Chapter 9

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6 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 5 μήνες)

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Business Intelligence

Systems

Chapter 9

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“We Can Produce Any Report You Want,
But You’ve Got to Pay for It.”


Different expectations about what is a report


Great use for exception reporting


Feature PRIDE prototype and supporting
data are stored in profile, profileworkout, and
equipment tables


Need legal advice on system

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Study Questions


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Q1: How do organizations use business intelligence (BI)
systems?

Q2: What are the three primary activities in the BI
process?

Q3: How do organizations use data warehouses and data
marts to acquire data?

Q4: How do organizations use reporting applications?

Q5: How do organizations use data mining applications?

Q6: How do organizations use BigData applications?

Q7: What is the role of knowledge management systems?

Q8: What are the alternatives for publishing BI?

Q9: 2023?

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Q1: How Do Organizations Use
Business Intelligence (BI) Systems?

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Example Uses of Business Intelligence

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Q2: What Are the Three Primary
Activities in the BI Process?

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Using BI for Problem
-
solving at GearUp:
Process and Potential Problems

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1.
Obtain commitment from vendor

2.
Run sales event

3.
Sell as many items as it can

4.
Order amount actually sold

5.
Receive partial order and damaged items

6.
If receive less than ordered, ship partial order
to customers

7.
Some customers cancel orders

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Tables Used for BI Analysis at GearUp

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Extract of ITEM_SUMMARY_DATA
Table

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Lost Sales Summary Report

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Lost Sales Details Report

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Event Data Spreadsheet

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Short and Damaged Shipments
Summary

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Short and Damaged Shipments Details
Report

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Publish Results


Options


Print and distribute via email or
collaboration tool


Publish on web server or SharePoint


Publish on a BI server


Automate results via web service


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Q3: How Do Organizations Use Data
Warehouses and Data Marts to Acquire
Data?


Why extract operational data for BI
processing?


Security and control


Operational not structured for BI analysis


BI analysis degrades operational server
performance

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Functions of a Data Warehouse


Obtain or extract data


Cleanse data


Organize and relate data


Create and maintain catalog


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Components of a Data Warehouse

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Examples of Consumer Data that Can
Be Purchased

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Possible Problems with Source Data

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Data Marts Examples

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Q4: How Do Organizations Use
Reporting Applications?


Create meaningful information from disparate data
sources


Deliver information to user on time


Basic
operations:

1.
Sorting



2.
Filtering

3.
Grouping



4.
Calculating


5.
Formatting


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How Does RFM Analysis Classify
Customers?

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R
ecently


F
requently


M
oney

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RFM Analysis Classifies Customers

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Typical OLAP Report

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OLAP Product Family by Store Type

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OLAP Product Family and Store
Location by Store Type

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OLAP Product Family and Store Location by
Store Type, Showing Sales Data for Four
Cities

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Q5: How Do Organizations Use Data
Mining Applications?

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Unsupervised Data Mining


Analyst does not create a priori hypothesis
or model


Hypotheses created afterward to explain
patterns found


Example: Cluster analysis

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Supervised Data Mining


Develop
a
priori model to compute estimated
parameters
of model


Used for prediction, such as regression
analysis


Ex: CellPhoneWeekendMinutes =

(12
+

(17.5 X

CustomerAge)
+


(23.7 X NumberMonthsOfAccount)

=12 + 17.5*21 + 23.7*6 = 521.7

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Market
-
Basket Analysis


Market
-
basket analysis



a data
-
mining
technique for determining sales patterns


Statistical methods to identify sales patterns in
large volumes of data


Products customers tend to buy together


Probabilities of customer purchases


Identify cross
-
selling opportunities


Customers who bought fins also bought a
mask.

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Market
-
Basket Example: Dive Shop

Transactions = 400

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Decision Trees


Hierarchical arrangement of criteria
to
predict a classification or value


Unsupervised
data mining
technique


Basic idea of a decision tree


Select attributes most useful for
classifying something on some criteria
to
create “pure groups”


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Credit Score Decision Tree

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Ethics Guide: The Ethics of Classification

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C
lassifying
applicants for
college admission


C
ollects
demographics
and
performance
data of
all
its students


Uses
decision
tree program


S
tatistically
valid measures to obtain
statistically valid
results


N
o
human
judgment involved

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The Ethics of
Classification:
Resulting
Decision Tree

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Q6: How Do Organizations Use BigData
Applications?


