preface

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7 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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CONTENTS

PREFACE

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1. INTROD
UCTION TO CIRCUIT TH
EORY

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1.1. CIRCUIT VARIABLES
-

BASIC TERMS and DEFINITIONS

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1.2. CLASSIFICATION of CIRCUIT THEORY PROBLEMS

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2. DC ANALYSIS

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2.1. CIRCUIT ELEMENTS

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CLASSIFICATION

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PASSIVE TWO
-
TERMINAL ELEMENTS

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Resistor

................................
................................
................

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Voltmeter

................................
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.............

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Amm
eter

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ACTIVE TWO
-
TERMINAL ELEMENTS

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Voltage source

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................................
.....

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Current source

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................................
....

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2.2. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM and KIRCHHOFF’s LAWS

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

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..........................

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KIRCHHOFF’S LAWS

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.......................

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2.3. ANALYSIS of COMPLEX CIRCUITS

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GENERALIZED KIRCHHOFF’S ANALYSIS

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NODE VOLTAGE (NODAL)
ANALYSIS

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2.4. ENERGY and POWER CONSERVATION PRINCIPLE

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2.5. TWO
-
TERMINAL SUBCIRCUIT, THEVENIN’s/NORTON’s THEOREM

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PASSIVE TWO
-
TERMINAL SUBCIRCUIT

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Series connection of resistors, Voltage divider

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Parallel connection of resistors, Current divider

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ACTIVE TWO
-
TERMINAL SUBCIRCUIT

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Thevenin’s theorem

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Norton’s theorem

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Practical sources

................................
................................
.

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2.6. MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER THEOREM

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2.7. TRANSFER FUNCTION, SUPERPOSITION PRINCIPLE

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TRANSFER FUNCT
I
ON

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....................

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One
-
dimensional case

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Multi
-
dimensional case

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SUPERPOSITION PRINCIPLE

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2.8. SEPARATION PRINCIPLE (SOURCE SUBSTITUTION THEOREM)

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2.9. MULTI
-
TERMINA
L ELEMENTS

................................
...

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ELEMENT DESCRIPTION


CONDUCTANCE MATRIX

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Passive multi
-
terminal element

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.........

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Two
-
terminal element (one
-
port)

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Three
-
terminal element

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Two
-
port

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..

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Active multi
-
terminal element

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...........

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OTHER MATRICES OF MULTI
-
TERM
INAL ELEMENT

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ANALYSIS OF CIRCUITS WITH MULTI
-
TERMINAL ELEMENT(S)

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2.10. DEPENDENT (CONTROLLED) ELEMENTS

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Arbitrary dependent element
-

description

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Controlled sources
-

description

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.......

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Use o
f controlled sources to element modeling

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Transistor

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................................
................................
.

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Operational amplifier

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Arbitrary three
-
terminal or two
-
port element

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Analysis of circuits containing controlled sources
...........

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2.11. DESIGN
TOLERANCES, SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS

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Designation of the maximum design deviation of circuit variable
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ned.

Worst case

analysis

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Sensitivity analysis

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Designation of parameter design tolerances

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2.
12. ANALYSIS OF NONLINEAR CIRCUITS

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GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS

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Series connection of elements

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Parallel connection of elements

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Single
-
loop circuit

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Circuit with one nonlinear element

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ANALYSIS BASED ON PWL APPROXIMATION

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ANALYSIS BASED ON NEWTON
-
RAPHSON ITERATION SCHEME

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2.13. NETWORK ANALOGIES


MAGNETIC CIRCUITS

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3. TRANSIENT ANALYSI
S

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3.1. KIRCHHOFF’S LAWS and PASSIVE
ELEMENT LAWS

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KIRCHHOFF’S LAWS

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PASSIVE ELEMENT LAWS

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Resistor

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Capacitor

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Coil (Inductor)

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Passive elements


Summary

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3.2. TRANSIENT ANALYSIS in CIRCUITS with STEP EXCITATION

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FORCED RESPONSE

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.........................

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1
st

order circuit


time
-
domain
method

............................

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1
st

order circuit


s
-
domain method

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..

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1
st

order circuit


boundary values based method

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2
nd

order circuit


s
-
domain method

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.

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NATURAL RESPONSE

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......................

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COMPLETE RESPONSE: NATURAL RESPON
SE + FORCED RESPONSE
..........

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3.3. TRANSIENT ANALYSIS in CIRCUITS with ARBITRARY EXCITATION

...

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TRANSFER FUNCTION


PROPERTIES and SELECTED EXAMPLES

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Properties

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Transfer functions of selected circuits

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Integrator

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.

