globally distributed settings

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6 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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The use of social software for
Knowledge Management in
globally distributed settings


Jan Pawlowski & Henri Pirkkalainen

Global Information Systems group


Global Information Systems


Mission Statement

Creating and validating new solutions for Information Systems in a
global context
-

this includes the support of individuals and
organizations to improve competitiveness, performance, and mutual
understanding


Topics

Designing work and learning processes in globally distributed
organizations

Design & development methods for global information systems

Culture analysis and awareness

Support tools for knowledge intensive processes in global
organizations

ICT4D: ICT for development

E
-
Learning and knowledge management in global

organizations

Global Information Systems, University of Jyväskylä
The Team

Kati
Clements

Denis Kozlov

Jan M.
Pawlowski

Philipp Holtkamp

Henri
Pirkkalainen

Twitter feedback channel

#GSKM12


You can provide feedback and ask questions
regarding our part and the research topics
through Twitter


Knowledge Management in Global Settings





Social Software


Vocabulary in IS field?






Starting point for global inspection
-

Barriers








Focus in KM


what has been studied and how?









Towards unexplored research territories

Social Software for KM: Contents

A first question



What is common
knowledge?

Sauna: German instructions

Sauna: American instructions

Sauna: Finnish instructions

Related Concepts (modified,
North, 1998)

Symbol

Data

Information

Knowledge

Skill

Competence

Competitiven
ess

+syntax

+meaning

+applying to
new settings

+use

+context

+
uniqueness

Definition: Knowledge Management



Knowledge management is defined as the management function responsible for
the regular
selection, implementation and evaluation of goal
-
oriented
knowledge strategies
that aim at improving an organization’s way of handling
knowledge internal and external to the organization in order to
improve
organizational performance.

The implementation of knowledge strategies
comprises all
person
-
oriented, organizational and technological instruments
suitable to dynamically optimize the organization
-
wide level of competencies,
education and ability to learn of the members of the organization as well as to
develop collective intelligence.


(Maier 2002)



”Planned and ongoing
management of activities and processes for leveraging
knowledge
to enhance competitiveness through better use and creation of
individual and collective knowledge resources
.”

(CEN 2004)

A first question…


Why is Knowledge a
Global Success
Factor?

Just a simple product?

Business Process Management
in a Networked Business

Processing

B

Sales

IT

Services

Management

R&D

Marketing

Material Flow

Knowledge/
Information / Data
Flow

Marketing

Marketing

Marketing

Sales

Sales

Processing

A

R&D

IT

Services

Production

Some random questions…

Decision questions


Where to produce?


How to build partnerships (joint ventures, contractors, …)


Which systems to exchange knowledge?

Operational questions


How to process wood?


When will the next shipment arrive?


How to market the product in Japan?


How to explain the concept and advantages of Finnish
saunas?


How to find the main problems of customers?


Which are import and safety regulations?



This means…

Knowledge is a key to global success


Global KM managers need to understand the value
chain and knowledge requirements

Global KM managers need to understand
knowledge processes and culture

Global KM managers are the main hubs for smooth
operations in production and service enterprises


Which kind of IS support is promising or proven
successful?



Summary

Knowledge as a critical success factor

Knowledge management to support businesses

Global aspects


Understanding the context


Process design


Systems and tool support


Cultural aspects

Social Software as a promising tool to combine
human
-

and technology
-
orientation


Which tools for which context?


How to overcome cultural differences?


How to embed tools?

Social Software?

Social Software




Social Software enables an interactive way of collaboration,
managing content and connecting to online networks with other
people. It supports the desire of users to be pulled into groups in
order to achieve their personal goals”

(
Wever
,
Mechant
,
Veevaete

&
Hauttekeete

2007)

Social Software

4 Cs of Social Software

Cook, N. Enterprise 2.0:

How Social Software Will Change the Future of Work
,
UK:Gover
, 2008.

Intertwined terminologies!

