licensing of a new NPP

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SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN

RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY

1


Legal and regulatory
framework in Finland for
licensing of a new NPP




VN/RA/01 Task 1&2 Workshop

Hanoi, October 2012


Confidential


Ilari Aro

STUK

SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN

RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY

2

Governmental, Legal and Regulatory Framework for
Safety, IAEA General Safety Requirements Part 1

Regulatory organization




Requirement 16: Organizational structure of the
regulatory body and allocation of resources


The regulatory body shall structure its organization and
manage its resources so as to discharge its responsibilities
and perform its functions effectively; this shall be
accomplished in a manner commensurate with the radiation
risks associated with facilities and activities.


Requirement 18: Staffing and competence of the
regulatory body


The regulatory body shall employ a sufficient number of
qualified and competent staff, commensurate with the nature
and the number of facilities and activities to be regulated, to
perform its functions and to discharge its responsibilities.

SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN

RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY

3

Regulatory organization and human resources


4.11. The regulatory body has to have appropriately qualified and
competent staff. A human resources plan shall be developed that
states the number of staff necessary and the essential
knowledge, skills and abilities for them to perform all the
necessary regulatory functions.


4.12. The human resources plan for the regulatory body shall
cover recruitment and, where relevant, rotation of staff in order to
obtain staff with appropriate competence and skills, and shall
include a strategy to compensate for the departure of qualified
staff.


4.13. A process shall be established to develop and maintain the
necessary competence and skills of staff of the regulatory body,
as an element of knowledge management. This process shall
include the development of a specific training programme on the
basis of an analysis of the necessary competence and skills. The
training programme shall cover principles, concepts and
technological aspects, as well as the procedures followed by the
regulatory body for assessing applications for authorization, for
inspecting facilities and activities, and for enforcing regulatory
requirements.

SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN

RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY

4

Management system


Requirement 19: The management system of the regulatory
body


The regulatory body shall establish, implement, and assess and
improve a management system that is aligned with its safety goals
and ontributes to their achievement.



4.14. The regulatory body shall establish and implement a
management system whose processes are open and transparent.
The management system of the regulatory body shall be
continuously assessed and improved.


4.16. The management system shall maintain the efficiency and
effectiveness of the regulatory body in discharging its responsibilities
and performing its functions. This includes the promotion of
enhancements in safety, and the fulfilment of its obligations in an
appropriate, timely and cost effective manner so as to build
confidence.

SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN

RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY

5

Advisory committees


Requirement 20: Liaison with advisory bodies and
support organizations


The regulatory body shall obtain technical or other expert
professional advice or services as necessary in support of its
regulatory functions, but this shall not relieve the regulatory
body of its assigned responsibilities.


Requirement 21: Liaison between the regulatory
body and authorized parties


The regulatory body shall establish formal and informal
mechanisms of communication with authorized parties on all
safety related issues, conducting a professional and
constructive liaison.

SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN

RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY

6

Advisory committees


4.18. The regulatory body may decide to give formal status to the
processes by which it is provided with expert opinion and advice. If the
establishment of advisory bodies, whether on a temporary or a
permanent basis, is considered necessary, it is essential that such
bodies provide independent advice, whether technical or non
-
technical
in nature.


4.19. Technical and other expert professional advice or services may be
provided in several ways by experts external to the regulatory body. The
regulatory body may decide to establish a dedicated support
organization, in which case clear limits shall be set for the degree of
control and direction by the regulatory body over the work of the support
organization. Other forms of external support would require a formal
contract between the regulatory body and the provider of advice or
services.


4.20. Arrangements shall be made to ensure that there is no conflict of
interest for those organizations that provide the regulatory body with
advice or services.8 If this is not possible domestically, then the
necessary advice or assistance shall be sought from organizations in
other States or, as and where appropriate, from international
organizations which have no such conflicts of interest.

SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN

RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY

Olkiluoto NPP (TVO)



2 operating units
-

ABB BWRs



OL3 (EPR) under construction



DiP approved for OL4



Interim Spent Fuel Storage at site


L/ILLW repository



Posiva “Onkalo”

Loviisa NPP (Fortum)



2 operating units


VVERs



Interim Spent Fuel Storage at site



L/ILLW repository


Fennovoima Ltd



New utility, no operating reactors



DiP approved for FA1, Hanhikivi Site

Nuclear power
programme
in Finland

Photo: TVO

Photo: Fortum

SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN

RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY

STUK
-

Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority

Mission:



Protecting people, society,
environment, and future
generations from harmful
effects of radiation





SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN

RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY

9

Main contacts between STUK and Ministries

MINISTRY OF SOCIAL

AFFAIRS AND HEALTH

-

administrative authority


for the use of radiation

MINISTRY OF EMPLOYMENT AND
THE ECONOMY

-

administrative authority for the


use of nuclear energy

MINISTRY OF THE INTERIOR

-

rescue and protection duties in


emergency conditions

-

security and physical protection

MINISTRY FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS

-

nuclear safety in neighbour countries

-

non
-
proliferation of nuclear weapons

STUK


RADIATION AND NUCLEAR

SAFETY AUTHORITY

-

independent regulatory and research


organisation

Budget and supervision

Expert advice

and service

SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN

RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY

10

STUK
-
Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority

Mission:
Protecting people, society, environment, and future generations
from harmful effects of radiation

Public

Communication

Emergency

Preparedness

Expert Services

4

4

7

Organisation

DG's

office

Administration, Internal Services and Information Management

9

Non

-

ionising Radiation

Nuclear Waste and Materials

Regulation

Nuclear Reactor Regulation

Radiation Practices Regulation

Research and Environmental

Surveillance

27

106

42

89

10

57

Public

Communication

Emergency

Preparedness

Expert Services

4

4

7

Organisation



DG's

office

Administration, Internal Services and Information Management

8

Non

-

ionising Radiation

Nuclear Waste and Materials

Regulation

Nuclear Reactor Regulation

Radiation Practices Regulation

Research and Environmental

Surveillance

29

115

44

84

9

52

Figures refer to

staff numbers at

the end of
2011

Total staff

was
356

SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN

RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY

11

Organisation of Nuclear Reactor Regulation

Oversight support
Department services
Structures and components
Assistant director
Martti Vilpas
Projects and operational
safety
Assistant director
Tapani Virolainen
Reactor and safety
systems
S
ection head
Risto Sairanen
Risk analysis
Section head
Reino Virolainen
Electrical and
automation systems
Section head
Kim Wahlström
Radiation protection
Section head
Olli Vilkamo
Nuclear facilities and
systems
Assistant director
Keijo Valtonen
Nuclear Reactor Regulation
Director Petteri Tiippana
Deputy director
Marja-Leena Järvinen
Mechanical engineering
Section head
Petri Vuorio
Civil engineering
Section head
Pekka Välikangas
Manufacturing
technology
Section head
Juhani Hinttala
Organisations and
operation
Section head
Jukka Kupila
Projects
Section head
Kirsi Alm-Lytz
Project managers:
OL 3:
Tapani Virolainen
New projects:
Janne Nevalainen
LARA:
Kaj Söderholm
Nuclear Security
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN

RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY

12

Organization of Nuclear Waste and Material
Regulation Division

Director

Risto Paltemaa

Deputy Director

Arja Tanninen

Management Support

Regulation of Nuclear Waste

Regulation of Nuclear Material

National Data Center for
Comprehensive Nuclear Test
Ban Treaty (CTBT)

Currently
29
persons

SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN

RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY

13

Education of STUK personnel

Education in STUK
1
2
3
4
(1) PhD, Doctor of Tech., Lic’s, (2) Master of Science,
Diploma Engineer, (3) Lover university level education,
(4) Others

SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN

RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY

14

Age breakdown of personnel at Nuclear
Regulation Department

4
8
5
7
17
18
18
3
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Less than
30 years
30-34
years
35-39
years
40-44
years
45-49
years
50-54
years
55-59
years
60 years -
Number
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN

RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY

15

LATE

YDIN

KATU

MEKA

AUTO

SATU

KOLA

RAKE

PISA

SÄVY

RETU

VALO

management

Electrical systems

Automation systems

Layout, Auxiliary systems

Turbine systems

Nuclear materials

and Waste

Mechanical

equipment

Operational safety


Civil construction, Structures,

Fire protection

Probabilistic safety

analyses

Quality Management

and Commissioning

Reactor, safety functions,

systems and analyses

Radiation safety and emergency

preparedness

SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN

RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY

Staffing of regulatory bodies

Table
Approximate staffing of some regulatory bodies


Regulatory Body

staff size

NPP oversight

ARN, Argentina

300

60

CNEN, Brazil

2600

50

CNSC, Canada

600

130

NRC, USA

2800

330

CNS, Spain

400

120

STUK, Finland

350

120

ASN, France

400

120

MOST + KINS, Republic of
Korea

70 + 380

40 + 320

SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN

RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY

17








(Milj. EUR)

