Genetic Engineering Chapter 9 - Barrington High School

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14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Genetic Engineering

Chapter 9

Selective Breeding


Selective breeding: individual organisms
with desired characteristics are chosen to
produce a new generation

Hybridization


A Cross between dissimilar individuals


Ex. Disease resistance trait of one plant and
food production of another plant.

inbreeding


Breeding of individuals
with similar
characteristics.

Smooth Fox Terrier.

Wire Fox Terrier

Problems with inbreeding


Cause recessive alleles for genetic defect.


Ex. Blindness, joint deformities.

Tools of Editing


Scientists have biological tools that cut,
separate, read DNA sequences and splice
pieces of DNA together.

Restriction Enzymes


These proteins cut DNA at a specific
nucleotide sequence.


The DNA will only cut the DNA if the
sequence matches perfectly to the
restriction enzyme.


Also Known as restriction nucleases.


Titles of restriction enzymes
are derived from the first
letter of the genus +

the first two letters of the
species of organism from
which they were isolated.

Restriction Enzymes

Eco
RI
-


from
Escherichia coli


Bam
HI
-

from
Bacillus
amyloliquefaciens


Hind
III
-

from
Haemophilus influenzae


Pst
I
-


from
Providencia stuartii


Sau
3AI
-

from
Staphylococcus aureus


Ava
I
-


from
Anabaena variabilis




Examples of restriction
Enzymes

What good is it to have smaller
fragments of DNA?


Not very helpful at all unless DNA
fragments can be separated for
analysis.


Method used to separate DNA
fragments is Gel electrophoresis.

Gel Electrophoresis

Gel Electrophoresis


http://web.utk.edu/~khughes/GEL/sld001.ht
m


http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/units/biotech/g
el/


DNA Sequence


http://web.utk.edu/~khughes/SEQ/sld01.htm


Polymerase chain reaction


http://web.utk.edu/~khughes/PCR/sld01.htm
l

Recombinant DNA

Recipe for Recombinant DNA


DNA

Restriction Enzymes

Plasmid (ring of DNA found in some
bacteria)

Enzymes

Bacterium

Recombinant
DNA

Transformation Lab.


http://www.blc.arizona.edu/INTERACTIVE/r
ecombinant3.dna/clones.html