Power Electronics Packaging Solutions for Device Junction Temperature over 220C

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24 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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IME Proprietary
Page 1
Power Electronics Packaging
Solutions for Device Junction
Temperature over 220
o
C
EPRC – 12
Project Proposal
15
th
August 2012
IME Proprietary
Page 2
2
Motivation
Electronic Vehicle
Source: Toyota
Source: Yole
Source: Infineon
Renewable energy
Aerospace
Hybrid Vehicle
Source: Nissan
Electronic Railway

Increased requirements of high power semiconductor device module for future
automotive, aerospace and green & renewable energy industry

Emerging wide band gap power devices : SiC and GaN can be operated >220
o
C
IME Proprietary
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3
Technology Trends

Technology trends for high power module and discrete :

High temperature endurable materials >220
o
C (silver sintering, encapsulations)

High reliable and low stress interconnections (foil interconnects, ultrasonic bonding)

Thermal cooling solution (Dual-side cooling / micro-channel cooling )
Source: Yole
IME Proprietary
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4
Challenges to be Addressed
Power Module
Base plate
Passive
DBC substrate
Encapsulation Materials
Plastic case
• Thermal endurance >220C
• Void free processing
• Lower stress (CTE, Modulus)
• High power insulation
• Moisture barrier
• Delamination free
• Thermal endurance >220C
• Void free processing
• Lower stress (CTE, Modulus)
• Electrical conductive
• Die backside metallization
Power Device Attach
IGBT
Diode
Encapsulations
Power Source Interconnection
• Power cycling endurance
• Temp cycle endurance
• Process optimization
• inter-metallic diffusion
• Thermal & Electrical properties
Substrate (DBC)
• Temp cycling endurance
• Adhesion with Encapsulation
• Adhesion between Cu/Ceramic
• Surface finish
• Thermal & Electrical properties
Passive component attach
• Thermal endurance >220C
• Void free processing
• Temp cycle endurance
• Electrical conductive
• Metallization > 220C
IGBT
Power Discrete
Heat spreader
Wire
Wire
Thermal interface materials
• Thermal endurance > 220C
• Temp cycle endurance
• Delamination & fracture
• Thermal conductivity
Base plate (system board)
Reliability testing methodologies
• Reliability test spec
• Reliability testing method
• Failure Analysis / reliability model
Modeling and predictions
• Thermal characterization
• Mechanical characterization
• Electro-thermal-mechanical coupling
• Reliability model (power cycling)
Lead frame
IME Proprietary
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Objective
Development and characterization of power semiconductor packages for high junction
temperature endurable (>220
o
C) solutions for next generation devices, including the following:
Material solutions for TV1 and TV2

High temperature endurable die attach (Ag sintering, TLP bonding, Cu-Cu bonding)

DBC surface finish option (Ni/Au finish, ENIG )

High temperature endurable encapsulation materials (High T
g
EMC)

Cu based interconnection through EMWLP RDL process
Thermal management solutions for TV1 and TV2

Dual side cooling structure package development and packaging process optimization

High temperature endurable, high conductive TIM materials ( Ag sintering )
Package characterization and Reliability for TV1 and TV2

Mechanical &Thermal modeling and characterization

Power cycling modeling : electro-thermal- mechanical coupled analysis

Reliability and failure analysis
Project Proposal
Conventional Power Module
Base plate
PassiveDBC substrate
Plastic case
IGBTDiode
Encapsulations
Wire
IGBT
Wire
Base plate (system board)
Lead frame
Conventional Power discrete *
Heat spreader
Heat spreader
Diode
IGBT
TV1*
: Novel Dual side cooling Power Module
Top RDL layer
Heat spreader
IGBT
TV2*
: Novel Dual side cooling Power Discrete
Heat spreader
Heat spreader
* To be finalized with members input
* Conventional test vehicle with new material option can be considered
as project test vehicle on the basis of members assembly support
IME Proprietary
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Structural modeling and interconnection
life prediction for novel dual side cooling
power module

Power source/gate/drain RDL design
optimization for stress minimization

Interconnection fatigue life prediction (plastic
constitutive model for Cu RDL)

Packaging material properties effect on the
investigation

Electro-thermo-mechanical coupled power
cycling impact modeling
Ref. Hua Lua et al. “Lifetime Prediction for Power Electronics
Module Substrate Mount-down Solder Interconnect”
Proceedings of HDP’07

Thermal modeling and characterization

Thermal resistance modeling for selected
material set and design

Experimental Thermal resistance
Rth
jc
characterization

Liquid based active cooling investigation
Ref. Institute of Microelectronics
Dual side cooling effect T
jmax
decreased compared with
single side cooling
Design Optimization and Reliability Prediction for
Power Module/Discrete with Dual Side Cooling
IME Proprietary
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High Temperature Power Device
interconnection development

High temperature endurable die attach (drain)

Micro/Nano Ag sintering (pressure less)

TLP bonding : Cu-Sn(415
o
C), Ag-Sn(480
o
C)