Operating costs




38.1


Funding


state budget



13.0


regulatory control





17.9


expert services




5.8


research funds (incl. EU)




1.3


other funds






0.1


STUK’s budget in 2009

SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN

RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY

Preparation of nuclear safety
regulations

in Finland


Nuclear Energy Act (1987) and Nuclear Energy Decree (1988)


latest revision 2008


preparation coordinated by Ministry (TEM), STUK provides input to directly
safety related parts


Government Decrees (first versions issued 1991, revised 2008)


drafts written by STUK, final format given by Ministry (TEM)


four separate Decrees:

safety of NPPs, physical protection of NPPs,
emergency preparedness, safety of the disposal of nuclear

waste


YVL Guides issued by STUK


detailed technical requirements, acceptable practices, guidance for
licensee
-
STUK interaction


prepared by STUK in close co
-
operation with relevant interested parties
(e.g., licensees)


regulations are found from website: www.stuk.fi

SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN

RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY

Hierarchical structure of safety regulations
Constitution
Parliament
Acts
Parliament
Decrees
President, Government
or Ministries
Regulatory Guides
STUK (nuclear and
radiation safety)
Technical standards
Standardisation Organisations
Hierarchical structure of safety regulations
Constitution
Parliament
Acts
Parliament
Decrees
President, Government
or Ministries
Regulatory Guides
STUK (nuclear and
radiation safety)
Technical standards
Standardisation Organisations
Legal pyramid in Finland

SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN

RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY

20

Hierarchy of safety requirements


Nuclear Energy Act (1987)
: “nuclear energy utilisation
shall be safe”; “licensee is responsible for safety”


Nuclear Energy Decree (1988)
: administrative details
for licensing and regulatory oversight


Government Decree
733/ 2008


gives general principles, fundamental technical
requirements, radiological acceptance criteria;


There are other decrees on emergency preparedness,
security, nuclear waste management


YVL Guides issued by STUK
: detailed technical
requirements, acceptable practices, guidance for
licensee
-
STUK interaction, e.g. YVL 1.0 and YVL 1.1
on general design criteria and STUK’s role in licensing


STUK’s decisions

SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN

RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY

Nuclear

Energy Act:

Detailed

safety

requirements

21

The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) shall specify
detailed safety requirements concerning the implementation of safety
level in accordance with this Act.


Further, the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) shall specify
the safety requirements it sets in accordance with the safety sectors
involved in the use of nuclear energy, and publish them as part of the
regulations issued by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority
(STUK).


The safety requirements of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority
(STUK) are binding on the licensee, while preserving the licensee's right
to propose an alternative procedure or solution to that provided for in
the regulations. If the licensee can convincingly demonstrate that the
proposed procedure or solution will implement safety standards in
accordance with this Act, the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority
(STUK) may approve procedure or solution by which the safety level set
forth is achieved.

SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN

RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY

Development of regulations in Finland


STUK issues detailed regulations called YVL Guides. There
are currently about 70 YVL Guides. In the future, aim is to
combine them to decrease the number to 35.



YVL guides are rules that shall be complied with unless some
other acceptable procedure or solution is presented to STUK
by which the safety level laid down in an YVL guide is
achieved



YVL guides are written in view of new plants and functions.
Separate assessment and decision is made on application for
operating plants.



Finnish nuclear and radiation legislation as well as
Government Decisions and YVL Guides are available in
internet, www.stuk.fi

SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN

RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY

23

A Safety management of a
nuclear facility

B Plant and system design

C Radiation safety of a
nuclear facility and
environment

D Nuclear materials
and waste

E Structures and
equipment of a nuclear
facility

A.1

Regulatory control of the
safe use of nuclear energy

A.2

Siting of a nuclear facility

A.3

Management systems of a
nuclear facility

A.4

Organisation and
personnel of a nuclear facility

A.5

Construction of a NPP

A.6

Operation and accident
management of a NPP

A.7

Risk management of a
NPP

A.8

Ageing management of a
nuclear facility

A.9

Reporting on the operation
of a nuclear facility

A.10

Operating experience
feedback of a nuclear facility

A.11

Security arrangements of
a nuclear facility


B.1

Design of the safety
systems of a nuclear facility

B.2

Classification of systems,
structures and equipment of
a nuclear facility

B.3

Safety assessment a
NPP

B.4

Nuclear fuel and reactor

B.5

Reactor coolant circuit of
a NPP

B.6

Containment of a NPP

B.7

Preparing for the internal
and external threats to a
nuclear facility

B.8

Fire protection of a
nuclear facility

C.1

Structural radiation
safety of a nuclear facility

C.2

Radiation protection
and dose control of the
personnel of a nuclear
facility

C.3

Control and
measuring of radioactive
releases to the
environmental of a
nuclear facility

