Genetic Engineering - OpenWetWare

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14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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Genetic Engineering

What is
Genetic Engineering?

What is Genetic Engineering?


Basic definition: genetic engineering is the
direct manipulation of an organism's genes.



Genetic Engineering is useful in many fields
including food production and medicine.


While it seems promising, there is still a lot
that we do not know about Genetic
Engineering.


Gregor Mendel


Gregor Mendel lived
from 1822
-
1884 in
Brunn, Austria.


He was an Augustinian
Monk who taught
natural science to high
school students.


The “Father” of Genetics


Mendel was the first person to trace the
characteristics of successive generations of
living things.


Mendel wondered how plants acquired
atypical characteristics.


Mendel performed experiments on pea
plants, mice and ornamental plants.

Dominance and segregation of traits


Mendel crossed peas and mice of different
varieties.


Through this experiment Mendel discovered
the phenomena of dominance and
segregation.


Dominance decides which characteristic most
often surfaces; the dominant characteristic
overrides the recessive gene and appears in
the organism.


Segregation of genes decides which genes are
inherited from the parents.

Laws of Heredity


Heredity factors do not combine; they are passed
intact


Ex: A child of parents with black and red hair
would inherit one of the two colors not a mix of
the two.


Each member of the parental generation transmits
half of its hereditary factors to each offspring


Different sets of offspring from the same parents
receive different sets of hereditary factors


Ex= siblings are not identical, their differences
come from the inheritance of different genes from
their parents.

DNA


Discovered in 1869


James Watson and Francis Crick discovered
that DNA had a double Helix form.


Our DNA or genes decide who we are, they
decide everything from our eye color to our
shoe size.

DNA Engineering


We use recombinant DNA to manipulate
genes.


Recombinant DNA is taking DNA from one
source and inserting it into an organism’s
DNA, giving that organism those
characteristics.


Ex.= Inserting salmon’s anti
-
freezing genes into
corn to allow it to survive frost.

Process of DNA Engineering


1. Restriction enzymes cut DNA at their base parts
causing sticky ends to form.


2. DNA ligase (linker sequences of DNA) are placed
on the sticky ends of the DNA.


3. A Plasmid holding foreign DNA is inserted into the
DNA and is connected by the ligase. (sticky end to
sticky end)


4. The recombinant DNA is inserted into a bacterium
which carries out its function inside the larger
organism.


5. When the DNA becomes active it directs the body
to construct distinct proteins which carry out the
gene’s function.