Social Media

Groupware

Message systems

Multiuser editors

Group decision support systems (GDSSs)

Computer conferencing systems

Shared information spaces

Workflow management/coordination systems



…Much older approach in the IS research

Ellis, Gibbs & Rein 1991)

Ellis C.A., Gibbs S.J. & Rein C.L. 1991. Groupware: Some issues and experiences. Communications of the ACM 34 (1), 39


58.

Collaboration tools

Onyechi

&
Abeisinghe

2009

Refs to Social Media, Social Software, Groupware, Web 2.0…

Web 2.0

Often explained as the

combination of methods and

techniques on which

Social Media is based on



Still used in IT literacy


http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/news/2005/09/30/what
-
is
-
web
-
20.html

What do you focus on when addressing
Social Software?

Research Trends I

Constructive / Design
-
oriented research


Tools to improve knowledge exchange and distribution


Do we really understand how global KM works: Qualitative
Research


Understanding which influence factors and relations emerge in
global settings


For example: Barriers to KM (why and how)


Relating and quantifying: Quantitative Research


Understanding behavior in KM settings


E.g. ISSM, TAM, KM Success Model


What type of relations, how strong, cause
-
effect etc.


Applied for example in Social networking studies, also Web 2.0 focus




Barriers?

Discussed from the viewpoint of an individual or group of people


Can relate to social interaction and as an example to factors that
hinder or challenge knowledge exchange


Might relate to challenges and risks when adopting or using a
specific technology


Challenges set by diverse workers, hierarchies and cultural
influences within an organization


In many cases tied to a specific context


Can be presented as a wider concept “cultural distance”


…or as a question that is formed from the problem,
“How to reward contribution?”…

Barriers

“Knowledge Islands”

=

Dependent on business

process and project

+

Location, time, culture


and language

+

Organizational

and hierarchical


Success factors
-

barriers





Critical Success Factors (CSF)


The relation between a barrier and success factor not always clear


…not always counter balanced in a way that overcoming a
barrier means a success


…not all success factors can be derived from barriers



Barriers are a starting point to understand success factors within a
specific context


Geographical dispersion of individuals

CSF

“set meeting schedules and rules of engagement”

“conduct periodic face
-
to
-
face meetings”

Success Factors

Holistic, integrated and standardized approach


KM integrated within culture, coordination, and leadership


Consider relationships and interdependencies


Avoid isolated solutions, e. g., different, incompatible communication systems, no
standards, different knowledge processes,


Knowledge processes and ICT platforms for KM should be standardized
throughout the organization and integrated with the existing business processes.

Knowledge
-
oriented culture


Supportive organizational culture


Open and communicative atmosphere


Supporting a knowledge
-
oriented culture through e. g., communication of success
stories and best practices, through the acceptance of errors a s well as promoting
individual responsibility

Management support


Top management to strategic knowledge goals, allocate sufficient budgets to the
KM initiative


Providing good example for the change of behavior


A knowledge champion can act as a coordinator for management support as well
as key speaker and motivator for the initiative.

Instruments

Context.
Organization /
Individuals

Relation of concepts

Pirkkalainen & Pawlowski 2012

Barriers

Social Software

(Pirkkalainen & Pawlowski 2012)

… 119 barriers from the literature

Barriers

Very much discussed at the moment



Same barriers discussed under different terminology





(Social Software, Social Media etc.)




Related to knowledge sharing, group collaboration etc.






Higher Education, Business and IT, B2B…


At the moment trying to recognize relevant barriers. No
clear context
-
aware understanding of the biggest
problems

Social Software

Financial (resources, time)

Social

Software

Management/Coordination/support

Technology fit

Organizational culture

Social

Relational, knowledge sharing, skills, cognitive, background, preferences

Technical

Availability, Interoperability, Functionality, Usability, conceptual, privacy/security, misuse

Quality

Legal (IPR, copyright)

Barriers

KM Barriers

(Pirkkalainen & Pawlowski 2012)

KM barriers

The bottleneck usually
knowledge sharing




Common ways of categorization
(if categorized at all)


Individual, organizational, technological
(
Riege

2005)




Individual, social
(
Disterer

2001)


(
Individual
: Loss of Power, Revelation, Uncertainty, Motivation

Social
: Language, Conflict avoidance,
bureucracy

and Hierarchy, Incoherent
paradigms)


