

5.7

Voltage
-
Current Relations of Fundamental

Parameters in Various Domains

................................
..........

243

5.8

Impedance Parameter

................................
.........................

247

5.9

KVL, KCL and Ohm’s Law applied to AC Circuits

.................

248

5.10

Current and Voltage Division Rules

................................
.....

249

5.10.1 Current Division in Paralllel Connected

Impedances

................................
.........................

249

5.10.2 Voltage Division in Series Connect
ed

Impedances

................................
.........................

249

5.11

Star
-
Delta Transformations

................................
.................

250

5.11.1 Delta to Star Transformation

................................
..

250

5.11.2 Star to Delta Transformation

................................
..

251

5.12

Solved Problems

................................
................................
.

252

5.13

................................
.............

261

5.14

Exercises

................................
................................
.........

265

Chap
ter 6 :
TRANSIENTS

................................
................................
....................

267

6.1

Introduction

................................
................................
.......

267

6.2

Transient Response

................................
............................

267

6.2.1 First and Second Order Circuits

...............................

268

6.3

Transient Analysis using Laplace Transform............

............

269

6.3.1 Some Standard Voltage Signals

................................

270

6.3.2 s
-
Domain Rep
resentation of R,L,C

Parameters

................................
..........................

271

6.3.3 Solving Initial and Final Conditions

Using Laplace Transform
................................
......

275

6.4

Transient in RL Circuit

................................
......................

276

6.4.1 Source Free Reponse of RL Circuit

............................

276

6.4.2 Step Response of RL Circuit

................................
..

278

6.4.3 RL Transient with Initial Current I
o

...........................

284

6.5

Transient in RC Circuit

................................
......................

288

6.5.1 Source Free Reponse of RC Circuit

...........................

288

6.5.2 Step Response of RC Circuit

................................
...

290

6.5.3 RC Transient with Initial Voltage V
o

..........................

296

6.6

Transient in RLC Cir
cuit

................................
....................

300

6.6.1 Source Free Response of RLC Circuit

........................

300

6.6.2 Step Response of RLC Circuit

................................
...

301

6.7

Solved Problems in RL Transient

................................
.........

312

6.8

Solved Problems in RC Transient

................................
.........

327

6.9

Solved Problems in RLC Transient

348

6.10

S

................................
.............

362

6.11

Exercises

................................
................................
...........

365

Chapter 7 :
ATE RESPONSE

...............................

371

7.1

Introduction

................................
................................
.......

371

7.2

Phase and Phase Difference

................................
................

372

7.3

Phasor Representation of Sinusoidal Quantities
...................

374

7.4

Power, Energy and Power Fact
or

................................
.........

377

7.5

Resistance Connected to Sinusoidal Source

.........................

380

7.6

Inductance Connected to Sinusoidal Source

........................

383

7.7

Capacitance Connected to Sinusoidal Source

......................

386

7.8

Impedance Parameter

................................
.........................

389

7.9

........................

396

7.9.1
Conductance

................................
............................

396

................................
..............................

399

7.9.3 Susceptances in Series and Parallel

..........................

404

7.10

RL Circuit Excited by Sinusoidal Source

..............................

405

7.11

RC Circuit Excited by Sinusoidal Source

.............................

415

7.12

RLC Circuit Excited by Sinusoidal Source

...........................

422

7
.13

................................
.............

445

7.14

Exercises

................................
................................
...........

448

Chapter 8

:
MESH & NODE ANALYSIS

OF AC CIRCUITS

..........................

451

8.1

Mesh Analysis of Reactive Circuits

................................
.....

451

8.2

Node Analysis of Reactive Circuits

................................
.......

462

8.3

Exercises

................................
................................
...........

469

Chapter 9 :

ANALYSIS OF AC

CIRCUITS USING THEOR
EMS

.................

471

9.1

Superposition Theorem

................................
.......................

471

9.2

Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems

................................
......

478

9.3

Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

................................
.....

488

9.4

Exercises

................................
................................
...........

505

Chapter 10 :

COUPLED CIRCUITS

................................
................................
...

507

10.1

Introduction

................................
................................
.......

507

10.2

Self Inductance and
Mutual Inductance

..............................

508

10.2.1 Self Inductance

................................
......................

508

10.2.2 Mutual Inductance

................................
.................

508

10.2.3 Coefficient of Coupling

................................
...........

510

10.3

Analysis of Coupled Coils

................................
....................

512

10.3.1 Dot convention for Coupled Coils

............................

513

10.3.2 Expression for Self and Mutual

Induced

emf in Various Domains

516

10.3.3 Writing Mesh Equations for Coupled Coils

..............

518

10.3.4 Electrical Equivalent of Magnetic

Coupling

................................
..............................

519

10.4

Series and Parallel Connections of Coupled Coils

.................

522

10.5

Tuned Coupled Cir
cuits

................................
......................

