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C
O N T E N T





Page No.

P
REFACE

................................
..............................

x

A
CKNOWLEDGEMENT

................................
..............

xi

L
IST OF
S
YMBOLS
/A
BBREVATIONS

............................

xii


C
hapter 1

: INTRODUCTION

................................
................


1




1.1

Basic Phenomena

................................
...............................



1


1.2

Ideal Elements

................................
................................
....



1


1.3

Electric
Circuit

................................
................................
...



1


1.4

Units



................................
................................
........


2


1.5

Definition of Various Terms

................................
.................



3


1.6

Symbols used for Average, Rms and Maximum



Values


................................
................................
...........



5


1.7

Steady State Analysis and Transient Analysis

......................



6


1.8

Assumptions in Circuit Theory

................................
............


6


Chapter 2

: BASIC CONCEPT
S OF DC CIRCUITS

................................
.......


7




2.1

Basic Elements of Circuits

................................
..................


7


2.2

Nodes, Branches and Closed path

................................
.......


9


2.3

Series, Parallel, Star and Delta Connections

........................


11


2.4

Open Circuit and Short Circuit

................................
...........


15


2.5

Sign Conventions

................................
................................


16


2.6

Ohm’s and Kirchoff’s Laws

................................
..................


17


2.7

Voltage and
C
urrent
S
ource

................................
................


19



2.7.1 Ideal and Practical Current Source

...........................


19



2.7.2 Source Transformation

................................
.............


20



2.7.3 Series
-

Parallel Connection of Voltage




Sources

................................
.............................


22



2.7.4 Series
-

Parallel Connection of
C
urrent




Sources

................................
...............................


26


2.8

Dependent Sources

................................
.............................


29


2.9

Power and Energy

................................
...............................


30


2.10

Resistance Parameter
................................
..........................


30


2.11

Current and Voltage Division Rules

................................
.....


34



2.11.1 Current Division in Parallel Connected




Resistances
................................
..........................


34



2.11.2 Voltage Division in Series connected





Resi
stances
................................
.........................


36


2.12

Star
-
Delta Transformations

................................
.................


37



2.12.1 Delta to Star Transformation

................................
...


37



2.12.2 Star to Delta Transformation

................................
...


41


2.13

Network Topology

................................
...............................


46


2.14

Analysis of Series
-
Parallel Circuits

................................
......


52



2.14.1 Single Loop Circuit

................................
..................


54



2.14.2 Sin
gle Node Pair Circuit
................................
...........


55


2.15

Network Reduction

................................
.............................


56


2.16

Solved Problems

................................
................................
.


58


2.17

Short Questions and Answers

................................
.............


73


2.18

Exercises

................................
................................
...........


78


Chapter 3:
MESH & NODE ANALYSIS

OF DC CIRCUITS

..........................


81



3.1

Mesh Analysis

................................
................................
....


81


3.2

Mesh Analysis of Resistive Circuits

................................
.....


81


3.3

Mesh Analysis of Circuits Excited by
B
oth Voltage



and Current Sources

................................
.........................


101


3.4

Mesh Analysis of Circuits Excited by Independent



and Dependent Sources

................................
......................


106



3.4.1 Circuits with Dependent Voltage Source

....................


106



3.4.2 Circuits with Depende
nt Current Source

...................


107


3.5

Node Analysis

................................
................................
.....


116


3.6

Node Analysis of Resistive Circuits

................................
......


117


3.7

Node Analysis of Circuits Excited by both Voltage



and Current Sources
................................
...........................


131


3.8

Node Analysis of Circuits Excited by Independent



and Dependent Sources

................................
......................


1
43



3.8.1 Circuits with Dependent Current Source

...................


144



3.8.2 Circuits with Dependent Voltage Source

....................


145


3.9

Exercises


................................
................................
...........


151


Chapter 4:
ANALYSIS OF DC CIRCU
ITS USING THEOREMS

...................


157



4.1

Superposition Theorem

................................
.......................


157


4.2

Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorem

................................
........


176


4.3

Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

................................
.....


202


4.4

Short Questions and Answers

................................
.............


214


4.5

Exercises


................................
................................
...........


219


Chapter 5

:BASIC CONCEPTS OF A
C CIRCUITS

................................
.........


223



5.1

Introduction

................................
................................
.......


223



5.2

AC Voltage and Current Source

................................
...........


223



5.3
Sinusoidal
Voltage








226



5.4

Sinuso
idal Current

................................
.............................


231



5.5
Inductance

P
arameter

................................
........................



2
32



5.6

Capacitance Parameter

................................
.......................


238



5.7

Voltage
-
Current Relations of Fundamental



Parameters in Various Domains

................................
..........


243



5.8

Impedance Parameter

................................
.........................


247



5.9

KVL, KCL and Ohm’s Law applied to AC Circuits

.................


248



5.10

Current and Voltage Division Rules

................................
.....


