Power Electronics for Hybrid Vehicles [PDF]

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24 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Power Electronics
March 4, 2009
Bob SchumacherHEV Vehicle Forecast by OEM
All Major OEMs Developing Hybrid Vehicles
9.0
35%
CAGR
8.0
7.0
6.0
Other
NISSAN
HONDA
5.0
DAIMLER AG
BMW
GM
VW GROUP
4.0
FORD
TOYOTA
PSA
3.0
2.0
1.0
-
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Source: Global Insight (DRI) May 2008
Delphi/Allison 2
Millions of VehiclesU.S. CAFE and EU CO2 Requirements
• CAFE: 35 mpg for cars and trucks by 2020
– 8 mil. trucks @ 22.2 mpg to 8m @ 30 mpg &
US Corp. Avg. Fuel Economy
– 10 mil. cars @ 25.4 mpg to 10m@ 40 mpg
– Changes would get us to 35 mpg Avg
40
– 35% improvement in Light Trucks
35
– +50% improvement in cars! 30
22.2
22
21
20
• EU Standard: 130 gm/km
10
– 20% improvement on 70% of the fleet
results in only 14% overall
0
– Boosted, downsized DI, with stop-start for a 2 liter
1981 1991 2001 2011 2020
gas engine from 185 to 139 g/km
Model Year
– Diesel with stop-start goes from 143 to 129 g/km
U U U U....S S S S.... T T T Ta a a ar r r rg g g ge e e etttt
E E E Eu u u ur r r ro o o op p p pe e e ea a a an n n n A A A Av v v vg g g g ( ( ( (2 2 2 20 0 0 00 0 0 06 6 6 6) ) ) )
• Both Targets Require Hybrid Technology
as part of the Solution
Comparison CO to MPG
2
Gas MPG Diesel MPG
160 CO2 g/km 34.5 39.5
130 CO2 g/km 42.4 48.7
N N N Ne e e ew w w w T T T Ta a a ar r r rg g g ge e e etttt? ? ? ?
Delphi/Allison 3
M iles / g allo nDelphi Electronics & Safety
HEV and Power Electronics
• Battery Controllers
• Hybrid and Electric
Vehicle Controllers
• DC/DC Converters
• Traction Inverters
• High Voltage
Battery Pack
Systems
• 14V Stop/Start
Systems
• Mild Hybrid Systems
Delphi/Allison 4Powertrain Electrification Megatrend
HEV is the Next Pillar of Powertrain
Fuel Cell
- Controls
- Power Electronics
• Mechanical systems enhanced by
- Energy Management
electronics to improve performance,
Hybrid Vehicle
emissions, and fuel economy
- Power Electronics
- Energy Management
Digital
Transmission
Controls
Digital
Engine
Controls
Electronic
Spark Control
Fuel Injection
Vacuum and
Mechanical
Ignition
Electric
Market Drivers
Start
Performance - Emissions - Fuel Economy
Gas Engines
( Mean Green Lean )
Magneto Spark
Carburetor Fuel
1900’s 1960’s 1970’s 2000 2020
Delphi/Allison 5The Continuum of Hybrid Vehicle FE and Power
50-100% fuel economy
50-100% fuel economy
Plug-In (PHEV)
4
or Range Ext EV
2 25 5- -5 50 0% % f fu ue ell e ec co on no om my y
• • E EV V m mo od de e ( (2 20 0 tto o 4 40 0 m miille es s) )
• • 7 75 5- -1 10 00 0+ +k kW W m mo otto or r o ou uttp pu utt
Full Hybrid
3
• IGBT liquid-cooled electronics
• IGBT liquid-cooled electronics
1 10 0- -2 25 5% % f fu ue ell e ec co on no om my y
• Limited EV driving & launch
• Limited EV driving & launch
• Lithium batteries
• Lithium batteries
• IM or PM machines
• IM or PM machines
• • A AC C- -D DC C c ch ha ar rg ge er r r re eq qu uiir re ed d
BSG/CSG
2 • • 3 30 0- -7 75 5k kW W m mo otto or r o ou uttp pu utt
• • I IG GB BT T lliiq qu uiid d- -c co oo olle ed d e elle ec cttr ro on niic cs s
Mild Hybrid Rep Vehicles:
• NiMH or Lithium batteries
4-7% fuel economy • NiMH or Lithium batteries
4-7% fuel economy
– Chevy Volt
• • B Be elltt o or r C Cr ra an nk k m mo ou un ntte ed d m ma ac ch hiin ne e
– Aftermarket Battery Pack
• • I IM M a an nd d P PM M m ma ac ch hiin ne e
14V BAS
Rep Vehicles:
1
• • 4 4- -2 20 0k kW W m mo otto or r o ou uttp pu utt Systems for Prius and Escape
–Toyota Prius, Highlander & Camry
• MOSFET or IGBT electronics
Micro Hybrid • MOSFET or IGBT electronics
– GM Tahoe & Yukon 2-Mode Hybrid
• • N NiiM MH H o or r L Liitth hiiu um m b ba atttte er riie es s
• Belt driven Lundell machine
• Belt driven Lundell machine