C.4

Radiological control
of the environment of a
nuclear facility

C.5

Emergency
preparedness
arrangements of a NPP

D.1

Regulatory control
of nuclear non
-
proliferation

D.2

Transport of
nuclear materials and
waste

D.3

Handling of spent
nuclear fuel

D.4

Handling of low
-

and intermediate
-
level
waste and
decommissioning of a
nuclear facility

D.5

Final disposal of
nuclear waste

E.1

Manufacture and use of
nuclear fuel

E.2

Construction plan of the
mechanical components and
structures of a nuclear facility

E.3

Regulatory control of the
mechanical components and
structures of a nuclear facility

E.4

Verification of strength of
pressure equipment of a
nuclear facility

E.5

In
-
service inspections of
the mechanical components
and structures of a nuclear
facility

E.6

Buildings and structures
of a nuclear facility

E.7

Electrical and I&C
equipment of a nuclear
facility


Structure of the new YVL Guides


SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN

RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY

24

Development of safety regulations in Finland


Challenges


how to meet a moving target?


WENRA’s design objectives for new reactors released for
comments


IAEA’s design requirements for NPPs under preparation


how to find resources for preparation and
commenting?


national requirements vs. harmonisation



SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN

RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY

Ilari Aro, 31 October 2010

25

DiD
-
levels, event categories and frequency of
events belonging to each category

Level

1

Normal operation (DBC 1)

Level 2

Anticipated operational
occurrences (DBC 2)

f > 10
-
2
/a


Level 3a

Class 1 postulated accidents
(DBC 3)

10
-
2/a > f > 10
-
3/a


Class 2 postulated accidents
(DBC 4)

f < 10
-
3/a

Level 3b


Design extension conditions
(DEC)

CCF

rare

events

Level 4

Severe accidents (SA)

safety goals


CDF <10
-
5/a, LRF < 5x10
-
7/a

SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN

RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY

26

Acceptance criteria for radioactive
releases / max doses to general public


DBC 1, Normal operation


radiation dose limit 0,1 mSv / year for the entire site


DBC 2, Anticipated operational occurrences


radiation dose limit 0,1 mSv


DBC 3, Class 1 postulated accidents


radiation dose limit 1 mSv


DBC 4, Class 2 postulated accidents


radiation dose limit 5 mSv


DEC, Design extension conditions


radiation dose limit 20 mSv


SA, Severe accidents


release < 100 TBq Cs
-
137 equivalent


no acute health effects


SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN

RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY

27

Design objectives for new reactors
( WENRA RHWG )


DiD
-
concept reinforced to include multiple failure situations ,
independence between different defence lines emphasized




off
-
site measures (such as iodine prophylaxis , sheltering ,
evacuation ) should not be needed in design basis accident
conditions



in severe reactor accidents ( core melt accidents ) only limited
protective measures in area and time are needed for the public
assuming the containment functions as designed


SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN

RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY

Authorities involved in NPP licensing and
regulation in Finland

Licenses for nuclear facilities in Finland are issued by the
Government


Ministry of Employment and the Economy

(TEM) provides
administrative support for processing license applications


STUK

is the regulatory body dedicated to safety oversight:


preparation of national nuclear safety regulations


safety evaluation (necessary prerequisite for issuing a license)


inspections needed to verify the safety state of the facility and the
compliance with license conditions over the plant lifetime


inspections on nuclear waste management and nuclear material
safeguards

SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN

RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY

Political decision

on a new nuclear power plant is needed as a
precondition
before major investments

are permitted.

Political decision is called Decision in Principle (DiP). It concludes
whether


“a new NPP is in line with the overall good of society”.



Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has to be completed
first for each alternative site



EIA report has to be annexed to the application for the DiP.



Plant vendor and design are not chosen before the DiP, but
main safety features of several alternatives are evaluated
during the DiP process.




