Best Practices in Training and Development - Public Administration ...


6 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Dr. John

Best Practices in Training and

Structure of the paper

Challenges faced by Today’s complex organisations

Importance of Organization’s specialized value chain to
training and development

Training and Development’s Value Chain that lead
employment and extend beyond termination

Best Practices in Employee Development

Elements of Best Practices for Effective Training and
Development Programs

Required Principles and Best Practices in Training
and development

accomplish great things we must
first dream, then visualize, then
plan, believe and

Challenges faced by Today’s complex

To address the increasing shortage of skilled workforce

traditional training and development methods

not adequately producing employees with the complex skills needed to
thrive in today’s knowledge economy

The complexity of organisations today reflects

the inter
connectedness of systems, processes and people

we need to develop leaders who embrace

vision over motion,

change management over meaningless action and

issue resolution over fire

Success is not tied to the latest technology or
business model

In the
way our leaders see the organisation’s future

create a path to realize it, and

the issues that impede the

without action is a daydream and action without vision is a nightmare

Best practice in training and development must focus at developing and
creating new

can create a vision

manage change and resolve issues as leaders, and

can build the
strength for tomorrow’s success.

Importance of Organization’s
value chain

to training &development

Every organisation’s value
of unique activities that make
products and services beneficial to

Knowledge of the value chain and its accompanying strengths and deficits
essential to training and development

The process of gaining such knowledge is known as value chain analysis

Value chain analysis is a powerful tool for business leaders, particularly
those who oversee training and development

practice training and development, along with other human
resource (HR) functions, supports the primary activities of the business

Top training and development professionals first seek to understand
how value is created by the business they

Then translate the understanding
of the value chain into the
knowledge, skills and abilities of the people involved in mission

Next step is to organize
these key capabilities into competency models
for each level of the

Competency models define successful behaviors that ultimately make
the products and services of the business valuable to

Competency models drive not only training and development
activities, but also other HR activities

Manage Knowledge and Keep It

performing organizations create a culture that facilitates the retention
and sharing of organizational knowledge

Harnessing and sharing the knowledge of workers is also critical to the long
term success of operations

Knowledge management encompasses two areas:

the sharing of knowledge within the organization to identify best practices and
find synergies among operating departments and business units

the retention of organizational knowledge, which is increasingly important in the
face of impending retirements.

To avoid common training pitfalls training and development
professionals must build their programs around the business
value chain

Training programs must offer the fundamental activities that lead
to value creation in the business

Training and Development’s Value Chain that lead
employment and extend beyond termination


Community, governmental and educational outreach programs

Sourcing and recruitment activities

choice branding and realistic job
preview activities

employment assessments and interviews

During employment:

boarding activities

Enculturation, reinforcement of values and basic operational training

Career guidance and management activities

Functional, professional, management and leadership training

Mentoring and coaching

genuine feedback
on performance

Assessment for promotion or individual insight and development

Safety, compliance and regulatory training


Exit interviews and surveys

Outplacement support

Employee alumni groups and networks

Best Practices in Employee Development

Competency models

defines desired skills and abilities required by individual business units for the employee to be
trained and developed

It allows the business unit to determine which critical skills are needed to meet business goals.

Leverage Online Systems

can enable the deployment of common training needs to a wider audience.

training via an intranet or Internet connection helps reduce overall costs, improves access to
learning resources, and improve consistency of messaging.

Formalized Leadership Development Program

prepares the next generation of leaders

succession planning

helps to ensure that all business units are following common strategic objectives and leads to the
sharing of best practices

Identification of high
potential employees

nomination process, a 360

degree process or other
purposeful method to ensure that the best and brightest are given an opportunity to participate.

Augment & Adjust:

No business is static.

It must respond to market forces, adjust and change

or be left dead in the water.

Training and development programs must be augmented, adjusted and changed

Keep looking for something new or different out there that is right for your latest

based training

builds on awareness training by adding a behavioural aspect

equips employees with the skills they need to manage themselves and others in a diverse
working environment.

It has a genuine impact on the behaviours of employees and the culture of your

Comprehensive Career Development:

Important to provide a comprehensive career development services to employees,
integrating the process into the overall performance management system

Work with employees to develop individual career development plans that provide
opportunities for professional advancement.

A clear plan for employees’ long
term development helps to ensure that personnel remain
at your company rather than look for other job opportunities

It helps to define career paths within the organization

Elements of Best Practices for Effective
Training and Development Programs

Strategy driven

All training and development programs must cascade down from the overall strategic goals.

No programs are developed and implemented unless they produce results that are identified as critical to
the strategy or business initiatives.

There should be explicit alignment between programs, learning objectives, and business objectives

Positive cost/benefit ratio

Training today is not only strategically linked, but is also subject to the same measurements as every other
business activity.

