Best Practices in Training and Development - Public Administration ...

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6 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Dr. John
Dzimba

Best Practices in Training and
Development


Structure of the paper

1.
Challenges faced by Today’s complex organisations

2.
Importance of Organization’s specialized value chain to
training and development

3.
Training and Development’s Value Chain that lead
employment and extend beyond termination

4.
Best Practices in Employee Development

5.
Elements of Best Practices for Effective Training and
Development Programs

6.
Required Principles and Best Practices in Training
and development






To
accomplish great things we must
first dream, then visualize, then
plan, believe and
act
!

Challenges faced by Today’s complex
organisations


To address the increasing shortage of skilled workforce


traditional training and development methods


not adequately producing employees with the complex skills needed to
thrive in today’s knowledge economy


The complexity of organisations today reflects


the inter
-
connectedness of systems, processes and people


we need to develop leaders who embrace


vision over motion,


change management over meaningless action and


issue resolution over fire
-
fighting


Success is not tied to the latest technology or
business model


In the
way our leaders see the organisation’s future
,



create a path to realize it, and


resolve
the issues that impede the
way



“vision
without action is a daydream and action without vision is a nightmare
.”



Best practice in training and development must focus at developing and
creating new
leaders;


can create a vision
,



manage change and resolve issues as leaders, and



can build the
workable
strength for tomorrow’s success.


Importance of Organization’s
specialized
value chain

to training &development


Every organisation’s value
chain
consist
of unique activities that make
products and services beneficial to
customers


Knowledge of the value chain and its accompanying strengths and deficits
is
essential to training and development


The process of gaining such knowledge is known as value chain analysis
,


Value chain analysis is a powerful tool for business leaders, particularly
those who oversee training and development


Best
-
practice training and development, along with other human
resource (HR) functions, supports the primary activities of the business


Top training and development professionals first seek to understand
how value is created by the business they
support


Then translate the understanding
of the value chain into the
knowledge, skills and abilities of the people involved in mission
-
critical
activities.


Next step is to organize
these key capabilities into competency models
for each level of the
organization


Competency models define successful behaviors that ultimately make
the products and services of the business valuable to
customers


Competency models drive not only training and development
activities, but also other HR activities



Manage Knowledge and Keep It


High
-
performing organizations create a culture that facilitates the retention
and sharing of organizational knowledge


Harnessing and sharing the knowledge of workers is also critical to the long
-
term success of operations


Knowledge management encompasses two areas:

1)
the sharing of knowledge within the organization to identify best practices and
find synergies among operating departments and business units

2)
the retention of organizational knowledge, which is increasingly important in the
face of impending retirements.



To avoid common training pitfalls training and development
professionals must build their programs around the business
value chain


Training programs must offer the fundamental activities that lead
to value creation in the business


Training and Development’s Value Chain that lead
employment and extend beyond termination


Pre
-
employment:


Community, governmental and educational outreach programs


Sourcing and recruitment activities


Employer
-
of
-
choice branding and realistic job
-
preview activities


Pre
-
employment assessments and interviews


During employment:


On
-
boarding activities


Enculturation, reinforcement of values and basic operational training


Career guidance and management activities


Functional, professional, management and leadership training


Mentoring and coaching

genuine feedback
on performance


Assessment for promotion or individual insight and development


Safety, compliance and regulatory training


Post
-
employment:


Exit interviews and surveys


Outplacement support


Employee alumni groups and networks




Best Practices in Employee Development


Competency models



defines desired skills and abilities required by individual business units for the employee to be
trained and developed


It allows the business unit to determine which critical skills are needed to meet business goals.


Leverage Online Systems


can enable the deployment of common training needs to a wider audience.


training via an intranet or Internet connection helps reduce overall costs, improves access to
learning resources, and improve consistency of messaging.


Formalized Leadership Development Program


prepares the next generation of leaders


succession planning


helps to ensure that all business units are following common strategic objectives and leads to the
sharing of best practices


Identification of high
-
potential employees
-

nomination process, a 360
-

degree process or other
purposeful method to ensure that the best and brightest are given an opportunity to participate.




Augment & Adjust:


No business is static.



It must respond to market forces, adjust and change

or be left dead in the water.



Training and development programs must be augmented, adjusted and changed


Keep looking for something new or different out there that is right for your latest
challenges


Skills
-
based training


builds on awareness training by adding a behavioural aspect


equips employees with the skills they need to manage themselves and others in a diverse
working environment.


It has a genuine impact on the behaviours of employees and the culture of your
organisation.


Comprehensive Career Development:


Important to provide a comprehensive career development services to employees,
integrating the process into the overall performance management system


Work with employees to develop individual career development plans that provide
opportunities for professional advancement.


A clear plan for employees’ long
-
term development helps to ensure that personnel remain
at your company rather than look for other job opportunities


It helps to define career paths within the organization


Elements of Best Practices for Effective
Training and Development Programs


Strategy driven


All training and development programs must cascade down from the overall strategic goals.


No programs are developed and implemented unless they produce results that are identified as critical to
the strategy or business initiatives.



There should be explicit alignment between programs, learning objectives, and business objectives
.


Positive cost/benefit ratio


Training today is not only strategically linked, but is also subject to the same measurements as every other
business activity.