Licensing is divided in two stages:
political
decision
and
safety demonstration

SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN

RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY

GOVERNMENT:

Makes licensing decisions

Ministry of Employment

and the Economy:

Conducts preparations

STUK

(regulatory body)

Public, other authorities,

and expert organizations

APPLICANT

Suppliers
-

nuclear industry

MUNICIPALITY

OF PLANT SITE

Advice

Application

Regulatory

review and

oversight

Statement on safety

Opinions

Stakeholders in Licensing of nuclear facilities

Agreement on site

PARLIAMENT:

Confirms Decision in Principle

Expert organizations


Three step licensing:


Decision in Principle


Construction Permit


Operating License


Design documents

SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN

RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY

Nuclear

Energy Act:

Supervisory

rights

31

The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) shall be entitled,
in order to carry out the supervision required under this Act, and by
the provisions issued hereunder and by Finland's international
treaties in the field of nuclear energy, to:


1) inspect and control operations referred to in paragraphs 1

6 of
section 2 subsection 1, and in paragraph 2 of section 2 subsection 2,
and for this purpose have access to any place where such an
operation is being carried out, as well as to carry out measurements
required for supervision, to take and to receive samples and to install
equipment necessary for such supervision;


2) oblige the
licence

applicant to arrange entry for the Radiation and
Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) to carry out inspections and
measurements and to take samples on the premises where,
according to the application, the operation referred to in paragraphs
1

6 of section 2 subsection 1 would be carried out;

SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN

RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY

Supervisory

rights

32

3) require that nuclear fuel or the buildings and equipment intended as
parts of the nuclear facility be manufactured in a manner approved of
by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), and oblige the
licensee or
licence

applicant to arrange for STUK sufficient opportunity
to control manufacture of the fuel or such buildings or equipment;


4) receive necessary information and be provided with the plans and
contracts and their grounds concerning the fabrication, quality control
or processing of nuclear materials, nuclear waste, the nuclear facility
and its structures and equipment, as well as any material, device and
equipment referred to in paragraph 5 of section 2 subsection 1;

SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN

RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY

Supervisory

rights

33

5) oblige any person carrying out the operation referred to in section 2,
subsection 1 or 2, to submit standard format reports, as well as other
necessary information and notifications, and to keep nuclear material
accounts and operating records in said standard format, and to audit these
accounts;


7) have access, for the purposes of any supervision of non
-
proliferation of
nuclear weapons requiring, to premises where such actions referred to in
section 2, subsection 1 or 2, in which nuclear materials or ores have been
used, have been carried out, as well as carry out measurements therein
required for supervision, to collect and receive samples and to install
equipment required for said supervision;


8) collect environmental samples and use radiation detection and
measurement devices for any supervision required for the non
-
proliferation
of nuclear weapons, pursuant to ensuring that activity subject to section 2,
subsection 1 or 2 is not illegally carried out and that the information given
is sound.

SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN

RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY

Nuclear

Energy
Decree

34

Section 108

The various phases in the construction of a nuclear facility cannot be
commenced until the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) has,
on the basis of the documents mentioned in section 35 and other detailed
plans and documents, ascertained for each phase that all safety
-
related
factors and safety regulations have been given sufficient consideration.


Section 109 (1069/1999)

After the construction
licence

has been granted, the Radiation and Nuclear
Safety Authority (STUK) controls the implementation of the facility project
in detail. The purpose of the control is to ensure that the conditions of the
construction
licence

and the approved plans referred to in section 35 are
complied with and that the nuclear facility is also in other respects
constructed in accordance with regulations issued on the basis of the
Nuclear Energy Act.

SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN

RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY

Nuclear

Energy
Decree

35

Section 110 (732/2008)

The various phases in the commissioning of a nuclear facility cannot be
commenced until the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) has
determined, on the basis of the documents mentioned in section 36, and
other detailed plans and documents required by STUK, for each stage, that
sufficient attention has been paid to factors influencing safety, and
regulations concerning safety. Similar requirements also apply to the
restarting of a nuclear facility after a particularly substantial plant
modification.


Section 111

The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) controls the operation
of a nuclear facility to ensure that the operation of the facility is safe and
complies with the
licence

conditions and the approved plans and that the
operation also in other respects adheres to the Nuclear Energy Act and to
the regulations issued by virtue of the Act. The control of the operation of a
nuclear facility also involves the maintenance, repairs, inspections and
tests of the nuclear facility systems, structures and components.

SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN

RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY

Nuclear

Energy
Decree

36

Section 112 (732/2008)

If the licensee intends to carry out modifications to the nuclear facility
systems, structures, nuclear fuel or the way the facility is operated that
influence safety and involve changes in the plans or documents approved
by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), the licensee shall
obtain approval from STUK for such modifications before they are carried
out. Correspondingly, STUK shall approve measures related to the
decommissioning of a nuclear facility. The licensee shall ensure that the
documents mentioned in sections 35 and 36 are revised accordingly.