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7 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Generational
Shift

Assessing the impact on
an organisation

Jon Chidley


Generational shift


Jon Chidley

2


Generational Shift: Assessing the impact on an organisation


Abstract:
The “generational shift” from a
workforce that is retiring and taki
ng vital knowledge with them to

a
younger genera
tion of workers
impact
s

on organisations as they seek to transfer
critical
knowledge and
experience. Creating effective solut
ions for
capturing and transferring this knowledge

impacts right

across an
organisation bringing

together HR strategies for retention and acquisition, systems for effective knowledge
capture and
transfer, and change management for ensuring that approaches ar
e accep
ted and implemented

across t
he workforce. This paper provid
es a framework for assessing the impact acros
s seven
business areas
covering

strategic, HR, IT and operational as
pects. It is used
as a high level tool
with
in an organisation to

assess
their curren
t approaches to generational shift, identify areas of concern and opportunity, and develop effective
knowledge

capture and

tran
sfer systems for an organisation
.

It can

also be used to drive

pilot schemes for testing
approaches in critical areas of the orga
nisation.

Acknowledgement


“Lost Knowledge” by David De Long, Oxford University Press, 2004 has been a

major source of information that I
have used to define the Knowledge Map described in this document. It is well worth a read.


Not
Just a Problem
o
f
t
he
Ageing Workforce


The baby boomer phenomenon ha
s impacted society for the
sixty years. The majority of those over the
age of 55 will exit the workforce over the next
decade, some taking with them
significant knowledge
vital to success of a business. This
is exacerbated by a shrinking pool of skilled younger workers and
the problems of transferring knowledge and experience to them.


HR t
eams are taking significant steps

to manage the flow of exiting
workers with valuable domain
knowl
edge and expertise and
t
o
compete

for top quality new talent. However this leaves the equally
difficult problem of enabling these new workers to become productive quickly when there are fewer
experienced experts on whom to rely.
This includes c
reating solutions for capturing and
transferring
knowledge

and know
-
how that depend both on technologies and on the needs and motivations of
groups including
the older workforce and the younger staff; the latter
having significantly different
approaches to learning and skill development.


Retaining and

transferring explicit

knowledge, “k
now
-
how”, beliefs and intuition is already critical
for
some organisations
and
, for others
,

will

soon become a major is
sue as the costs and threats to the
business
grow leading to
, for example
:



Disruption in

the business as operational know
-
how is lost;



Adverse impact on
existing
cost reduction initiatives as
staff
experience
d

i
n running
efficient processes are

lost;



Loss of comp
etitive advantage to rivals

who have developed approaches to
transfer
knowledge
;



Inability to develop new services, to take advantage of R&D, or to re
-
start major
initiatives;



Inability to adapt to more complex operational
,
regulatory

and trading situations.



Generational shift


Jon Chidley

3


Bringing the elements together


There is often no clear owner
ship of the problem as it
cross
es all

functions of the organisation. HR is
involved in developing ac
quisition and

retention plans; IT managers own the enabling technology to
drive knowl
edge capture and sharing systems
;
functional, line and project managers

must create the
values and culture to drive the behaviours needed to share, capture,
and use the knowledge. A
comprehensive solution
include
s

senior management, the older workforc
e, mid career professionals,
new recruits, line managers, project managers,
HR, Finance and, potentially, external suppliers.


A starting point is a short evaluation of the current organisation and re
adiness

for
introducing
knowledge capture and transfer

as part of addressing generational shift
. We use the framework
below

with an organisation, or area within an organisation, to look at the impact
in several areas.















1.

How effectively does business strategy and planning reflect the impacts of generational
shift?

This is concerned with

the impact of generational shift on the b
usiness and on the wide

set of
users impacted by any proposed solution. It looks at how the approaches adopted by the company
to generational shift are aligned against the business strategy and to likely changes in

business
drivers. It reviews how advanced and integrated are the plans of diff
erent parts of the organisation.

In particular, it asks
:

how well are HR policies aligned with knowledge sharing prac
tice and
supporting. IT systems?


2.

How will the business crea
te and continue to create value from the knowledge and expertise
in the company?

This develops

a “Knowledge Map” for the organisation and, with managers,
identifies where the organisation is most vulnerable to lost knowledge and which knowledge is
critical within the context of the business’ strategy. It considers the impact of HR’s acquisition pla
ns
for new staff and retention plans for existing staff. It also looks at the needs of a number of internal
and external groups affected by or having an influence on generational shift. This is used to
measure the value and benefits of pro
posed general shi
ft
services to each impacted group

and the

balance

of

the value to the customer against the value to the organisation of introducing services
around generational shift.
This forms the basis for prioritising and specifying solutions and is
the
core of a Ben
efits Realisation Plan against which to measure the impact of the overall programme.



Generational shift


Jon Chidley

4


3.

What knowledge and expertise
capture &
transfer services are employed?

