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24 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Ned Mohan, 2001
Teaching of Switch-Mode Power Electronics
Using A Building-Block Approach, Assisted by
PSpice™Modeling
Department of ECE
University of Minnesota
Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA
[1, 2]
Audio
1
Please click on the Audio button, making sure that speakers are turned on.
Ned Mohan
Email: mohan@ece.umn.edu
William P. Robbins
Email: robbins@ece.umn.edu
Ned Mohan, 2001
References
1a
1.NSF-Sponsored Faculty Workshop on Teaching of Power Electronics
and Electric Drives, University of Minnesota, to be held in Tempe,
Arizona January 3-6, 2002. For details, contact mohan@ece.umn.edu
.
2.NSF-Sponsored Faculty Workshops on Teaching of Power Electronics
and Electric Drives, held at the University of Minnesota, 1991, 1994,
1997 and 1998.
Ned Mohan, 2001
Power Processing Unit (PPU)
oEfficient conversion of power from line frequency AC to
appropriate form required by the load
oRectifier: Line frequency AC to DC
oSwitch-Mode Converter: DC to form required by the Load
Rectifier
switch
-
mode
converter
Load
controller
utility


d
V
Audio
[3]
2
Ned Mohan, 2001
Switch-Mode Converters – A Building-Block Approach
Identification of Switching Pole as the Building Block
-Fundamental principle – Synthesis using Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM)
-Average Representation by an Ideal Transformer with Controllable Turns-Ratio
Identification of Switching Pole as the Building Block
-Fundamental principle – Synthesis using Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM)
-Average Representation by an Ideal Transformer with Controllable Turns-Ratio
Single-Quadrant DC-DC
Converters
Inclusion of
Discontinuous Mode in
the Average Model
Small Signal Analysis
including ESRs, using
PSpice™
Feedback Controller
Design and small signal
simulations in Voltage
Mode and Peak Current
Mode Control
Power-Factor-Correction
(PFC) Circuits
DC and AC Motor Drives
and Uninterruptible
Power Supplies
Feedback Controller
Design using Inner
Average Current-Mode
and Outer Voltage Mode
Control Loops
Dynamic Simulations for
Large Disturbances, using
the Average Model in
PSpice
Feedback Controller
Design using Cascaded
Torque, Speed and
Position Control Loops
Orders of magnitude
faster than the switching
model
Audio
3
Benefits
[4, 5]
Ned Mohan, 2001
• For Practicing Engineers
- Review material very quickly
- Learn new topics in a very short time
• For a First Course in Power Electronics
- Consistent Systematic Analysis of all converter topologies
- Clearly shows Switch-Mode Synthesis using PWM
- Extremely Simple Average Model Speeds up Simulations of
Large Disturbances by a factor of 100 or more
- Same Average Model Allows Small-Signal Response (Bode Plots) to
be obtained using PSpice™ in CCM and DCM Modes for Feedback
Controller Designs
- Allows practical topics to be covered in a single-semester course
Benefits of Building-Block Approach
Audio
[4, 5]
3a
Ned Mohan, 2001
References
3b
4.N. Mohan, Tutorials on A Building-Block Approach to Switch-Mode
Power Electronics at IEEE-APEC, IEEE-PESC and PCIM
conferences.
5.N. Mohan, Learn a True Building-Block Approach to Power
Electronics and Using this Unifying Analysis (Assisted by PSpice™
Modeling) to Design Feedback Controllers in Switch-Mode dc Power
Supplies, Power-Factor-Correction Circuits and Motor Drives, 4-1/2
hour video course, http://www.mnpere.com
.
Ned Mohan, 2001
Buck
+
-
+
-
-
Boost
in
V
L
i
o
V
q
A
+
-
-
+
in
V
o
V
L
i
q
A
+
-
+
-
o
V
in
V
L
i
q
A
o
i
Buck/Boost
Single-Quadrant Converters for
Switch-Mode DC Power Supplies
Audio
4
Click here for Transformer-
Isolated Topologies
Ned Mohan, 2001
N
3
v
A
-
+
i
L
N
1
N
2
q(t)
i
in
V
o
+
-
V
in
in
V
T
1
T
3
T
2
T
4
D
1
D
2
i
L
+
-
V
O
+
-
v
1
N
1
N
2
N
2
V
o
i
o
V
in
i
in
q(t)
+
-
+
-
4a
Audio
Single-Quadrant Transformer-Isolated DC-DC Topologies
Flyback
Forward
Full-Bridge
Ned Mohan, 2001
Four-Quadrant Converters for
dc- and ac-motor drives
A
B
A
B
C
M
M
V
d


