P D - 3

whirrtarragonΗλεκτρονική - Συσκευές

21 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

86 εμφανίσεις

IRG is
ISO 14001

Certified.

P
ANEL

D
ISCUSSION

-

3

INTEGRATING RENEWABLES
& THE SMART GRID

INTERNATIONAL

RESOURCES GROUP



Presented by

Gary Goldstein

for Pat DeLaquil

PRESENTATION

OUTLINE


USAID/Hellenic Aid Cooperative Program
-

SYNENERGY


RE Potential from Regional Stocktaking Report


Experience from the Iberian Peninsula


Lessons for the Energy Community


USAID/H
ELLENIC

A
ID

C
OOPERATIVE

E
NERGY

P
ROGRAM

SYNENERGY


Regional Assessment of Renewable Energy


Regional Stocktaking Report Completed


Starting Phase 2 Technical Assistance


Energy Efficiency in Residential and Public Buildings


National Energy Efficiency Action Plans


Energy Efficiency Pilot Projects in residential and public buildings


Secondary Legislation, Public Information and Capacity Building


Strategic Planning for Renewables and Energy Efficiency
and identified national priorities


Updated national planning models in Albania, Bosnia, Bulgaria Croatia,
Macedonia, Romania, Serbia


Developed new national planning models in Georgia, Moldova and
Ukraine


Conducting assessment of RE & EE as well as selected national priorities


Capacity Building and Institutional Network Development

R
EGIONAL

R
ENEWABLE

E
NERGY

S
TOCKTAKING


Objectives


Assess the existing legal/regulatory/policy framework for renewable energy


Characterize the size and nature of renewable resources in the Energy Community


Identify gaps and critical barriers to investment and commercial development of
renewable energy


Findings


Comprehensive policy frameworks and critical enabling conditions are not in place
in most countries


Grid access is available in all countries except Georgia and Ukraine


To create a conducive market environment more work is needed to implement


Electricity market reforms/unbundling


Rationalized tariffs, RE laws, RE targets


Secondary laws for guarantee of origin, streamlined licensing, grid expansion


Presented and discussed at the RE workshop cosponsored by ECS
and SYNENERGY in April 2009


Phase 2 Technical Assistance started in September 2009

P
HASE

2 T
ECHNICAL

A
SSISTANCE

A
CTIVITIES


Renewable Energy Policy, Planning, and Regulatory Support (IRG)


Regional Policy and Institutional Issue Analysis


Support to Develop National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAP), potential
analysis in conjunction with the SYNENERGY Strategic Planning activities


Legislative and Regulatory Framework and Procedures



Enhanced Resource Monitoring/Mapping (CRES)


Wind resource assessment, siting and pre
-
feasibility studies


Regional assessment of biomass potential for heat and electricity production


Identification and Assessment of Biomass Heating and CHP Applications
(IRG and CRES)


Prefeasibility studies of potentially viable applications


Support for Renewable Energy Investment and Carbon Finance (IRG and
CRES)


Regional workshops on RE investment opportunities and carbon finance
mechanisms


Capacity Building for Energy Agencies (CRES)


Targeted assistance for wind measurements, SHPP project preparation, solar
collector certification, energy data systems and restructuring

RE R
ESOURCES

AND

C
URRENT

C
ONTRIBUTIONS

Electricity Generation by Type (IEA 2006)
0,00%
10,00%
20,00%
30,00%
40,00%
50,00%
60,00%
70,00%
80,00%
90,00%
100,00%
Albania
BiH
Croatia
Georgia
Moldova
Serbia
Ukraine
Hydro
Wind
Solar
Biomass
Geothermal
Thermal
Nuclear
Share of RES in Gross Final Consumption (IEA 2006)
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
40%
Albania
BiH
Croatia
Georgia
Moldova
Serbia &
Montenegro
Ukraine
EU 27
Biomass
resources in
Serbia

Wind resources in
Albania

Small hydro
resources in
Croatia

E
STIMATES

OF

RES P
OTENTIAL
*

Country

Small Hydropower

Wind

Solar

Biomass

Geothermal

Albania

180 MW

No data. 400GWh
envisaged by 2020.

1500 kWh/m
2
/yr

46 PJ/yr

(128 TWh/yr)

Potential in specific
locations, but no overall
data.