Direct Cu-Cu ultrasonic bonding

Device backside metallization

Substrate surface finish option (Ni/Au finish, ENIG)

Power source and gate interconnect through
Electrolytic Cu Patterning

High Temperature Endurable Compounds
Development

High glass transition temperature (T
g
>200
o
C)

High thermal conductive compounds (~3W/m-K )

Compatible with Wafer level fan-out process

Investigation on thermal degradation (< 3%wt) with
continuous exposure to 220
o
C

Low stress, low thermal mismatch
High Temperature Endurable Materials for Power
Module with T
jmax
> 220
o
C
TLP bonding (Cu-Sn) used in Infineon XT modules in 2010
Ref. Institute of Microelectronics
Micro Ag particles sintered by pressure less process
Chin-Lung Chiang et.al “Thermal stability and degradation
kinetics of novel organic/inorganic epoxy hybrid…”
Thermochimica Acta 453 (2007)
thermal degradation
kinetics for epoxy
IME Proprietary
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Thermal Interface Material investigation

High conductive /temperature endurable

Metallic TIM (Ag sintering) with high power insulation
layer (Al
2
O
3
)

Polymeric TIM with conductivity > 4W/m-K

Thickness control

Thermal performance consistency investigation after
reliability test

High Temperature Endurable Dielectric
passivation layer

High glass transition temperature (T
g
>200
o
C)

BCB, Polyimide photo sensitive PR

Compatible with Wafer level fan-out process

Investigation on thermal degradation (< 3%wt) with
continuous exposure to 220
o
C

Low stress, low thermal mismatch
High Temperature Endurable Materials for Power
Module with T
jmax
> 220
o
C
Source : Danfoss
Source : Danfoss
Ag sintering for TIM
TIM layer crack propagation
IME Proprietary
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Dual side Cooling Power Module Assembly
Process development

Cu clip (Ag plated) attachment / alignment

Evaluation of molding material Liquid, Granular

Process condition (Temperature, time, pressure)

Module shift analysis & control

Die/ module pick & place tolerance

Minimum clearance between die

Warpage control

Heat spreader attach and TIM process

Reliability Assessments for High Power
Application

Temperature cycling (Test condition : TBD*
1
)

High Temperature Storage ( 220
o
C/ 1000 hrs )

HAST (non-biased)

Power Cycling test (optional*
2
)

Failure analysis
Dual Side Cooling Power Module Process
Optimization and Reliability Assessment
IME’s Novel Dual side Cooling Power
Module Assembly Process
*1 To be finalized with members input
*2 Need member’s support on actual SiC wafer and testing
Power cycling : IGBT with 300W,10Hz
Tilo Poller et al. “Influence of thermal cross-couplings on
power cycling lifetime of IGBT power modules” CIPS 2102
IME Proprietary
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Thermal and Structural optimization and life prediction for novel dual
side cooling power module

Interconnection fatigue life prediction (plastic constitutive model for Cu RDL)

Packaging material properties effect on the test vehicle

Thermal modeling characterization for selected material set and test vehicles

Electro-thermo-mechanical coupled power cycling impact analysis

T
jmax
>220
o
C : High Temperature Endurable Power Device Packaging
material Solutions (interconnect/encapsulation/TIM)

High temperature endurable die attach material characterization using Micro/Nano
Ag sintering, TLP bonding, Direct Cu-Cu ultrasonic bonding

Power source and gate interconnect through Electrolytic Cu Patterning

Wafer level Fan-out compatible compounds characterization

TIM process optimization for dual side application

Dual side Cooling Power Module Assembly Process development

Copper clip (Ag plated) attachment / alignment

Mold Process condition optimization (Temperature, time, pressure)

Heat spreader attach and TIM process

Reliability Assessments & F/A for Novel High Power Module

Temperature cycling

High Temperature Storage / Low Temperature Storage

HAST (non-biased)

Power Cycling test (optional)

Failure analysis
Possible Research Outcome*
* To be finalized
IME Proprietary
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Project Flow
Finalize Project scope and test vehicles
specifications
Mechanical Modeling &
Simulation Analysis on stress and
reliability
Initial Material evaluation and quick
reliability test
Thermal performance testing
Dual side cooling effect analysis
with active cooling
Reliability testing
Failure analysis and report writing
Identify high thermal endurable
materials and evaluation
(Members to provide inputs)
Thermal Modeling &
Simulation Analysis
Test methodologies
(Thermal and Reliability )
Members Inputs
EWLP process
modeling –
flow/Warpage
TV1,2 Dual cooling effect
Power cycling modeling
Electro-Thermo-mechanical
Power module EWLP Assembly
process optimization. Device chip*
(fabrication/purchase)
TV1 Thermal performance sample matrix
TV2 Thermal performance sample matrix
TV2 Reliability test sample matrix
TV1 Reliability test sample matrix
Scope Planning
Material investigation
Process and assembly
Modeling & characterization
Final reliability
Project Time line and
schedule :
Nov 2012 to June 2014
Note:
*
Electric testing will be carried
out based on device chip availability
IME Proprietary
Page 12