One

solution to
knowledge loss is to simply "write it all down." However, this approach is not well

suited to retain all
types of knowledge.
The Knowledge Map is used to identify and classify critical knowledge and
expertise areas. These include explicit knowledge that is
easily structured,
captured, stored, and
shared in electronic or paper documents.
Tacit knowledge includes skills such as beliefs, images,
intuition and “know how” that are less easily codified

and captured
. This map is compared against
the existing use of standard approaches such a documentation, interviews and training together
with t
echniques appropriate for tacit knowledge such as mentoring, project and work reviews, living
case studies and encouraging codes of practice


4.

What systems and processes are employed to support the
capture &
transfer of knowledge?

This looks at the use of
s
ystems
underpinning knowledge transfer
solutions
that

connect less
experienced employees with experts, accelerate learning though collaboration, e
-
learning, technical
questions databases and problem solving, capture knowledge by collecting, organising and sharing
knowledge, and map knowledge though, for
exam
ple, expert locator systems such as

Corporate
Yellow Pages”
.

Increasingly social media approaches such as Facebook and Linkedin are being
considered for internal use and should be considered as part of the mix.


5.

What technologies are needed to delive
r
knowledge capture & transfer
?
To
capture and
deliver structured knowledge there are several possible underlying technologies for electronic
documentation, databases of lessons learnt and case studies and web based repositories. To
manage the tacit knowledg
e there are emerging technologies using private social networking to
support commu
nities and remote mentoring. This looks at the

use of these

technologies and the

match
with
the strategic needs of the organisation;


6.

What is the impact on the workforce o
f
introducing knowledge capture & transfer

initiatives?

To ensure take up of these services means
understanding and reacting to
employee engagement
and motivation, rewards and inc
entives. This

includes consideration of a behavioural and attitude
changes in t
he organisation and the skill development that is needed to take full advantage of the
generational shift solution. In particular it reflects the difference between the approaches of the
older workforce and the yo
unger staff; the latter

generally want to l
earn by doing and getting
feedback on their efforts, rather than by listening or reading and use formats such as interactive
video or computer simulations;


7.

How will the organisation measure the effectiveness of
knowledge capture & transfer

pro
grammes?

This covers for example, Benefits Realisation for the s
ystem, as well as dashboards
monitoring

the use of t
he knowledge transfer services by different user

groups and th
e performance
of support teams,
such as the cal
l centre or technical help desk
,
in

deli
vering the service.





Generational shift


Jon Chidley

5


TYPES OF KNOWLEDGE & KNOW HOW


Explicit
knowledge


Implicit
Knowledge


Implicit Know
-
how


Individual’s Tacit
Know How


Community
Knowledge

Easily structured
knowledge that
can be captured,
stored and shared
in electronic or
paper
form


Explicit knowledge
that has not yet been
captured

Eg When an
experienced worker
uses a shortcut in an
established process


Knowledge that an
individual or group can
readily communicate, but
is difficult to codify as it
involves experience or
contextual knowledge.
Can be transferred if the
expert is asked the right
questions


Very difficult for
expert to verbalise &
transfer to others. Eg
When to close deal.
Contains a lot of
expert’s experience


Collectively shared
beliefs, mental
models and v
alues.
The most difficult to
access


Explicit
CAPTURING & TRANSFERRING KNOWLEDGE
Implicit


Documents


Interviews


Training


Mentoring
&
coaching


After action
reviews /
case
studies


Community

of
practice

Stored in on
paper or
electronic
databases to be
accesses by
future
successors


Face
-
to
-
face
between older
employees &
successors. More
direct transfer of
broader type of
explicit, implicit &
some tacit
knowledge.
Successors can ask
questions

for
clarification etc


Packaged into
training
packages for
wider
audiences.
Trainees can’t
question
original expert
to test veracity
of knowledge


Shares
broadest
range of
knowledge
and allows
individual to
gauge how
knowledge is
being
absorbed


Brief su
mmaries to
retain and re
-
use
knowledge during
ongoing
operations. Helps
improve transfer of
knowledge as
pertinent to current
or future
operations


Links & promotes
common interest
groups into
networks for
knowledge
sharing and
problem solving
across
organ
isation


KNOWLEDGE CAPTURE & TRANSFER SOLUTIONS & SYSTEMS


Knowledge Locators


People connectors

Links less experienced employees with
experts



Expert locator / Corporate Yellow
Pages

Allowing employees to search for
colleagues / alumni with relevant
knowledge / experience



Internal social networking

with web based applications to build
communities of interest [eg employee
only Linkedin]


Learning accelerators

Maps where knowledge lies in
organisation for better management
of HR assets




Intensify collaboration
between experts &
less experienced staff through
communications, e
-
mail, file sharing,
document management, messaging,
electronic whiteboards, conferencing


Apply e
-
learning

through web based
systems delivering continuum of learning

/
events / expert systems to embed human
expertise into systems. Web based
diagnostic & predictive tools.