– Ford Escape
• • 1 10 00 0- -1 12 20 0N Nm m c cr ra an nk kiin ng g tto or rq qu ue e
Rep Vehicles:
– Dodge Durango, Chrysler Aspen
• • 1 1..5 5- -2 2k kW W c co on nttiin nu uo ou us s g ge en ne er ra attiio on n
• BAS – Belt Alternator Starter
–Toyota Crown 42V BSG
• BSG – Belt Starter Generator
• • M MO OS SF FE ET T a aiir r- -c co oo olle ed d e elle ec cttr ro on niic cs s
• CSG – Crank mounted Starter Generator
– Saturn Vue 42V BAS
• Advanced lead acid battery
• Advanced lead acid battery
• IM – Induction Machine
• PM – Permanent Magnet Machine
– Honda Insight IMA
• MOSFET - Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor
Rep Vehicles:
– Honda Civic IMA
• IGBT - Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor
–PSA/Citroen C2 & C3
• NiMH – Nickel Metal Hydride
– Mercedes S-class
Degree of Powertrain Redesign and Level of Integration
Delphi/Allison 6
Increasing Fuel Economy & PowerMachine Controller
Delphi HEV and Power Electronics Products
Hybrid Products: Power Electronics Products: Partner/Supplier Products:
•Battery Pack •DC/DC Converters •Battery/Cells
•Battery Pack Controller •DC/AC Inverters •Electric Machines
•HEV Controller •Motor Controller •Transmission
•Chargers
120/240VAC
Inverter
Charger
Pack Controller
ECM/HCU
DCDC Converter
Delphi/Allison 7
High Voltage Battery Pack
Hybrid Vehicle Control Unit (HCU-1)
HCU-1 Hybrid Control Unit
Description
The HCU-1 Hybrid Control Unit is based on the Delphi Electronics &
Safety MT-Series family of controllers. These modules are designed to
provide intelligent control to any hybrid electric vehicle application. They
are able to make measurements of multiple instantaneous events to
enable “real-time” adjustment of inverter and converter setpoints, electric
machine and battery management system operating points, and they are
capable of managing vehicle level HEV safety algorithms. MT-Series
controllers are flexible enough to be used on a wide variety of vehicle
applications and across multiple HEV architectures.
Features
♦ Microprocessor: 32-Bit, 66MHz, 1MB Flash Memory
Delphi designs and manufactures intelligent controllers that enable hybrid
♦ Communication: CAN (2 Channels) , KW2000
vehicles to function more efficiently, reliably, and economically.
♦ Instrumentation: CCP, ETAS
OEM Benefits
♦ Analog Input: 32 Channels
♦ Based on high volume, low cost Delphi powertrain controller
♦ Digital Input: 18 Channels
♦ Readily configurable microprocessor and software to meet
♦ Digital Output: 23 Channels (2 HSD, 16 LSD, 5 Relay)
customer specific functions
♦ PWM Output: 3 Channels
♦ Flash programming provides for in-vehicle memory updates
♦ Frequency Input: 8 Channels
♦ Up-integrated design reduces weight and wiring
♦ Memory: 56kB RAM, 16kB x 2 non-volatile ROM
♦ Mounting flexibility: Underhood or passenger compartment
o o
♦ Environment: Underhood, -40 C – 105 C
Delphi/Allison 8In Production (since Fall 2007)
300V/14V & 42V DC/DC Converter
2008 Chevy Tahoe
• Multi-output, Bi-directional 3.2kW DC/DC Converter
2008 GMC Yukon
• Input voltage range
2009 Cadillac Escalade
– 216 to 390Vdc operation 2009 Chevy Silverado
20XX GMC Sierra
• 300Vdc to 14Vdc, bi-directional DC/DC converter
– 175Adc continuous (buck)
» 12.5 to15.5Vdc controllable output
– 2.35Adc continuous (boost)
• 300Vdc to 42Vdc DC/DC converter
– 25Adc continuous
– 50Adc 4 seconds
• Engine compartment mount
• -40 to 105 °C ambient, 75 °C 50/50 WEG cooled
Delphi/Allison 9In Production (since Summer 2008)
300V/14V DC/DC Converter
• Bi-directional 2.2kW DC/DC Converter
2009 Dodge Durango
2009 Chrysler Aspen
• Input voltage range
20XX Dodge Ram Truck
– 216 to 390Vdc operation
• 300Vdc to 14Vdc, bi-directional DC/DC
converter
2009 Saturn Vue
– 175Adc continuous (buck)
» 12.5 to15.5Vdc controllable output
– 2.35Adc continuous (boost)