249



5.10.1 Current Division in Paralllel Connected




Impedances

................................
.........................


249



5.10.2 Voltage Division in Series Connect
ed




Impedances

................................
.........................


249


5.11

Star
-
Delta Transformations

................................
.................


250



5.11.1 Delta to Star Transformation

................................
..


250



5.11.2 Star to Delta Transformation

................................
..


251


5.12

Solved Problems

................................
................................
.


252


5.13

Short Questions and Answers

................................
.............


261


5.14

Exercises


................................
................................
.........


265


Chap
ter 6 :
TRANSIENTS

................................
................................
....................


267



6.1

Introduction

................................
................................
.......


267


6.2

Transient Response

................................
............................


267



6.2.1 First and Second Order Circuits

...............................


268


6.3

Transient Analysis using Laplace Transform............

............


269



6.3.1 Some Standard Voltage Signals

................................


270



6.3.2 s
-
Domain Rep
resentation of R,L,C


Parameters

................................
..........................


271



6.3.3 Solving Initial and Final Conditions




Using Laplace Transform
................................
......


275


6.4

Transient in RL Circuit

................................
......................


276



6.4.1 Source Free Reponse of RL Circuit

............................


276



6.4.2 Step Response of RL Circuit

................................
..


278




6.4.3 RL Transient with Initial Current I
o

...........................


284


6.5

Transient in RC Circuit

................................
......................


288



6.5.1 Source Free Reponse of RC Circuit

...........................


288



6.5.2 Step Response of RC Circuit

................................
...


290



6.5.3 RC Transient with Initial Voltage V
o

..........................


296


6.6

Transient in RLC Cir
cuit

................................
....................


300



6.6.1 Source Free Response of RLC Circuit

........................


300



6.6.2 Step Response of RLC Circuit

................................
...


301


6.7

Solved Problems in RL Transient

................................
.........


312


6.8

Solved Problems in RC Transient

................................
.........


327


6.9

Solved Problems in RLC Transient





348


6.10

S
hort Questions and Answers

................................
.............


362


6.11

Exercises


................................
................................
...........


365


Chapter 7 :
SINUSOIDAL STEADY ST
ATE RESPONSE

...............................


371



7.1

Introduction

................................
................................
.......


371


7.2

Phase and Phase Difference

................................
................


372


7.3

Phasor Representation of Sinusoidal Quantities
...................


374


7.4

Power, Energy and Power Fact
or

................................
.........


377


7.5

Resistance Connected to Sinusoidal Source

.........................


380


7.6

Inductance Connected to Sinusoidal Source

........................


383


7.7

Capacitance Connected to Sinusoidal Source

......................


386


7.8

Impedance Parameter

................................
.........................


389


7.9

Conductance, Susceptance and Admittance

........................



396



7.9.1
Conductance

................................
............................


396



7.9.2 Admittance

................................
..............................



399



7.9.3 Susceptances in Series and Parallel

..........................


404


7.10

RL Circuit Excited by Sinusoidal Source

..............................


405


7.11

RC Circuit Excited by Sinusoidal Source

.............................




415


7.12

RLC Circuit Excited by Sinusoidal Source

...........................


422


7
.13

Short Questions And Answers

................................
.............


445


7.14

Exercises


................................
................................
...........


448


Chapter 8

:
MESH & NODE ANALYSIS

OF AC CIRCUITS

..........................



451



8.1

Mesh Analysis of Reactive Circuits

................................
.....


451


8.2

Node Analysis of Reactive Circuits

................................
.......


462


8.3

Exercises


................................
................................
...........


469


Chapter 9 :

ANALYSIS OF AC

CIRCUITS USING THEOR
EMS

.................


471



9.1

Superposition Theorem

................................
.......................


471


9.2

Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems

................................
......


478


9.3

Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

................................
.....


488


9.4

Exercises


................................
................................
...........


505


Chapter 10 :

COUPLED CIRCUITS

................................
................................
...


507



10.1

Introduction

................................
................................
.......


507


10.2

Self Inductance and
Mutual Inductance

..............................


508



10.2.1 Self Inductance

................................
......................


508



10.2.2 Mutual Inductance

................................
.................


508



10.2.3 Coefficient of Coupling

................................
...........


510


10.3

Analysis of Coupled Coils

................................
....................


512



10.3.1 Dot convention for Coupled Coils

............................


513



10.3.2 Expression for Self and Mutual

Induced




emf in Various Domains


516



10.3.3 Writing Mesh Equations for Coupled Coils

..............


518



10.3.4 Electrical Equivalent of Magnetic




Coupling

................................
..............................


519


10.4

Series and Parallel Connections of Coupled Coils

.................


522


10.5

Tuned Coupled Cir
cuits

................................
......................


530



10.5.1 Single Tuned Coupled Circuits

...............................


530



10.5.2 Double Tuned Coupled Circuits

..............................