Huge volume


petabyte

and larger


Rapid velocity


generated rapidly


Great variety


Structured data, free
-
form text, log files,
possibly graphics, audio, and video

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MapReduce Processing Summary

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Google search logs broken into pieces

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Google Trends on the Term Web 2.0

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Hadoop


Open
-
source
program supported by
Apache
Foundation2


Manages thousands of computers


Implements MapReduce


W
ritten
in
Java


Amazon.com
supports Hadoop
as part of

EC3
cloud
offering


Query
language entitled
Pig

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Using MIS
InClass

9:

What Wonder
Have We Wrought?

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Q7: What Is the Role of Knowledge
Management Systems?


Creating value from intellectual capital and
sharing that knowledge with those who need
that capital


Preserving organizational memory by
capturing and storing lessons learned and
best practices of key employees

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Benefits of Knowledge Management


Improve process quality


Increase team strength


Goal: Enable employees to use
organization’s collective knowledge



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What Are Expert Systems?

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Expert systems

Rule
-
based

IF/THEN

Encode human
knowledge

Process IF side
of rules

Report values of
all variables

Knowledge gathered
from human experts

Expert systems shells

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Example of IF/THEN Rules

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Drawbacks of Expert Systems

1.
Difficult and expensive to develop


Labor intensive


Ties up domain experts

2.
Difficult to maintain


Changes cause unpredictable outcomes


Constantly need expensive changes

3.
Don’t live up to expectations


Can’t duplicate diagnostic abilities of humans

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What Are Content Management

Systems (CMS)?


Support management and delivery of documents,
other expressions of employee knowledge


Challenges


Databases are huge


Content dynamic


Documents do not exist in isolation


Contents are perishable


In many languages

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What are CMS Application Alternatives?


In
-
house custom


Customer
support
department develops
in
-
house
database applications
to track
customer problems


Off
-
the
-
shelf


Horizontal market
products (SharePoint)


V
ertical
market
applications



Public
search
engine


Google

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How Do Hyper
-
Social Organizations
Manage Knowledge?

Hyper
-
Social
KM
Media

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Resistance to Hyper
-
Social Knowledge
-
Sharing


Reluctance to exhibit ignorance


Employee competition


Solution


Strong management endorsement


Strong positive feedback and rewards

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Q8: What Are the Alternatives for
Publishing BI?


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What Are the Two Functions of a BI
Server?

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Q9: 2023?


Companies will know more about your
purchasing habits and psyche.


Social
singularity



Machines will build their
own information systems.


Will machines possess and create
information for themselves?

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Guide: Semantic Security

1.
Unauthorized access to protected data and
information


Physical security


Passwords and permissions


Delivery system must be secure

2.
Unintended release of protected information
through reports &
documents

3.
What,
if
anything,
can be done to prevent what
Megan did?


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Guide:
Data Mining in the Real World


Problems:


Dirty
data


Missing
values


Lack
of knowledge at start of project


Over fitting


Probabilistic


Seasonality


High risk


unknown
outcome

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Active Review


Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Q1: How do organizations use business intelligence (BI)
systems?

Q2: What are the three primary activities in the BI
process?

Q3: How do organizations use data warehouses and data
marts to acquire data?

Q4: How do organizations use reporting applications?

Q5: How do organizations use data mining applications?

Q6: How do organizations use BigData applications?

Q7: What is the role of knowledge management systems?

Q8: What are the alternatives for publishing BI?

Q9: 2023?

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Case Study 9: Hadoop the Cookie
Cutter


Third
-
party cookie created by site other than
one you visited


Generated in several ways, mostly occurs when
a Web page includes content from multiple
sources


DoubleClick


IP address where content was delivered


Records data in a log

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Case Study 9: Hadoop the Cookie
Cutter (cont'd)


Third
-
party cookie owner has history of what
was shown, what ads clicked, and intervals
between interactions


Cookie log contains data to show how you
respond to ads and your pattern of visiting
various web sites where ads placed

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FireFox
Collusion

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Ghostery in Use (ghostery.com)

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