SOLUTION: SMART GRID

whirrtarragonΗλεκτρονική - Συσκευές

21 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

56 εμφανίσεις

SOLUTION: SMART GRID



Detaching AC from MC


Rate Decoupling


Lowers consumption, therefore results in lower emission


Facilitating two
-
way communication


Increase Reliability


More accurate pricing structures, hence lower
prices for consumers

2003 NORTHEAST BLACKOUT


August 2003


Lasted 3 days


Affected 50 million


10 million Canada


40 million in U.S


Eastern US and Canada


Detroit to New York City and Toronto


$10 billion (USD) in economic loses


3,000 fire calls in NYC alone


11 deaths



AC POWER NEEDS FREQUENCY


Interconnects


regions
of AC connectivity


strictly regulate
frequency (60 Hz)


Frequency is dependent
on load (demand) and
supply.


When there is an
overload frequency
drops

NORTH
AMERICAN

ENERGY
RELIABITITY

COUNCIL

TRANSFORMERS: MORE THAN MEETS THE
EYE


Transformers and
Generators both break
down when the AC
Frequency changes


Generators speed up
when frequency drop,
overheat


Current increases and
causes Transformers to
overheat and explode…

HOW TO CONTROL FREQUENCY?


Distributed Energy
Systems generate
emergency power onsite
when supply drops,
causing a dip in
frequency


But there still is a lack
of communication about
the real demand

FOR EXAMPLE…

STRUCTURE

INDEPENDENT SYSTEM OPERATORS

Substation

Privately
Owned
Power Plant
(generation
)

Meter

Independent
Generators

Independent
System Operator
Managed

Investor Owned
Utility Managed

Generation

Transmission

Distribution

Market Structure

SCADA

AMI

Smart
Grid

FERC/PUCs

PUCs

HOW THE GRID WORKS

TWO
-
WAY FLOW OF INFORMATION



Smart Grids


AMI (Advanced
Metering
Infrastructure)


PEM (Personal
Energy
Management)

CUSTOMER INTERFACE

WHAT’S WRONG WITH 1
-
WAY COMMUNICATION


Prices reflect average, not marginal costs


Consumers have little incentive to constrain
electricity use when conservation is required


Quantity demanded exceeds quantity
available


Create incentives for decreased electricity
consumption during peak periods



ADVANTAGES OF SPOT PRICING


Real
-
time market information on prices and quantities
demanded and supplied


Provide incentives to reduce consumption during peak
use periods


Regulates supply on each transmission line through
prices


Encourages increased use in rarely used lines and
decreased use in overcrowded lines


Encourages increased use during non
-
peak periods

EXAMPLE

Imagine a toll road where "permits" are auctioned off.




The price each person is willing to pay will depend on
the number of people on the road


Drivers will pay less for a crowded than a less
congested road


End result is traffic from

otherwise crowded roads
shifts to less crowded roads and congestion is reduced
for everybody.



Similarly, spot pricing on a Smart Grid encourages
consumers to use less crowded transmission lines.


Electricity flow shifts from overused to underused lines


Events

leading to the

2003 blackout don't occur.


THE WORLD IS GETTING “SMART”


EU looking to implement single
-
grid by 2020


Italian Government owned Utility furthest ahead
with 30 million “smart
-
meters”


New Zealand and Australian private market
conducting smart
-
meters in most provinces


World’s 1
st

Smart Grid


Boulder, Colorado

POLICY
RECOMMEDATION

# 1


Tennessee

«
Delaware

«
Utah


Vermont


Idaho

«
Connecticut

«
Iowa

«
Virginia

«
West Virginia


Kentucky


Montana



Modify EPACT 1252
-
11


Directed States to either adopt or decline time based rate
schedules to enable:



Real
-
Time/Dynamic Pricing via Customer Interface


Demand Response


Address the concerns of the States Deciding not to Adopt
EPACT 1252 11




POLICY RECOMMENDATION # 2

Cap & Trade


Strong implications toward energy degregulation


Price Premium on Coal


Provides incentives for RTP


Alternative Energy


Energy Efficiency

POLICY RECOMMENDATION CONT…



With Real Time Pricing


preliminary steps
must be taken


Guaranteed Rate of Return for installing
infrastructure


Decoupling (Volume based to Congestion based)


Protection for Public Purpose Programs


Low
-
Income


Seniors

SMART
-
GRIDS