530

10.5.1 Single Tuned Coupled Circuits

...............................

530

10.5.2 Double Tuned Coupled Circuits

..............................

535

10.6

Solved Problems

................................
................................
.

540

10.7

................................
.............

562

10.8

Exercises

................................
................................
...........

566

Chapter 11 :

RESONANCE

................................
................................
..................

571

11.1

Series Resonance

................................
................................

571

11.2

Parallel Resonance

................................
..............................

589

11.3

................................
.............

620

11.4

Exercises

................................
................................
...........

625

Chapter 12 :

ONE PORT & TWO PORT
NETWORKS

................................
...

629

12.1

Introduction

................................
................................
.......

629

12.2

Parameters
O
f
O
ne
P
ort
N
etwork

................................
.........

630

12.3

Parameters
O
f

T
wo
P
ort
N
etwork

................................
.........

630

12.4

Impedanc
e Parameters (or Z
-
Parameters)

............................

633

12.5

-
Parameters)

............................

634

12.6

Hybrid

P
arameters (or h
-
Parameters)

................................
...

636

12.7

Inverse Hybrid Parameters (or g
-
Parameters)

.......................

637

12.8

Transmission Parameters(or ABCD
-
Parameters)

..................

639

12.9

Invers
e Transmission Parameters

(or A

B

C

D

-
Parameters)

................................
.....................

640

12.10

Relationship Between Parameter Sets

................................
..

641

12.11

Properties Of Two Port Networks

................................
.........

647

12.12

Inter Connection of Two Port Networks

................................

647

12.13

Solved Problems

................................
................................
.

650

12.14

Short Questions and

................................
.............

668

12.15

Exercises

................................
................................
...........

673

Chapter13:
ANALYSIS OF CIRCUITS

USING LAPLACE TRANSF
ORM

..

677

13.1

Introduction

................................
................................
.......

677

13.2

Complex Frequency

................................
...........................

677

13.3

Complex Frequency Plane

................................
...................

679

13.4

Laplace Transform

................................
..............................

680

13.4.1

Laplace Transform of Some Imp
ortant Functions

..

682

13.4.2

Inverse Laplace Transform

................................
...

686

13.4.3

Properties and Theorems of Laplace Transform

.....

692

13.4.4

Convolution

696

13.5

Network Fu
nctions

................................
..............................

704

13.5.1

Network Functions of One Port Network

...............

705

13.5.2

N
etwork Functions of Two port network
................

705

13.5.3

Transfer Functions

................................
..............

707

13.5.4

Zeros And Poles Of Network Functions

.................

708

13.5.5

Time Domain Function From Poles
-
zero Plot

.........

710

13.5.6

Natural Response and s
-
plane

..............................

712

13.6

Mesh Analysis Of s
-
domain

Circuits

................................
....

715

13.6.1

Mesh Analysis Of s
-
domain Circuits

.....................

715

13.6.2

Node Analysis Of s
-
domain Circuits

......................

717

13.7

................................
.............

731

13.8

Exercises

................................
................................
...........

734

Chapter 14 :
FOURIER SERIES AND F
OURIER TRANSFORM

...................

739

14.1

Trignometric Form Of

Fourier Series

................................
..

739

14.1.1

Definition Of Trignometric form Of Fourier Series

.

739

14.1.2

Conditions For Existence Of Fourier Series

...........

740

14.1.3

Derivation Of The Equations for a
0
, a
n

And b
n

.......

740

14.2

Exponential Form Of Fourier Series
................................
.....

744

14.2.1

Definition Of Exponential Form Of Fourier Series

.

744

14.2.2

Derivation Of Equation For C
n

................................
.......................

744

14.2.3

Relation Between Fourier Coefficient Of

Trignometric And Exponential Form

.....................

745

14.2.4

Line spectrum(or Frequency Spectrum)

...............

746

14.3

Fourier Coefficients Of Waveform With Symmetry

................

748

14.3.1

Even Symmetry
................................
....................

748

14.3.2

Odd Symmetry

................................
.....................

750

14.3.3

Half Wave Symmetry (or Alternation Symmetry)

....

753

14.3.4

Quarter Wave Symmetry

................................
......

754

14.4

Solved Problems In Fourier Series

................................
.......

755

14
.5

Fourier Transform

................................
..............................

794

14.6

Properties of Fourier Transform

................................
...........

795

14.7

Fourier Transform of some Important Signals

......................

803

14.8

Fourier Transform of a Periodic Function

............................

816

14.9

System Function

................................
................................
.

816

14.10

Response in Frequency Domain

................................
..........

818

14.11

Rela
tion Between Fourier and Laplace Transform

................

819

14.12

Solved Problems in Fourier Transform

................................
.

821

14.13

................................
.............

835

14.14

Exercises

................................
................................
...........

840

APPENDIX

I

: Calculation using calculator in complex mode

.................

845

INDEX

..................

847