Individual, social
(
Bures

2003)


Knowledge sharing barriers

Barrier

Description

Lack

of

interpersonal

trust

Level

of

trust

in

a

company,

between

its

sub
-
units,

and

its

employees

seems

to

have

a

direct

influence

on

the

communication

flow

and

thus

the

amount

of

knowledge

sharing

(
Riege
,

2005
)

Lack

of

opportunities

for

sharing

(resources,

time,

networks,

infrastructures)

Appropriate

infrastructure

and

resources

to

facilitate

sharing

practices

within

and

between

functional

areas

is

the

basis

of

a

successful

KM

(Schlegelmilch

and

Chini,

2003
)

How

to

reward

contribution

and

encourage

information

sharing

Managers

many

have

to

force

people

to

transform

their

organisation

into

knowledge
-
embracing

cultures
.

No

matter

which

reward

and

recognition

system

is

chosen

(Riege,

2005
)

Lack

of

motivation

to

share

Sharing

only

if

it’s

important

to

their

work,

if

they

feel

encouraged

to

share

and

learn,

or

if

they

wish

to

support

a

certain

colleague

(Wheatley,

2000
)

Fear

of

harming

his

or

her

image

if

sharing

Fear

that

sharing

may

reduce

or

jeopardise

people’s

job’s

獥c畲楴u



e癥n

employee’s

corporate

position

“Knowledge

is

power”

-

Loss

of

Power

through

Sharing

By

providing

knowledge

to

the

colleague,

the

exclusivity

of

influence

is

reduced

(
Bures
,

2003
)

Pirkkalainen & Pawlowski 2012

Global barriers

…long traditions!

Global IS barriers

Barrier

Description

Cultural

and

language

distance

Do

the

collaborators

share

the

same

language,

skills

as

well

as

cultural

norms,

corporate

culture,

interpretations

etc
.

Most

occurred

barrier

in

Noll

et

al,

(
2010
)

analysis

on

collaboration

barriers

in

GSD
.

Geographical

distance

Distributed

collaboration

(within

a

country

or

cross
-
border)
.

Third

most

occurred

barrier

in

Noll

et

al,

(
2010
)

analysis

on

collaboration

barriers

in

GSD
.

Temporal

distance

Distributed

collaboration

(Time
-
zone

differences)
.

Second

most

occurred

barrier

in

Noll

et

al,

(
2010
)

analysis

on

collaboration

barriers

in

GSD
.

Lack

of

trust

Geographic,

temporal,

and

cultural

distance

have

a

significant

impact

on

trust

among

globally

distributed

team

members

(Noll

et

al
,

2010
)

Infrastructure

In

distributed

collaboration

teams

and

employees

must

rely

on

technology

to

support

the

communication

(Noll

et

al
,

2010
)

Pirkkalainen & Pawlowski 2012

Methodology to capture barriers

Different approaches depending on the discipline and maturity of the field


KM

Observation, ethnographic approaches

Relying on the rigor of the researcher

The main authors often experts with long history in the field

Experiences

Documented best practices, policies

Also combined approaches applying interviews and surveys within
specific organizations

Global factors

Long traditions, identification turned to concrete context specific
understanding

Social

Software

Depending what is analyzed (adoption, influencing factors for sharing,
usability etc.)

Expert interviews, surveys, lab testing etc.


Research trend II
-

Merging research orientations and disciplines

Social Software in
Knowledge Management

Individuals, process/culture, technology

In many cases generalizing the purpose of Social
Software/media unnecessarily


E.g. “social media is essentially a social networking site, with subscribing”


Support of Social Software for different levels of KM:


Knowledge evolution, knowledge use/reuse,
knowledge sharing/transfer


Not to replace but to support?