Support problem solving

allowing experts
to be more explicit about thinking processes
and knowledge through Question based
reasoning, lessons learnt

databases and
technical questions databases




Knowledge capture



Collect & organise critical
documentation using web
-
based
searchable repositories


Enterprise content management
systems


Technical document database


Legacy databases




IT
TECHNOLOGY & INFRASTRUCTURE


Capture


Store


Retrieve


Share


Generational shift


Jon Chidley

6


Taking the pulse of your organisation


Using this framework, we develop

checklists that test the maturity if an organisation and their
current

explicit or
implicit approaches to generational shift programmes

that can be used in several ways:





As a quick
senior
management overview
by asking a cross section of

the organisation
to mark the level of
their agre
ement against a set of statem
ents as illustrated on
the next page
.

The scores are
aggregated to
provide an overall maturity score and one for each of the key areas of the framework. The assessment
identifies areas of strength and weakness and can be repeated at regular intervals to mo
nit
or an
organisation’s progress towards

taking
full
competitive advantage of generation
al shift. We find that a

survey
of around 25
-
30 questions administered across an organisation will give an initial assessment of the
readiness of an organisation to dev
elop and introduce services designed for the ageing workforce.





















As part

of a formal review

over a few weeks conduc
t
ed with a cross s
ection of the organisation
to evaluate

the current

and proposed approaches
.
This is combined with research to identify
knowledge management best practices and key trends relevant to
that

organisation and
industry
.
Online surveys, stakeholder interviews and experiential workshops can provide insights into the
drivers, barriers, and

benefits of knowledge retention, and identified knowledge retention
strategies and tools to be validated.
The results are used to develop, with senior management, an
integrated plan and outline business case for further development





For setting up
and driving
pilot programmes:
With support of senior management, this forms
the basis for setting up pilot programmes to test and develop new approaches with the greatest
likelihood of success, together with a measure of their effectiveness





Generational shift


Jon Chidley

7


Sample State
ments to Assess Generational Shift Maturity of an Organisation




Senior management understands and have put corporate objectives in place for addressing
generational shift that are reflected in the operational plans of each department



We have an understanding of the risks, costs and opportunities on our business arising from the
ageing workforce and generational shift



We understand the profile of where knowledge exists across our business, the type of knowledge, the
groups of people wi
th whom this knowledge resides and the key risks this generates



We have put in place HR strategies for acquiring new staff and retaining key experienced staff that
reflect the business needs of the organisation



My organisation understand the needs,
motivators and inhibitors of the key groups of employees and
external groups affected by or influencing approaches for generational shift



We understand the prioritised benefits and the value to each group of introducing general shift
programmes into the or
ganisation



We employ a broad range of knowledge transfer processes and practices (e.g., communities of
practice, after action reviews, documentation systems, etc.) resulting in a high degree of collaboration
and knowledge sharing across generations



We unde
rstand the attitudes and preferences of each employee group for using digital and other
technologies for learning, education and communications



We have knowledge transfer propositions in place for addressing generational shift based on the
needs & relative

importance of different customer or business groups



We have identified and audited our current applications and processes that may be of value for
developing HR and knowledge transfer services for generational shift



We have identified other applications a
nd services that could be used in developing HR and
knowledge transfer services around generational shift



We have developed a top level map of the skills and expertise that are required to implement
generational shift programmes in the organisation



We have

communications and change management plans in place with groups of employees and
external stakeholders for ensuring that the culture exists for the positive take up of knowledge transfer
solutions;



We have a draft Benefits Realisation Framework in place
for capturing benefits to the organisation
and key customer groups



There are metrics, milestones and checkpoints in place to assess regularly progress and make
adjustments




Generational shift


Jon Chidley

8


Advantages of the Approach



E
ngages across the organisation to ensure that the
policies and approaches towards
generational shift are agreed and accepted

by all functions
;



Identifies the teams in an organisation and externally that need to be engaged to ensure
successful delivery

of knowledge transfer
;



Leads to an integrated and phas
ed set of solutions for generational shift and creates a road map
for service introduction



Identifies benefit areas for use as key messages in communications and as the basis for Benefits
Realisation programmes;



Leads to higher levels of acceptance by
diff
erent
users in an organisation since it is built around
their needs;



Creates a framework against which to define

and evaluate

technology and infrastructure
solutions;



Identifies where change management, communication and education are required and the key
messages on which to base them;



“Future
-
proofs” against changes in customer and stakeholder preferences and the impact of new
digital technologies;



Supports design and launch processes through a full set of checklists to assess progress at every
stage from

concept through to business
-
as
-
usual.


Key s
ources


1.

“Lost Knowledge” by David De Long, Oxford University Press, 2004

2.

“Handbook of CRM” by Adrian Payne, Cranfield School of Management, Elsevier, 2006