It must show a return on the investment, either in the long term or the short term.


Best companies now realize that many training and development initiatives take years to fully achieve their
goals.


Supported by key strategies, systems, structures, policies, and practices:


Organizations that receive a true return on their learning investments ensure that learning is aligned with and
directly supported by key areas such as organizational structures, lines of authority, decision making, values,
planning, budgeting, career development, information sharing, compensation, performance management, rewards
and recognition, staffing, recruiting, and succession planning.


These direct links help to both set boundaries and reinforce desired results
.


Driven through many channels


Utilization of multiple modalities such as the classroom, workplace, blended learning, eLearning, technology
support tools, and


co
-
workers to ensure that people get the right skills at the right time, in the right way, and at the right cost to
succeed.


Modalities are selected to match specific learning styles, business issues, budgets, and cultures.


Maximize employee ability and potential through shared accountability


Best organisations tape the ability and potential of their employees through self
-
directed training and
development.


Employees identify their own needs, create individual learning plans, and seek learning opportunities.


Training strategies are aimed at knowledge retention and transfer to the workplace, enabling employees to be
more effective and to acquire more skills



Work
-
related training


Knowledge and skills that are acquired through training and development programs must be
relevant and useful, to both the organization and the individual's work requirements.


Employees can only participate in programs that will add value to their current and future work
effectiveness and will contribute to organizational success.


Learning by doing


training employees by making them perform "real" tasks and projects in a training environment
and on
-
the
-
job in important . Rather than teaching theory and expecting employees to apply it to
their own work.


Transferability of knowledge and skills back to the job


most important elements of best practice training and development is that it is easily transferred
back to the workplace.


It is achieved through the timing of the training, the quality of the content, and the quality and
appropriateness of the delivery method.


the maintenance of the new skill or knowledge once training has been completed is crucial



Linked to other people
-
related programs and departments


Best organisations do not train their employees in a vacuum.


In many instances, training is now conducted by line managers, who also perform evaluations, set
performance objectives, and draft compensation and promotion systems for the same employees


Continuous

learning

process


To

drive

lasting

change

in

behaviors

and

habits,

best

companies

ensure

that

learning

occurs

before,

during,

and

after

scheduled

learning

events
.



The

process

of

doing,

reflecting,

learning,

and

doing

again

never

ceases
.

Required Principles
and Best Practices



Best practice requires that there be:


Regular learning needs assessment



Broad range of learning opportunities, both formal and informal;


formal offerings in a choice of formats,



designed to meet identified needs,


in modules structured to cover topics from introductory through advanced.


Organizational commitment and leadership from staff development


Continuing Education (CE) activities design that includes learning objectives
aligned with identified needs;


follows principles of instructional design and learning theory; selects course instructors
on the basis of both subject knowledge and teaching ability;


attends to transfer of training and feedback;


Consistent documentation of individuals' participation in learning and
recognition of continuing learning in hiring and promotion decisions;




Evaluation of continuing education and staff development offerings and
programs
;


the main objectives of evaluations are to improve decision
-
making, resource allocation and
accountability.



A evaluations must be part of a wider performance management framework.


The key value of evaluation is that it allows for in
-
depth study of performance and
independent assessment of effectiveness of other performance management instruments.



Evaluation encourages innovation and adaptation to a changing environment and this helps
an organisation to stay relevant, continues to learn from feedback about results.



Research that assesses the state of Continuing Professional Development
(
CPD)


examines the efficacy and outcomes of continuing education and staff
development programs


Best practice calls for regular, performance
-
related learning needs
assessment


that involves individual employees and management, in concert with organizational goals
and objectives..


Best practice requires that those responsible for providing
CE programs or
in
-
service training and development create and/or make available a wide range of
activities and products designed to meet identified learning needs.


Best practice requires administrative commitment; formal policies


that spell out what is expected of both staff and the organization in regard to staff development
coordinators who have the support of the administration and the expertise to plan and implement
programs.


Best practice requires that formal CE offerings be presented by

experts


in the topic who are also good instructors. Systems of
Continuing Professional Development
(
CPD) should provide train
-
the
-
trainer opportunities.


Employers should strive to create a supportive environment in which staff is encouraged to apply what
they have learned.


Employers should take employees’ efforts to develop skills and knowledge into account when making
personnel decisions.


Best practice requires that an adequate percentage
of an institution’s personnel budget be allocated to staff
development.


Best practice requires that employers give staff paid time off to attend
conferences and workshops relevant
to their jobs, and also allow for part of their work time to be spent on learning.


Best practice requires that CE providers gather feedback
from their learners not only at the conclusion of
CE events,


but also conduct at least periodic follow
-
up evaluations to determine what effect the CE has had on practice.



The results of evaluation should be used to improve future CE offerings and should also be factored into needs
assessments.



Best practice requires that there be regular benchmarking studies of best
practices in staff development,


matched with quality assessment of the participating institutions.



Such studies should advance understanding of and implementation of effective CPD and would justify
resources expended on it.


The conduct of such studies must have cooperation and support from a cross
-
section of international
institutions, and the results have to be broadly shared.









“We must become the change we want to see.”

Ghandi


Thank you