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Differentiator

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TRANSFER FUNCTION BASED TRANSIENT ANALYSIS
-

EXAMPLES

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Practical step

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Practical pulse

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4. AC STEADY
-
STATE ANALYSIS

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4.1. ALTERNATING CURRENT


RMS VALUE, PHASOR NOTATION

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4.2. PHASOR ANALYSIS

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KIRCHHOFF’S LAWS

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ELEMENT LAWS

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Resistor

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Inductor

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Capacitor

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GENERAL TWO
-
TERMINAL PHASOR CIRCUIT, PHASOR IMPEDANCE

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ALGORITHM OF AC STEADY
-
STATE ANALYSIS

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4.3. AC STEADY
-
STATE POWER

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MEASURES OF POWE
R

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Instantaneous power

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Average or real power

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Apparent power

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Reactive power

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Complex power

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MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER

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4.4. FREQUENCY CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO
-
TERMINAL SUBCIRCUIT

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IDEAL ELEMENTS


SUMMARY

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Resistor

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Inductor

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Capacitor

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PRACTICAL COIL and PRACTICAL CAPACITOR

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RESONANT CIRCUITS

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Series
-
resonant circuit

RLC

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Parallel
-
resonant circuit

RLC

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ned.

Complex
-
resonant circuit

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4.5. TRANSFER FUNCTION APPROACH
-

FREQUENCY RESPONSE

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BODE (LOGARITHMIC) PL
OT

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FILTERS

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Low
-
Pass
Filter
-

LPF

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High
-
Pass Filter
-

HPF

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Band
-
Pass Filter
-

BPF

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Band
-
Stop Filter
-

BSF

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4.6. ANALYSIS OF CIRCUIT RESPONSE WHEN ONE CIRCUIT CONSTANT
VARIES

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4.7. MUTUAL INDUCTANCE AND TR
ANSFORMERS

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MUTUAL INDUCTANCE


BASIC TRANSFORMER

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IDEAL TRANSFORMER

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PRACTICAL IRON
-
CORE TRANSFORMER

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4.8. THREE
-
PHASE CIRCUITS

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WYE
-
WYE SYSTEMS

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DELTA
-
DELTA and WYE
-
DELTA SYSTEMS

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COMBINATIONAL SYSTEMS

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.........

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POWER IN THREE
-
PHASE SYSTEMS

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5. TRANSMISSION LINE

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NED.

5.1. INTRODUCTION

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5.2. TRANSIENT ANALYSIS

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5.3. AC ANALYSIS


STANDING WAVES

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MATCHED LOAD LINE

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ARBITRARY TERMINATION

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Open
-
circuited line

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Short
-
circuited line

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TRANSMISSION LINE as CIRCUIT ELEMENT, INPUT IMPEDANCE

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APPENDIX A
-

LAPLACE TRANSFORM

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DEFINITION

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PROPERTIES

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INVERSE TRANSFORMATION
-

HEAVISIDE’S FORMULA

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LAPLACE TRANSFORM DICTIONARY

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APPENDIX B


COMPLEX NUMBERS

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APPENDIX C


TERMS AND CONCEPTS

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REFERENCES

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INDEX

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PREFACE


The aim of this book is to provide introductory, yet comprehen
sive, treatment of circuit
analysis and design, to lay down some important and necessary foundations for subsequent
use in later engineering courses, such as Signal Theory, Electronics Fundamentals and others.


Since this book is designated primarily for
the first or the second year introductory
courses, the presentation is geared to students who are being exposed to the basic concepts of
electric circuits for the first time. However, it is assumed that students have possessed some
elementary knowledge of
physics and have some understanding of freshman calculus, such as
differential
-
integral calculus and vector
-
matrix formulation and solution of linear systems of
equations. Other more complex mathematical topics, necessary to describe the considered
circuit

theory problems, such as i) Laplace transform and singularity functions, ii) algebraic
manipulation of complex numbers, iii) solution of nonlinear systems of equations, are raised
in a limited and self
-
contained manner, and are not required as prerequisit
e background. The
first two are the subjects of appendices, the third is developed in the chapter in which it is
needed. The book does not contain proofs of theorems, as they can be found in commonly
available books dealing with the same subject. Resistanc
e from expanding the length of the
book to the extremes sometimes found in current practice was Author’s motivation. On the
other hand all the theorems and definitions are illustrated by many practical examples. It
should be emphasized, that while presenti
ng basic components of electric circuits and
introducing different techniques of circuit analysis, particular attention is given to the
practical aspects and the physical interpretation of results.