Bosnia

2500
GWh
/yr

2000 MW (600MW
economically feasible)

1240
-
1600
kWh/m2/yr

~14 PJ (3.9 TWh)

40.5 GWh

Croatia

177 MW for SHPP

1.3 GW and 3
TWh
/yr
potential
. Current
system
limitation at 320 to 400
MW.

1,450 to 1,600
kWh/m2/yr

Total potential 39 PJ (11
TWh)

1170 MWt (839MWt
with temp. above 50oC)

Georgia

5
TWh
/yr economic
potential

1450 MW producing ~5
TWh/yr

~1500
kWh/m2/yr

10.9 GWh/yr

(2.7 GWh wood, 1.3
GWh agr residues, 6.9
GWh animal waste)

Technical Potential of
100MW producing an
Achievable Potential of
700
-
800 GWh

Moldova

200 kW of medium
and small HPPs

1.0 GW and 11 TWh/yr

1250 kWh/m2/yr

34.2 PJ/yr

(9.5 TWh/yr)

No data

Montenegro

800
-
1000
GWh
/yr

100 MW economic
potential

1400 kWh/m
2
/yr

More than 40% of
country covered by
forests; currently using
(
2.8 PJ/yr).

Not significant

Serbia

500 MW

(1.8
TWh
/yr)

2.3 TWh/yr

1400 kWh/m2/yr

105 PJ/yr (29 TWh/yr)

2.1 TWh/yr

Ukraine

12.5
TWh
/yr

(
3.7
TWh
/yr economically
feasible)

16 GW


30
TWh
/yr

1070


1400
kWh/m2/yr

628 PJ/yr (174 TWh/yr)

438
TWh
/yr

*
Approximate estimates based on the best available references, usually old data based on limited observations. The
few comprehensive assessments use unclear or inconsistent methodology


making comparisons difficult.

P
LANNED

RE P
ROJECTS

IN

THE

R
EGION


RE projects under development


Large HPPs: ~1 GW announced


Small HPPs: more than 350 applications


Wind Energy: more than 2 GW announced, some under licensing


Biomass:

140 MW under licensing in Albania



50
kton

pellet production in Serbia



Geothermal: 14 MW in Croatia


Many applications and announcements


few to
no projects in actual construction


Integration of intermittent RE a significant concern


Implications for transmission system investments
requirements

L
ESSONS

L
EARNED

R
EGARDING

I
NTEGRATION

OF

A

L
ARGE

W
IND

P
ENETRATION


Wind Power has seen significant market penetrations in
Denmark, Germany, Spain, Austria, etc.


Due to the weak interconnection between Spain & France,
the Iberian System operates as an independent system,
whereas the other countries operate as part of the Central
European grid


Wind Penetration in 2008 and Projected for 2015







* Includes significant solar thermal and PV additions

Year

Central European
System

Iberian System

2008

11%

31%

2015

22%

64% *

S
YSTEM
-
WIDE

W
IND

E
NERGY

C
HARACTERISTICS


Wind energy production per year and per MW installed is
almost constant


How much energy will be produced is known but when it
will be produced is not known

26,000
28,000
30,000
32,000
34,000
36,000
38,000
40,000
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
07:00
08:00
09:00
10:00
11:00
12:00
13:00
14:00
15:00
16:00
17:00
18:00
19:00
20:00
21:00
22:00
23:00
00:00
1,400
1,900
2,400
2,900
3,400
3,900
Demand 06/02/2008
Wind Production 06/02/2008

Non manageable primary energy


Very variable production output


Downward ramps in wind production
in the mornings often increase
morning ramps of conventional
generation


Iberian System Typical
Demand vs. Wind Production

T
ECHNICAL

AND

M
ANAGEMENT

C
HALLENGES

OF

I
NTEGRATING

W
IND

E
NERGY


Grid investments needed to


Connect wind and other RES sites to the load centers


Strengthen and expand the regional network


Wind generators are non
-
synchronous machines


Different behavior under normal system faults


Higher system vulnerability to incidents in the system


Lower voltage control capability


Production Forecasts rather than Production Programs


Lack of firmness and control


Need for conventional generation capacity remains the same but
will operate less hours per year


Alternatively: storage capability needs to be incorporated

L
ESSONS

LEARNED

FROM

I
BERIAN

S
YSTEM


Introduce Mandatory Control and Supervision of RE as
soon as possible


Establish a TSO control center for RE generation with telecommand links
to each RE plant control center


Require RE plants to send the TSO real time production measurements
as well and other signals (wind speed, availability data…)


Require RES plants to follow reduction of production orders


Develop Wind Production Forecast tools


Adapted to the RES generation’s exact location and characteristics


Check forecasts continuously against real production data until forecast
errors are minimized


Require fault
-
ride
-
through capability
(now normal on most
turbines)


Cooperate with neighbour TSOs and within TSO
associations to share experience

R
EFERENCES


Regional RE Stocktaking Report


http://www.energy
-
community.org/portal/page/portal/ENC_HOME/CALENDA
R/Other_Meetings/meetings_2009/29_Apr



Wind Integration in the Iberian System


http://www.energy
-
community.org/portal/page/portal/ENC_HOME/CALENDA
R/Other_Meetings/meetings_2009/08_Oct