535


10.6

Solved Problems

................................
................................
.


540


10.7

Short Questions and Answers

................................
.............


562


10.8

Exercises


................................
................................
...........


566


Chapter 11 :

RESONANCE

................................
................................
..................


571



11.1

Series Resonance

................................
................................


571


11.2

Parallel Resonance

................................
..............................


589


11.3

Short Questions and Answers

................................
.............


620


11.4

Exercises


................................
................................
...........


625


Chapter 12 :

ONE PORT & TWO PORT
NETWORKS

................................
...


629



12.1

Introduction

................................
................................
.......


629


12.2

Parameters
O
f
O
ne
P
ort
N
etwork

................................
.........


630


12.3

Parameters
O
f

T
wo
P
ort
N
etwork

................................
.........


630


12.4

Impedanc
e Parameters (or Z
-
Parameters)

............................


633


12.5

Admittance Parameters (or Y
-
Parameters)

............................


634


12.6

Hybrid

P
arameters (or h
-
Parameters)

................................
...


636


12.7

Inverse Hybrid Parameters (or g
-
Parameters)

.......................


637


12.8

Transmission Parameters(or ABCD
-
Parameters)

..................


639


12.9

Invers
e Transmission Parameters



(or A

B

C

D

-
Parameters)

................................
.....................


640


12.10

Relationship Between Parameter Sets

................................
..


641


12.11

Properties Of Two Port Networks

................................
.........


647


12.12

Inter Connection of Two Port Networks

................................


647


12.13

Solved Problems

................................
................................
.


650


12.14

Short Questions and

Answers

................................
.............


668


12.15

Exercises


................................
................................
...........


673


Chapter13:
ANALYSIS OF CIRCUITS

USING LAPLACE TRANSF
ORM

..

677




13.1

Introduction

................................
................................
.......


677


13.2

Complex Frequency

................................
...........................


677


13.3

Complex Frequency Plane

................................
...................


679


13.4

Laplace Transform

................................
..............................


680



13.4.1

Laplace Transform of Some Imp
ortant Functions

..


682



13.4.2

Inverse Laplace Transform

................................
...


686



13.4.3

Properties and Theorems of Laplace Transform

.....


692



13.4.4

Convolution







696


13.5

Network Fu
nctions

................................
..............................


704



13.5.1

Network Functions of One Port Network

...............


705



13.5.2

N
etwork Functions of Two port network
................


705



13.5.3

Transfer Functions

................................
..............


707



13.5.4

Zeros And Poles Of Network Functions

.................


708



13.5.5

Time Domain Function From Poles
-
zero Plot

.........


710



13.5.6

Natural Response and s
-
plane

..............................


712


13.6

Mesh Analysis Of s
-
domain

Circuits

................................
....


715



13.6.1

Mesh Analysis Of s
-
domain Circuits

.....................


715



13.6.2

Node Analysis Of s
-
domain Circuits

......................


717


13.7

Short Questions And Answers

................................
.............


731


13.8

Exercises


................................
................................
...........


734


Chapter 14 :
FOURIER SERIES AND F
OURIER TRANSFORM

...................


739



14.1

Trignometric Form Of

Fourier Series

................................
..


739



14.1.1

Definition Of Trignometric form Of Fourier Series

.


739



14.1.2

Conditions For Existence Of Fourier Series

...........


740



14.1.3

Derivation Of The Equations for a
0
, a
n

And b
n

.......


740


14.2

Exponential Form Of Fourier Series
................................
.....


744




14.2.1

Definition Of Exponential Form Of Fourier Series

.


744



14.2.2

Derivation Of Equation For C
n

................................
.......................

744



14.2.3

Relation Between Fourier Coefficient Of




Trignometric And Exponential Form

.....................


745



14.2.4


Line spectrum(or Frequency Spectrum)

...............


746


14.3

Fourier Coefficients Of Waveform With Symmetry

................


748



14.3.1

Even Symmetry
................................
....................


748



14.3.2

Odd Symmetry

................................
.....................


750



14.3.3

Half Wave Symmetry (or Alternation Symmetry)

....


753



14.3.4

Quarter Wave Symmetry

................................
......


754


14.4

Solved Problems In Fourier Series

................................
.......


755


14
.5

Fourier Transform

................................
..............................


794


14.6

Properties of Fourier Transform

................................
...........


795


14.7

Fourier Transform of some Important Signals

......................


803


14.8

Fourier Transform of a Periodic Function

............................


816


14.9

System Function

................................
................................
.


816


14.10

Response in Frequency Domain

................................
..........


818


14.11

Rela
tion Between Fourier and Laplace Transform

................


819


14.12

Solved Problems in Fourier Transform

................................
.


821


14.13

Short Questions and Answers

................................
.............


835


14.14

Exercises


................................
................................
...........


840


APPENDIX

I

: Calculation using calculator in complex mode

.................


845

INDEX

..................








847