The main aim of the book is to provide students with ess
ential tools of analysis of circuits
together with many important concepts underlying the theory of electronic circuits. Care has
been taken to fashion the selection and order of content to be of use to the electrical
engineering baccalaureate students, bu
t also to students of other engineering disciplines, as
the analysis and design of electric circuits is a critical skill for all engineers. Nowadays,
English is the binding language in engineering world and the book provides complete
vocabulary of terms an
d concepts used in the Circuit Theory. They are collected in the
Appendix C glossary, together with Polish equivalents. This makes the book a very useful
educational aid, addressed not only to English speaking students, but also to Polish speaking
students

having some minor fluency in written English


indispensable for today’s engineers.


The book consists of five basic parts


chapters and three appendices. The general order of
the content has been selected so that students may learn as many of the techn
iques of circuit
analysis and design as possible in the simplest context. These logically divide into i) real
numbers domain
-

DC analysis), ii) time
-
domain and Laplace transform domain
-

transient
analysis), iii) phasor or frequency domain
-

AC analysis.
These analyses are discussed first for
circuits with lumped constants, next the transmission line transient and AC analyses are
considered.


In the brief introductory Chapter 1, the electric variables used to describe circuit elements
are revised and prob
lems of circuit analysis and design are classified.


The second Chapter is intended to provide a thorough treatment of circuit analysis based
on direct current (dc) circuits. First, linear circuits are discussed. Then, nonlinear resistive
circuits and thei
r network analogy (magnetic circuits) are studied. Many important definitions
and fundamental principles are given. Various computational techniques are presented with
numerous practical examples, such that the student is expected to be conversant with the

principles of circuits before entering the next Chapter 3.


The third Chapter and the fourth Chapter are intended to provide a thorough treatment of
transient analysis and alternate current (ac) analysis, respectively. Some of the concepts
taught in Chapt
er 1 are revised and extended to more useful and general practical application
in time domain and in frequency domain.


The fifth Chapter is intended to provide a thorough treatment of circuits with distributed
in place (not lumped) constants. Transmission

line is discussed, first its transient response to
aperiodic input, then, steady
-
state sinusoidal response.


It is recommended to organize the material here into a two
-
semester introductory course,
with 30 hours in Semester 1 and 30
-
45 hours in Semester 2
, and to proceed chapter by
chapter. Appendix A on Laplace transform and singularity functions should be reviewed
before studying Chapter 3, Appendix B on complex numbers should be reviewed before
studying Chapter 4, which relies heavily on complex and pha
sor algebra.


The major results of the theory may appear quite subtle or even abstract, and to make
them easy to comprehend numerous practical problems have been provided. The problems are
organized into: i) examples and ii) drill problems. Each section o
f each chapter has numerous
step
-
by
-
step solved examples and ends with drill problems which are designed to range over
all topics of the section and they are generally simple. They can be well used as the formative
assessment test or final examination test

problems. In all there are near 80 exercises and near
300 drill problems.


APPENDIX C


TERMS AND CONCEPTS

Acceptability
region

Obszar sprawności

Region in the parameter space

with boundaries
designated by the design constraints on circuit
variables:
.

Active circuit

Obwód aktywny

Circuit that contains at least one active element,
independent source.

Active element

Element aktywny

Element that may deliver energy to a circuit.

Admittance

in
s
-
domain


Admitancja
operatorowa

Reciprocal of
.

Admittan
ce

in phasor
-
domain


Admitancja
symboliczna

Reciprocal of
,

Alternating
current

i

Prąd sinusoidalny

Sinusoidally

time
-
varying current

,


-

amplitude

or
peak value
,


-

angular frequency
,

-

initial phase angle
.

Ampere

A

Amper

See Current

Ampere
-
turns

A
t

Amperozwoje

See Magnetomotive force

Amplitude

(peak value)


Amplituda

(wartość szczytowa)

See Alternating current

Angular (radian)
frequency


Pulsacja

(częstotliwość
kątowa)

See Alternating current
,
Frequency

Apparent power

S

Moc pozorna

Power that defines the maximum capacity of the
s
inusoidal source,
.

Unit:
volt
-
ampere

.

Artificial or
temporary
magnet

Elektromagnes

See Electromagnet or solenoid coil

Attenuation
constant


Tłumienność

See Propagation constant

Autotransformer

Autotransformator

Transformer that has windings both ma
gnetically
and electrically interconnected.

Average or real
power

P

Moc czynna

Average value of the instantaneous power in the ac
circuit. Represents the power delivered by the
source or absorbed by the circuit. Unit:
watt

[W].

,


is the so called
power

factor
.