• Engine compartment mount
• -40 to 105 °C ambient, 75 °C 50/50 WEG
cooled
Delphi/Allison 10SOP: Spring 2009
300V/14V DC/DC Converter
• Bi-directional, 2.2kW DC /DC Converter
2009 Mercedes ML-450H
• Input Voltage Range
– 216 to 422Vdc operation
• 300Vdc to 14Vdc, bi-directional DC /DC converter
2009 BMW X6 ActiveHybrid
– 175Adc continuous (buck)
» 11.0 to 15.5Vdc controllable output
– 2.5Adc continuous (boost)
• Engine compartment mount
• -40C to 110 °C ambient, 75 °C 50/50 WEG
cooled
• Integral cooling jacket
Delphi/Allison 11DC/DC Converter Production Line
Kokomo, Indiana
Final Assembly & Test Cell
Delphi/Allison 12SOP: Fall 2010
Power Box Mild Hybrid System
• Integrated Inverter, DC/DC Converter, Hybrid
Controller, BDU and Battery Pack
• Input Voltage Range
– 80 to 134Vdc normal operation
• 3-phase DC/AC Traction Inverter
– 35kW Peak Motoring Power (Battery Limit is Less)
– >10kW Continuous Motoring Power
– 32-bit, 128Mhz Processor, Vector-controlled
• 1.6kW, Isolated, 120V to 14V DC /DC
Converter
– Uni-directional
– Adjustable Output Voltage Range: 12.5 to 15.5 VDC
– Output Current 5 to 120 Adc
• 32-bit, 128Mhz, 3M Flash,128k SRAM HCU
• Air-cooled design
– 10 to 65 cfm air at up to 55 °C
• -30 °to +70 °C Ambient Operation
Delphi/Allison 13SOP: Q4 2009
14-Volt Belt Alternator Starter System
An electric machine that acts as the vehicle starter/generator plus an electronic
regulator-inverter-controller that work together to help increase fuel economy
Value
• Stop/start feature increases fuel economy by 4 - 6%
• Offers the potential for up-integration of energy management
– Discrete or software I/O communication to vehicle
• Provides consumer and environmental benefits
– Cleaner air
– Reduced fuel consumption
– Quieter starts than conventional starter
– Opportunity to remove 14V starter on small engines
Power Electronics RIC
Electric Motor
Vehicle Connections
Functionality
Crank_En
Gen_Flt
• Turns the engine off at idle and promptly restarts the engine SW_12V
Common Ground
Clutch
via the accessory belt when the driver is ready to proceed
Hood Switch
Door Switch
Signal Harness
– Executive coding in RIC or Vehicle. Ignition
Neutral Position (MT)
Eco Air Con Switch
• Remote regulator-inverter-controller (RIC) transforms 12Vdc
CAN or LIN Link
battery power into 3-phase alternating current for use by the
electric motor to start the engine.
AC Harness
– 50Nm machine cranking torque
Lundell
M
Starter/Generator
– Air cooled FET power electronics
RIC
• Converts 3-phase current back to 12 Vdc for conventional
(Regulator Inverter
Controller with Engine
AGM battery charging
and Vehicle
Interface Controller)
– 1.5 to 2.0 Kw
DC Harness
fuse
– Over 70% motor efficiency due to FET power electronics
Availability
• Demonstration parts currently available
• Start of Production - Q4 2009
Delphi/Allison 14SOP: Fall 2008
250V NiMH HEV Battery System
Service
Disconnect
Outlet Plenum
Bussed
High Voltage
Electrical
Controller
Center
• Nominal Voltage
Vehicle
– 250 Vdc ( scalable design to 307 Vdc)
Interface
Controller
• 1.25 kW-H Capacity
• Peak Discharge Power
– 27 kW (BOL,10 secs., 50 % SOC, 15 – 55 deg. C)
Inlet Plenum
• Peak Charge Power
– 25 kW (BOL, 10 secs., 50 % SOC, 25 – 55 deg. C)
• Cold Discharge Power
– 3 kW minimum (BOL, 1 sec., -40 deg. C)
• Continuous Current @ 25 deg. C
– 50 A
Delphi/Allison 15Battery Pack Production Line
Reynosa Mexico
Delphi/Allison 16SOP: Fall 2011
300V Lithium HEV Battery System
• Nominal Voltage
– 300 Vdc ( scalable design )
• 1.7 kW-H Capacity
Delphi/Allison 17Lithium Cell Chemistry Experience
• Delphi/EnerDel LiNiMxCo, LiMn 0 +LTO
2 4
• Saft LiNiMxCo
• Sanyo LiMxCo
• Gaia UHP LiNiMxCo
• Eone/Molicel LiMn 0
2 4
• Toshiba – LiMnO + LTO
• Hitachi LiMnO
• Samsung - LiNiMxCo
• Kokam Lithium Polymer
TM
• A123 Nanophosphate
Delphi/Allison 18