V
d


i
a
i
a
For DC Drives
For AC Drives
[6]
Audio
5
Ned Mohan, 2001
6.N. Mohan, Electric Drives: An Integrative Approach, year 2001
edition, http://www.mnpere.com
. A review of this book appears in
the IEEE Industrial Electronics Newsletter, Vol. 47, No. 3,
September 2000, http://sant.bradley.edu/ienews/00_3/edrives.html
.
Reference
5a
Ned Mohan, 2001
Implementation of a Bi-Positional Switch
Audio
6
Boost
tri
v
,
c A
v
q
A
q

( )
A
q t
A
i negative

Buck
d
V


ramp
v
ramp
v
,
c A
v
A
q

q
A
i
Buck
Boost
d
V


q
tri
v
,
c A
v
A
q

A
q

( )
A
q t
A
i
Buck
Boost
d
V


0
switching power loss
for a very short time
CE
V
on
V
C
i
ON
OFF
approx switching
trajectory
Ned Mohan, 2001
o Pole as a Building Block: Synthesis by PWM
PWM-IC
( )
tri
v t
,
( )
control A
v t


( )
AN
v t
( )
A
i t





current
port
voltage
port









d
V


dA
i
( )
A
q t 0 or 1

  
     
A
A
AN d
A
dA
t t
t t t
v q V
i q i
 
 
Audio
7
Ned Mohan, 2001
Time
V(PWR_SWITCH1:out)
140
SEL>>
V(PWM_TRI1.Vtri:+)
V(V2:+)
0.0
Time
-I(V1)
7.35
SEL>>
I(L1)
10.5
dA A A
i d i
A
i
AN A d
v d V
s
T
,
control A
v
A s
d T
d
V
0
0
0
0
A
i
tri
v
,
1 1
2 2 ˆ
control A
A
tri
v
d
V
 
Synthesis by PWM
( ) ( ) ( )
A A
dA
i t d t i t
 
( ) ( )
d
AN A
v V
t d t
 
Audio
8
dA
i
Ned Mohan, 2001


d
V


( )
A
d t
tri
1
2V

( )
dA
i t
( )
AN
v t
1

/
1 2
,
( )
control A
v t
( )
A
i t


Average Representation of a Pole as An Ideal Transformer
PWM-IC
pole-A
( )
tri
v t
A
N


( )
AN
v t
( ) or
1
A
q t 0


( )
A
i t





current
port
voltage
port
ì
ï
ï
ï
í
ï
ï
ï
î
d
V


( )
dA
i t
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
AN A d
dA A A
v t d t V
i t d t i t
 
 
,
( )
control A
v t
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
AN A d
dA A A
v t q t V
i t q t i t
 
 
,
1 1
2 2
ˆ
control A
A
tri
v
d
V
 
Audio
9
Ned Mohan, 2001
Buck/Boost
-
+
-
+
+
-
-
+
-
+
-
+
-
+
Buck
+
-
+
-
-
in
V
L
i
o
V
q
A
Boost
+
-
-
+
in
V
o
V
L
i
q
A
Average Representation of 1-Quadrant Converters
in
V
in
V
in
V
o
V
o
V
o
V
control
v
control
v
control
v
ˆ
1/
r
V
ˆ
1/
r
V
ˆ
1/
r
V
1
1
1
( )
d t
( )
d t
1 ( )
d t