Are we discussing a specific service



or about the web in general?


http://radar.oreilly.com/2011/03/knowledge
-
management
-
social
-
media.html

Social Software in
Knowledge Management

http://www.jeffhester.net/2011/02/22/social
-
media
-
and
-
knowledge
-
management/

Social networking as awareness support for Knowledge Management
(
Groth

2002)

Social Software in
Knowledge Management

Social
Software

in KM

“Web as a platform”

“basis for social media”






The research is linked to Enterprise 2.0

Web

2.0

Enterprise 2.0

Collaboration

Awareness

Documentation

Customer engagement

Interaction with stakeholders




Social
Software

in KM

Research trends III

Analyzing the cultural, organizational, and individual
context

Identifying barriers and potential success factors

Choosing and creating solutions (=interventions /
methods)


Aligned with strategies and processes


Addressing barriers


Involving all stakeholders


Not overloading people


Choosing and creating solutions (=interventions / methods)

Utilizing barrier
-
knowledge in KM processes

Social Software in KM activities and tasks

Not all tools are meant to support
all knowledge steps/tasks


Identifying



Collection, modification, collaboration

Annotation



Sharing, awareness

Knowledge Management
Tasks


creation, building, anticipation or
generation


acquisition, appropriation or adoption


identification, capture, articulation or
extraction


collection, gathering or accumulation


(legally) securing


conversion


organization, linking and embedding


formalization


storage


refinement or development


distribution, diffusion, transfer or
sharing


presentation or formatting


application, deploying or exploiting


review, revision or evolution of
knowledge


Source: (Maier, 2004)

Supporting processes


Social Software

Maier &
Remus

(2003) Implementing process
-
oriented knowledge management strategies

Process: Push Knowledge

ID

Category

Process

Description

KM process

Push

Knowledge

Pushing knowledge to relevant

audiences (within the organization)

Sub
-
processes

/ aspects



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Wiki 敮瑲e



Notification

Objective



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Barrier: Unwillingness to share

Method



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Wiki (closed)

Actors



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From barriers to decisions

Utilizing barrier
-
knowledge for different purposes



KM projects



KM activities in general



Choosing/evaluating technologies for KM



Designing and developing technologies


Who takes actions on these? Roles and
responsibilities?


KM activities &
instruments

Barrier
-
knowledge

Maier &
Remus

(2003) Implementing process
-
oriented knowledge management strategies

Knowledge
management starter

Potential case for recognizing and analyzing barriers

Initiation of KM in an organization, potentiality,
awareness, barriers and knowledge gaps

Barrier
-
knowledge

Support in selection of
technologies

Recognizing the barriers crucial for decision process


Differences in usage of Social Software (networking,
collaborative work etc.)

Criteria to evaluate against must be clear (needs)


How do you identify


Preferences, interoperability, security etc.

Reacting vs.
proacting


Changing traditions and tools after the damage is done?


Clear conceptual understanding before technologies are
introduced to the organization?


Evaluating technologies

Different tools, different criteria


Required skills, Usability, maintenance, cost, privacy,
extensibility, functionality etc.

Context
-
dependent

Approaches vary from formal to informal



Applied by an expert, consultant



Applied by IT department, manager,





assigned person/ group

Creating technologies

What are the needs? Could existing tools be utilized?
Any software packages (open source) available?

How
to integrate to existing systems…

How to ensure that users are part of the design
process?

Key users, preferences, cultural distance



Wide variety of aspects /influences to be taken in to account.
Recognizing barriers crucial for the analysis


Focus points for research

Ranging from smaller to large research activities


Distributed teams (local to global, small
vs

massive)


What type of challenges they face in their work


How could Social Software support / how should it be
integrated to the working activities / how to ensure adoption /
how could it bridge the gap to other communities or
collaborators/competitors


For example analyzing where do the collaborators or relevant
stakeholders interact (European projects one perfect example).


Setting clear Social Software policy that differentiates
between internal/external work, customer relations etc.


Thank You

Contact

Information

Prof. Dr. Jan M. Pawlowski

jan.pawlowski@jyu.fi

Skype:
jan_m_pawlowski

Office: Room 514.2

Telephone +358 14 260 2596

http://users.jyu.fi/~japawlow


Henri Pirkkalainen

henri.j.pirkkalainen@jyu.fi

Office: Room 511.1

Telephone
+358 400247684