CHANGE MANAGEMENT - Human Resources & Organizational ...

wildlifeplaincityΔιαχείριση

6 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

253 εμφανίσεις

CHANGE MANAGEMENT

Terry Rodriguez


Portland
G
eneral Electric

December 8, 2011

2

The Nature of
the Vision

Ambitious
p
icture of
desirable
f
uture for
the organization

Current
reality

Staying the course

Vision

3

Phase 1

Situational
Diagnostic
Assessment

Phase 2

Development of
Change
Management
Plans

Phase 3

Implementation
of Change
Management
Plans

Communication

Project Management

Change Management Project Phases

Change managers need to resolve
negative reactions

Emotional Intensity

Denial

Anger

Depression

Acceptance

Bargaining

Resistance is your friend


shows that
people get it is about
them

changing

Productivity

TIME

Loss of Control

END

TRANSITION

BEGIN

Commitment is the result of a process
that needs to be managed

Productivity

TIME

Attentiveness

Comprehension

Undertake

Commit

END

TRANSITION

BEGIN

Engaging informal leaders accelerates
the rate of change

VP

Dir

Dir

Mgr

Mgr

Mgr

Mgr

Mgr

June

Harry

Jim

Jerry

Fred

Helen

Formal Organization

VP

Dir

Dir

Mgr

Mgr

Tom

Mgr

Mgr

June

Harry

Jim

Jerry

Fred

Helen

Informal Organization

8

PROCESSES : The
Project
Lifecycle

Idea

Concept

Initiation

Development

Appraisal

Approval

Contracting

Delivery &
Monitoring

Evaluation

Initiating

Planning

Executing

&

Control

Closing

Initiating
Planning
Control
Executing
Closing
Mapping the main Project
Processes to the
Lifecycle

L
evel
of
Effort

9

Risk Matrix

Evaluation

Desired

Conditions

Current

Conditions

Before

Change

After

Change

Force Field Analysis Model

During

Change

Driving

Forces

Restraining

Forces

Driving

Forces

Restraining

Forces

Driving

Forces

Restraining

Forces

10

Sources of Resistance to Change


Direct costs


Losing something of value due to change


Saving face


Accepting change acknowledges own
imperfection, past wrongdoing


Fear of the unknown


Risk of personal loss


Concern about being unable to adjust


Sources of Resistance to Change
(con’t)


Breaking routines


Organizational unlearning is part of change process


But past practices/habits are valued by employees due
to comfort, low cognitive effort



Incongruent organizational systems


Systems/structures reinforce status quo



Incongruent team dynamics


Norms contrary to desired change

Creating an
Urgency

for Change


Inform employees about driving forces


Most difficult when organization is doing well


Must be real, not contrived


Customer
-
driven change


Adverse consequences for firm


Human element energizes employees

13

Communication


Highest priority and first strategy for
change


Improves urgency to change


Reduces uncertainty (fear of unknown)


Problems
--

time consuming and costly

Minimizing Resistance to Change

Communication


Provides new knowledge and skills


Includes coaching and action
learning


Helps break old routines and adopt
new roles


Problems
--

potentially time
consuming and costly

Minimizing Resistance to Change

Learning

Communication


Increases ownership of change


Helps saving face and reducing fear
of unknown


Includes task forces, future search
events


Problems
--

time
-
consuming,
potential conflict

Minimizing Resistance to Change

Learning

Employee
Involvement

Communication


When communication, training, and
involvement do not resolve stress


Potential benefits


More motivation to change


Less fear of unknown


Fewer direct costs


Problems
--

time
-
consuming,
expensive, doesn’t help everyone

Minimizing Resistance to Change

Learning

Employee
Involvement

Stress
Management

Communication


When people clearly lose something
and won’t otherwise support change


Influence by exchange
--

reduces direct
costs


Problems


Expensive


Gains compliance, not commitment

Minimizing Resistance to Change

Learning

Employee
Involvement

Stress
Management

Negotiation

Communication


When all else fails


Assertive influence


Firing people
--

radical form of
“unlearning”


Problems


Reduces trust


May create more subtle resistance

Minimizing Resistance to Change

Learning

Employee
Involvement

Stress
Management

Negotiation

Coercion

Refreezing the Desired Conditions


Realigning organizational systems and
team dynamics with the desired changes


Alter rewards to reinforce new behaviors


Feedback systems


Help employees learn how they are doing


Provide support for the new behavior patterns

20

The Conflict Process

Sources of

Conflict

Manifest

Conflict

Conflict

Outcomes

Conflict

Perceptions

Conflict

Emotions

Conflict

Escalation Cycle

21

22

ADKAR consists of five phases that occur when change impacts us:


Awareness

of the need for change (why). Does the employee fully understand
the business, customer or competitor issues that have created a need to
change?


Desire

to support and participate in the change (our choice). Does the
employee have the motivation to
change?


Knowledge

about how to change (the learning process). Does the employee
have a clear understanding of the change and the skills and behaviors
required in the new environment?


Ability

to implement the change (turning knowledge into action). How
proficient is the employee in the skills and behaviors identified in the
knowledge step?


Reinforcement

to sustain the change (celebrating success). Are there
adequate mechanisms to sustain the change to make it stick?

ADKAR Model


Which is Your Conflict Handling Style?

23

Assertiveness

Cooperativeness

Forcing

Problem
-
solving

Compromising

Avoiding

Yielding

High

Low

High

Interpersonal Conflict Handling Styles

24

Problem Solving Conflict Handling
Contingencies


Problem solving conflict handling is best when…


Interests are not perfectly opposing


Parties have trust/openness


Issues are complex

Other Conflict Handling Style
Contingencies


Avoiding is best when…


relationship conflict is high


Conflict resolution cost is higher than its benefits


Forcing is best when…


You have a deep conviction about your position


Quick resolution required


Other party would take advantage of cooperation

26

27

The Eight
-
Stage Model of Planned Organizational
Change

1. Establish a
sense of
urgency

2. Form a powerful
guiding coalition

3. Develop a
compelling vision
and strategy

4. Communicate
the vision widely

5. Empower
employees
to act on the
vision

6
. Generate
short
-
term
wins

7
. Keep up
urgency to tackle
bigger problems

8. Make the
change stick

28

Change Management Plans


Change Management Project Team Structure & Responsibilities


Sponsorship Model


Communication Plan


Training Plan


Leadership Development & Coaching Plan


Knowledge Management Plan


Resistance Management Plan


Cultural Alignment Plan


Risk Management Plan


Reinforcing Change Plan


Implementation Plan




Case


The Sr. VP of HR has assigned a project to “raise the
bar” and convert the existing HR processes, and HR
roles at KPC to that of HR Business Partners.



In your group:


Decide on your role on project team


Use project tools to create a business case for change


Refer to 8 stage Model for Organizational Change


Use Lewin’s Force Field analysis to describe resistance and
methods you will utilize to overcome change.


Describe which Conflict handling style will be the one you
use and why


Select a spokesperson for a 10 minute presentation

29