THE TRES AMIGAS

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24 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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THE TRES AMIGAS
SUPERSTATION

IIEA
-

Dublin

October 8, 2010

UNITING THE NATION’S ELECTRIC POWER GRID

1

20
th

Century Electric Transmission Grid


Utility Controlled

2

21
st

Century Electric Transmission Grid

Customer Desires &
Configurations

3

LARGE INTERCONNECTED AC
TRANSMISSON SYSTEMS

4

Common Interconnected AC System Problems

Long Distance Transmission


Line losses


System Voltage Stability/Levels


Reactive Power Loading


Steady state


Transient Stability


Subsynchronous Oscillations


Latency issues (ie Spinning Reserves)


Inductive and Capacitive limitation
factors


Interconnections


Uncontrolled Load flow
problems and bottlenecks


Congestion Issues


Inter Area loop flow


Cascading Blackouts


Oscillation Stability


Frequency control


Voltage Stability


Physical interactions between
power systems


Diminishing Returns with large interconnected AC Systems

5

Common Interconnected AC System Problems

High Cost of Interconnections


Reliability Costs: NERC, RC, Relaying


N
-
1 criteria often creates underutilization of transmission
lines


Complex coordinating arrangements (RTOs, IA, JOAs, etc.)


Need for sophisticated and costly system impact studies


Participation agreement complications with multiple
impacted entities


Regional/Subregional perturbations/phenomena difficult
and costly to analyze and manage


Deterministic planning practices do not capture the true
economic value of transmission additions/upgrades




6

Next Step


The Evolution to Fast Acting HVDC


The only way to interconnect large AC power grids with different
phases is via HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current) facilities


AC/DC/AC Stations


Hybrid Transmission systems (AC/DC…DC/AC)


Multipoint nodes


Long distance DC Transmission lines


HVDC has the ability to control the direction and magnitude of the
power flow at each node of a multipoint configuration thereby
facilitating the precise needs of the interconnection points without
adverse impacts to the interconnecting grid


HVDC has the flexibility not only to adapt to grids with different AC
system real time characteristics but to also facilitate optional
ancillary services to each interconnection node


7


PRESENTLY, ONLY 30% OF ALL POWER
GENERATED USES POWER ELECTRONICS
SOMEWHERE BETWEEN THE POINT OF
GENERATION AND END USE.


BY 2030, 80%OF
ALL ELECTRIC POWER WILL FLOW
THROUGH POWER ELECTRONICS .”

Power

electronics

moves

beyond

devices

that

simply

provide

increased

awareness,

such

as

Phasor

measurement

systems
.


These

devices

will

respond

to,

interface

with

and

control

real

time

power

flows
.


From USDOE Office of Electric Delivery and Energy Reliability

8

Benefits of Power electronics


Increased power system reliability and security


Increased efficiency and loading

of existing transmission and
distribution infrastructure


Huge gains in real time power flow control


Improved voltage and frequency regulation


Improved power system transient and dynamic stability


More flexibility in siting transmission and generation facilities


The distinction between consumer devices and utility devices
will largely be eliminated electrically

9

21st century smart grid technologies compared with those in use today.


Source: IBM Institute for Business Value

10

11

Data to Information

12

China: Current HVDC National Grid Plan

13

Europe: Extended Grid Plan


From Iceland
(Northwest) to
Israel (Southeast)

= 3,200 mi


Concept of grid is
25,000 miles of line


Solar Power

Wind Power

Geothermal

Hydro

Biomass

The new high
-
voltage network would range from the Sahara to the polar cap. The concept calls for main lines that are 40,000 kilo
meters long. And
parts of it already exist.

Connections
already in place

or planned

Vision of ABB

and DLR

14

U.S.: National Grid Concept


Concept of DOE
National Renewable
Energy Laboratory
and American
Electric Power
Company


D.C and 765 KV AC
lines


15

Hierarchical View of the Issues facing the European
Transmission System Operators (TSOs)




Single

European

Electricity Market



Pan
-
European Transmission Grid


Load
-
Generation Balance


Congestion management


Ancillary services


Settlement


Balancing Mechanisms


Variable Renewable energy Generation


Storage


Demand Side Management


Source: ENTSO
-
E: The pathway towards common European network operation

16

The Location

Tres Amigas Is Ideally Situated in Eastern New Mexico Near the
Borders of CO, OK and TX Serving as a Three
-
Way Interconnection of
WECC, Eastern and ERCOT

17

The Location: Regional Renewable Resource Potential

Significant Regional Wind & Solar Capacity Factors in Excess of 35%

Source: NREL

18

The Tres Amigas SuperStation

19

Tres Amigas SuperStation….


Uniting the Electric Grid