It must show a return on the investment, either in the long term or the short term.

Best companies now realize that many training and development initiatives take years to fully achieve their

Supported by key strategies, systems, structures, policies, and practices:

Organizations that receive a true return on their learning investments ensure that learning is aligned with and
directly supported by key areas such as organizational structures, lines of authority, decision making, values,
planning, budgeting, career development, information sharing, compensation, performance management, rewards
and recognition, staffing, recruiting, and succession planning.

These direct links help to both set boundaries and reinforce desired results

Driven through many channels

Utilization of multiple modalities such as the classroom, workplace, blended learning, eLearning, technology
support tools, and

workers to ensure that people get the right skills at the right time, in the right way, and at the right cost to

Modalities are selected to match specific learning styles, business issues, budgets, and cultures.

Maximize employee ability and potential through shared accountability

Best organisations tape the ability and potential of their employees through self
directed training and

Employees identify their own needs, create individual learning plans, and seek learning opportunities.

Training strategies are aimed at knowledge retention and transfer to the workplace, enabling employees to be
more effective and to acquire more skills

related training

Knowledge and skills that are acquired through training and development programs must be
relevant and useful, to both the organization and the individual's work requirements.

Employees can only participate in programs that will add value to their current and future work
effectiveness and will contribute to organizational success.

Learning by doing

training employees by making them perform "real" tasks and projects in a training environment
and on
job in important . Rather than teaching theory and expecting employees to apply it to
their own work.

Transferability of knowledge and skills back to the job

most important elements of best practice training and development is that it is easily transferred
back to the workplace.

It is achieved through the timing of the training, the quality of the content, and the quality and
appropriateness of the delivery method.

the maintenance of the new skill or knowledge once training has been completed is crucial

Linked to other people
related programs and departments

Best organisations do not train their employees in a vacuum.

In many instances, training is now conducted by line managers, who also perform evaluations, set
performance objectives, and draft compensation and promotion systems for the same employees




































Required Principles
and Best Practices

Best practice requires that there be:

Regular learning needs assessment

Broad range of learning opportunities, both formal and informal;

formal offerings in a choice of formats,

designed to meet identified needs,

in modules structured to cover topics from introductory through advanced.

Organizational commitment and leadership from staff development

Continuing Education (CE) activities design that includes learning objectives
aligned with identified needs;

follows principles of instructional design and learning theory; selects course instructors
on the basis of both subject knowledge and teaching ability;

attends to transfer of training and feedback;

Consistent documentation of individuals' participation in learning and
recognition of continuing learning in hiring and promotion decisions;

Evaluation of continuing education and staff development offerings and

the main objectives of evaluations are to improve decision
making, resource allocation and

A evaluations must be part of a wider performance management framework.

The key value of evaluation is that it allows for in
depth study of performance and
independent assessment of effectiveness of other performance management instruments.

Evaluation encourages innovation and adaptation to a changing environment and this helps
an organisation to stay relevant, continues to learn from feedback about results.

Research that assesses the state of Continuing Professional Development

examines the efficacy and outcomes of continuing education and staff
development programs

Best practice calls for regular, performance
related learning needs

that involves individual employees and management, in concert with organizational goals
and objectives..

Best practice requires that those responsible for providing
CE programs or
service training and development create and/or make available a wide range of
activities and products designed to meet identified learning needs.

Best practice requires administrative commitment; formal policies

that spell out what is expected of both staff and the organization in regard to staff development
coordinators who have the support of the administration and the expertise to plan and implement

Best practice requires that formal CE offerings be presented by


in the topic who are also good instructors. Systems of
Continuing Professional Development
CPD) should provide train
trainer opportunities.

Employers should strive to create a supportive environment in which staff is encouraged to apply what
they have learned.

Employers should take employees’ efforts to develop skills and knowledge into account when making
personnel decisions.

Best practice requires that an adequate percentage
of an institution’s personnel budget be allocated to staff

Best practice requires that employers give staff paid time off to attend
conferences and workshops relevant
to their jobs, and also allow for part of their work time to be spent on learning.

Best practice requires that CE providers gather feedback
from their learners not only at the conclusion of
CE events,

but also conduct at least periodic follow
up evaluations to determine what effect the CE has had on practice.

The results of evaluation should be used to improve future CE offerings and should also be factored into needs

Best practice requires that there be regular benchmarking studies of best
practices in staff development,

matched with quality assessment of the participating institutions.

Such studies should advance understanding of and implementation of effective CPD and would justify
resources expended on it.

The conduct of such studies must have cooperation and support from a cross
section of international
institutions, and the results have to be broadly shared.

“We must become the change we want to see.”


Thank you