Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering

whooshdisguisingΒιοτεχνολογία

14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

175 εμφανίσεις

Biotechnology &
Genetic Engineering

Chapter 13

Learning Goals


1. Summarize the two steps of Genetic
Engineering, explaining each of the
sub steps.


2. Explain at least two ways that
genetic engineering is used in our
lives.

Selective Breeding



We decide who breeds to select traits
we want

Genetic Engineering


Making changes in the DNA code of a
living organism


Step 1: Genetic Manipulation


Step 2: Cell Transformation

Step 1: Genetic Manipulation


Scientists use their
knowledge of DNA
structure to
study and
change DNA
.


1. DNA extraction


DNA is separated from
the rest of the cell.


2. Cutting the DNA


Restriction enzymes cut
DNA into smaller
fragments
so it is easier
to study/analyze.


3. Making copies


Polymerase chain reaction is used to make
many copies

of a particular gene


4. Making
Recombinant DNA


Pieces of DNA from one organism are
attached to the DNA of another organism


Step 2: Cell Transformation


Foreign DNA is inserted into a cell


1. Take gene and put it into a different cell


Use a
bacteria plasmid

or a
virus

to “deliver”
gene to new cell


2. New “
Host
µ?FHOO?ZLOO?IROORZ?WKH?'1$?
instructions of the inserted gene


3. Can be used to make important cell
products or give organism new traits



Applications of

Genetic Engineering


Genetically
-
modified Organisms
: an
organism that contains some genes
from another species


Useful Applications
:


1. Making medicines


2.Genetically
-
modified foods


3.Other Applications


1. Making Medicines


Cells make important protein products
that people with diseases need



EX: Insulin for Diabetes


EX: Human Growth Hormone


EX: Blood clotting factors


2. Genetically
-
modified foods


Produce BIGGER foods


Feed more people


Disease & pest resistant


Frost resistant




3. Other applications

Pet “Glo” Fish

Glow
-
in
-
the
-
Dark

Bunnies & Mice

Cloning


Dolly the Sheep

Copy Cat:

Clone your favorite dead pet!










http://www.bestfriendsagain.com/order/index.html


Genetic Ethics


People have strong feelings about
genetic engineering.



What do you think about what you have
just learned?


Turn to your partner and share one idea.

Learning Goals


1. Summarize the two steps of Genetic
Engineering, explaining each of the
sub steps.


2. Explain at least two ways that
genetic engineering is used in our
lives.