1
( )
ˆ
control
r
v
d t
V

Audio
10
-
+
-
+
i
o
in
V
o
V
L
i
t
ˆ
r
V
control
v
r
v
s
dT
0
1
A
q q
 
Ned Mohan, 2001
d
V


C
i
B
i
A
i
IC
PWM
A
B
C
n
,
( )
c A
v t
,
( )
c B
v t
,
( )
c C
v t
( )
A
q t
( )
B
q t
( )
C
q t
tri
v
1
f
ˆ
c
V
Application of Building Block – Three Phase Inverter
/
1 2
( )
C
d t
ˆ
tri
1
2V
( )
A
i t
( )
B
i t
( )
C
i t
A
B
C
n
( )
A
v t

( )
B
v t
( )
C
v t
( )
dA
i t
( )
d B
i t
( )
dC
i t
( )
B
d t
( )
A
d t
1
,
( )
c C
v t
,
( )
c B
v t
,
( )
c A
v t
d
V
( )
C
e t
( )
B
e t
( )
A
e t








ˆ
t ri
1
2V
ˆ
t ri
1
2V








1
1
N
Switching Converter Average representation
[6]
Audio
11
T i m e
0 s
4 m s
8 m s
1 2 m s
1 6 m s
2 0 m s
V ( V 1 3:+ )
V ( V C _ B )
V ( V C _ C )
V ( P W M _ T R I 1.V t r i:+ )
0.0
- 1.0
0
1.0
0
1

1
t ri
v
,
c ont r ol A
v
,
c ont r ol B
v
,c o n t r o l C
v
Time
0s
4ms
8ms
12ms
16ms
20ms
V(TWO_PORT1:Ncp)
V(TWO_PORT2:Ncp)
V(TWO_PORT3:Ncp)
0.5
0
0.5
1.0
0
0.5
1
A
d
B
d
C
d
Ned Mohan, 2001
Discontinuous-Conduction Mode in DC-DC Converters
0
dT
s
T
s
Ä
1
T
s
Ä
2
T
s
L,DCM
i
L,crit
i
L,CCM
i
0
Ä
1
T
s
Ä
2
T
s
A
v
L
i
+
-
q(t)
+
-
+
-
in
V
o
V
A
v
L
i
,ACCM
v
,ADCM
v
control
v
ˆ
1/
r
V
( )
ˆ
control
r
v
d t
V

k
v
k
i
cp
v
2L
v






vp
v
cp
i
1
N
2
N
vp
i
and are both zero in CCM.
k
v
i
k
1 2
:1: Buck, Buck/Boost
1:(1 ) Boost
N N d
d

 
[5, 7]
Audio
12
Ned Mohan, 2001
0
R3
8.0
R2
8.0
0
R1
10m
V2
0.75V
V1
8.5V
U1
TCLOSE = 1.5ms
1
2
Nvp=1
TWO_PORT1
VP1 CP1
common
Ncp
L1
10uH
IC =
C1
100uF
IC =
Simulation of Large Disturbances Using the Average Model
4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
x 10
-3
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Ti me ( secs)
Inductor Current (A)
I nductor current
swi t chi ng wavef or m
Cycl e- by- cycl e
average of the
swi t chi ng wavef orm
I nduct or current obt ai ned
f r om aver age model
Fig. 6b. Inductor current profile for a load change
[5, 7, 8]
Audio
13
[7]
Ned Mohan, 2001
References
13a
5.N. Mohan, Learn a True Building-Block Approach to Power
Electronics and Using this Unifying Analysis (Assisted by PSpice™
Modeling) to Design Feedback Controllers in Switch-Mode dc Power
Supplies, Power-Factor-Correction Circuits and Motor Drives, 4-1/2
hour video course, http://www.mnpere.com
.
7.G.Nirgude, R.Tirumala and N. Mohan, “A New, Large-Signal
Average Model for Single-Switch DC-DC Converters operating in
both CCM and DCM,” IEEE-PESC, Vancouver, Canada, June 2001.
8.N. Mohan, Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™
(Release 9), http://www.mnpere.com
.
Ned Mohan, 2001
Frequency Response for Feedback Controller Design
0
IF(( ( (V(K,0)*(-I(Eout)))/(V(VP1,VL2)*V(Ncp,0)) )<1 ) , ((1-((V(K,0)*(-I(Eout)))/(V(VP1,VL2)*V(Ncp,0))))*V(VL2,common)) , 0 )
0
CP1
-
+
+
-
Eout
GAIN = 1
common
VP1
V(Ncp,0) * V(VP1, common)
-V(Ncp,0)*I(Eout)
For Buck and Buck-Boost
-
+
+
-
E1
E
IF(( ( (V(K,0)*(-I(Eout)))/(V(VP1,VL2)*V(Ncp,0)) )<1 ) , ( ( V(Ncp,0)*V(Ncp,0)*V(VP1,VL2)/V(K,0)) - (V(Ncp,0)*(-I(Eout))) ) , 0 )
VL2
K
Ncp
[5, 8]
Audio
14
Ned Mohan, 2001
Frequency
10Hz
100Hz
1.0KHz
10KHz
100KHz
1.0MHz
P(V(VOUT_AVG))
-400d
-200d
0d
SEL>>
DB(V(VOUT_AVG))
-100
0
100
Frequency Response for Feedback Controller Design – cont.
CCM response
DCM response
Audio
15
[5, 8]
Ned Mohan, 2001
Power-Factor-Correction (PFC) Circuit
oUse a boost dc-dc converter to shape the rectified current
i
s


