APPLIED GENETICS Chapter 10

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14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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A
PPLIED

G
ENETICS


Chapter 10

S
ELECTIVE

BREEDING


Domesticated animals and crop plants have been
selectively bred for many thousands of years.


Animal/plant with desirable characteristics are selected and
bred/crossed.


Animal/plant with undesirable characteristics are prevented
from breeding or pollination.


Process repeated over many generations until desired
characteristics are enhanced.


E
XAMPLES

O
F

S
ELECTIVE

BREEDING

Cattle

Aberdeen Angus for meat

Jersey and Fresian milk production

Horses

Arabian racing

Clydesdale and Shire for work

Shetland for pits


E
XAMPLES

O
F

S
ELECTIVE

BREEDING

Brassica Family

Cabbage

Cauliflower

Broccoli

Brussels sprouts


Maize family

Maize

Sweet corn

Popcorn

Oil producing corn

A
PPLIED

G
ENETICS

Selective breeding


Domesticated animals and crop plants have been
selectively bred for many thousands of years.


Animal/plant with desirable characteristics
are selected and bred/crossed.


Animal/plant with undesirable characteristics
are prevented from breeding or pollination.


Process repeated over many generations until
desired characteristics are enhanced.

Examples : cattle for meat ( Angus) or milk
production ( Jersey)

Horses for racing ( Arabian) or work (
Clydesdale)

G
ENETIC

E
NGINEERING


Reprogramming

a microbe to produce a
useful product, for example antibiotic or
hormone.


G
ENETIC

E
NGINEERING



H
OW

I
T

S

D
ONE


Desired gene that codes for the product is
identified and cut from a chromosome. (
eg.
Insulin gene)


Plasmid chromosome is removed from
bacteria and cut open.


New gene is spliced into plasmid.


Altered plasmid is inserted into bacterial
host cell.


Enzymes are used to cut and splice and
chromosomes.

G
ENETIC

E
NGINEERING



H
OW

I
T

S

D
ONE


Bacterial cell grown and multiplied


As bacterial cell multiplies it copies the
inserted gene into each new cell.


Mass production of bacteria all producing
desired product (

human insulin)


Large volume of insulin can be
manufactured very quickly and cheaply



A
DVANTAGES

OF

G
ENETIC

E
NGINEERING


Quick


Ideal organism produced, no
wasteful genotypes


No contamination


No risk from HIV or BSE )


D
ISADVANTAGES

OF

G
ENETIC

E
NGINEERING


Possible release of engineered
bacterium into the environment and
its unknown effect.


Cost of development
.


G
ENETIC

E
NGINEERING

VERSUS

S
ELECTIVE

B
REEDING

Selective Breeding

Genetic Engineering

Involves many
generations

Product made
immediately

Many wasteful
genotypes

ideal result, no
waste

G
ENETICALLY

M
ODIFIED

P
RODUCTS


Medicinal

-

insulin, factor VIII,
growth hormone


Commercial


detergents, brewing (
yeast strains )


Agriculture


genetically modified
cereal crops ( genes inserted against
disease,pests , etc.