v
s
i
L



o
load
v
s
v
s
i
L
i
o
C




V
o
1
Average model
1 d(t)

V
v d t
d t
V t
V
o
s
s
o



 
 
1
1
1
( )

sin a f
v
s
d(t)
1
0
oL
Vi
(s) =
sL
d


s s
o L L
o o
ˆ ˆ
V V1 1
ˆ ˆ
i (t) = I I cos(2 t)
2 V 2 V

o~ s
o
L~
ˆ
i V
1
(s) =
ˆ
2 V
I
Inner Current Loop:
Outer Voltage Loop:
Audio
16
[5]
Ned Mohan, 2001
1.Consistent Systematic Analysis of switch-mode topologies
2.Clearly shows Switch-Mode Synthesis using PWM
3.Extremely Simple Average Model Speeds up Simulations of Large
Disturbances by a factor of 100 or more
4.Same Average Model Allows Small-Signal Response (Bode Plots) to
be obtained using PSpice™ in CCM and DCM Modes for Feedback
Controller Designs
5.Allows practical topics to be covered in a single-semester course
Ideal For
:
• Practicing Engineers
• For a First Course in Power Electronics
SUMMARY
Audio
17
Ned Mohan, 2001
References
18
1.NSF-Sponsored Faculty Workshop on Teaching of Power Electronics
and Electric Drives, University of Minnesota, to be held in Tempe,
Arizona January 3-6, 2002. For details, contact mohan@ece.umn.edu
.
2.NSF-Sponsored Faculty Workshops on Teaching of Power Electronics
and Electric Drives, held at the University of Minnesota, 1991, 1994,
1997 and 1998.
3.Mohan, Undeland and Robbins, Power Electronics: Converters,
Applications and Design, 2
nd
Edition 1995, http://www.wiley.com
.
4.N. Mohan, Tutorials on A Building-Block Approach to Switch-Mode
Power Electronics at IEEE-APEC, IEEE-PESC and PCIM
conferences.
Continued……
Ned Mohan, 2001
5.N. Mohan, Learn a True Building-Block Approach to Power
Electronics and Using this Unifying Analysis (Assisted by PSpice™
Modeling) to Design Feedback Controllers in Switch-Mode dc Power
Supplies, Power-Factor-Correction Circuits and Motor Drives, 4-1/2
hour video course, http://www.mnpere.com
.
6.N. Mohan, Electric Drives: An Integrative Approach, year 2001
edition, http://www.mnpere.com
. A review of this book appears in
the IEEE Industrial Electronics Newsletter, Vol. 47, No. 3, September
2000, http://sant.bradley.edu/ienews/00_3/edrives.html
.
7.G. Nirgude, R. Tirumala and N. Mohan, “A New, Large-Signal
Average Model for Single-Switch DC-DC Converters operating in
both CCM and DCM,” IEEE-PESC, Vancouver, Canada, June 2001.
8.N. Mohan, Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™
(Release 9), http://www.mnpere.com
.
References (contd.)
19