How Smart Grids Can

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How Smart Grids Can
Accelerate Solar Power

by

Pradeep Kumar Dadhich PhD

Senior Fellow, TERI, New Delhi


Presented at

Solar PV Market in India

Driving Solar Forward

January 27
-
28, 2011

Venue: The Imperial, New Delhi


What is the Smart Grid
?

An electric delivery network from electrical
generation to end
-
use customer, integrated with
the latest advances in
digital

and information
technology to improve electric
-
system

reliability
,
security

and
efficiency
.



Like telecommunications and Internet revolutions,
technology holds key to the Smart Grid and its
realization.


This essential set of investments will help bring
our electric grid into the 21st century using
megabytes of data

to move
megawatts of
electricity

more efficiently, reliably, affordably.


In the process, electric system will move from

a centralized, producer
-
controlled network to

a
less

centralized
, more
consumer

interactive

model.


What is the Smart Grid
?

Feature sensors throughout the
transmission and distribution grid to:
collect

data,
real
-
time

two
-
way
communications to
move

data and
electricity between utilities and consumers,
and the computing power necessary to
make that
intelligence

actionable
.


Only by bringing the
tools
,
techniques

and
technologies

that enabled the Internet

to the utility and electric grid will such a
transformation be possible.



Drivers for a New Smart Grid

The “grid” is rapidly running up against its
limitations.



Costs

of new generation and delivery
infrastructure

are climbing sharply. Huge
Investments are required for power
evacuation.


Demand

for electricity is expected to grow
~7 folds by 2030.


Electricity
prices

are forecast to increase
30%
-

50% over the next 10 years.


Spiraling electricity rates and the cost of
carbon are combining to reveal the true


i.e., higher


cost of energy.


The grid as it stands is unaffordable.


Drivers for a New Smart Grid

Compared with other industries,

electrical grid has been largely
bypassed


by technological
innovation

until relatively
recently.


Historically, heavily
regulated

and

modeled to keep the lights on and costs
low.


Partly for this reason, its modernization

by means of information technology tools
and techniques has been a
back
-
burner
priority
.

Until now.


Drivers for a New Smart Grid


Utilities will be able to
view

and
measure

what’s
going on in the system more
completely

and more
frequently

than currently, which in turn will enable
additional levels of
control
.


Control will allow utilities to better
optimize

the grid
to support a number of public
policies
, from
intermittent

renewable integration to more dynamic
interfaces with customers.


Offers utilities more flexibility relative to how they
use energy toward objectives of energy
conservation

and reducing greenhouse gases.


Benefits of Smart Grid


Offers utilities
operational

benefits (outage
management, improved processes,
workforce efficiency, reduced losses, etc.) as
well as benefits associated with improved
asset

management

(system planning, better
capital asset utilization, etc.).


Outages

and power
quality

issues estimated
to
cost

the Indian economy significantly.


How the Smart Grid will Evolve

Two grids to keep in mind as the future rapidly becomes
the present.


The first


call it “a
smarter grid



offers valuable
technologies that can be deployed within the very near
future or are already deployed today.

The second


the
Smart Grid



represents the
longer
-
term
promise

of a grid remarkable in its intelligence and
impressive in its scope,

considered to be a decade or more from realization.

However, this could be accelerated depending upon

technological advances and removal of barriers.


In the short term, a smarter grid will function more
efficiently
,

enabling it to deliver
enhanced

customer
services
,

while offering societal benefits


less impact on our
environment.


Longer term, expect the Smart Grid to spur transformation

similar to that the internet has already brought to the

way we live, work, play and learn.


Capabilities of Smart Grid


A smarter grid applies technologies, tools and
techniques available now to bring
knowledge

to
power



knowledge capable of making the grid work
far more efficiently...



Ensure
reliability

to a degree never before possible


• Increase overall use and
value

of
existing

production and
transmission capacity



Accommodate

renewable and traditional energy sources


• Reduce carbon
emissions

by increasing efficiency of the system


• Utility’s “
big picture
” is
clearer
: view and measure with more control


• Improve
power quality

to correspond to new digital demands


• Introduce
advancements

and efficiencies yet to be envisioned

EFFICIENCY:
If grid were just
5%

more
efficient
, energy savings would equate to ~ 700
MW of avoided capacity.


AFFORDABILITY

-

Real
-
time
price signals

allows consumers to participate

in the electricity market based on supply and demand pricing situation, thereby
reducing grid
congestion

and unplanned outages.


SECURITY:
Blackouts can be avoided.


Criticality

of banking, communications, traffic, and security systems.


Power
-
stabilization

capability will address events quickly and “heal” faster than humans
can react.

Grid
-
friendly
appliances

play a role: responding to demand
-
response signals to
adjust

load.

Capabilities of Smart
Grid

Accelerating the
deployment of “Smart
Minigirds” in

AP6 Countries


Lead Partner Country: Australia



Participating Partner Countries and
Organizations: CSIRO Australia, TERI India, SEC
India



Project Manager: Dr Glenn Platt, CSIRO Australia



Project Initiation : October 2007





Project Partners

Smart mini
-
grid in
RETREAT,TERI Gram, India

Smart mini
-
grid in CSIRO,
Australia

Asia Pacific
Partnership

(APP)






Smart mini
-
grid in SEC,
India

“To deploy a renewable energy powered smart
mini
-
grid pilot in both Australia and India that will
prove their reliability and efficiency and improve
community, government and industry acceptance
of the technology and accelerate renewable and
smart mini
-
grid deployment in partner countries”







Specific Objective


Develop a distributed generation based smart
mini
-
grid pilot/model which would be applicable
to Indian sites/conditions and facilitate the
deployment of smart mini
-
grid in India


Develop and demonstrate DG based smart
mini
-
grid systems at the following sites in
India



Retreat building of The Energy & Resources
Institute (TERI Gram), Gual Pahari



Solar Energy Center(SEC), Gual Pahari


Task
-
I
: Mini grid aggregation


Task
-
II
: Load profiling, categorization and
forecasting


Task
-
III
: Design and simulation of the smart mini
grid model in consultation with CSIRO


Task
-
IV
: Development and demonstration of smart
mini
-
grid system with Smart mini
-
grid Controller


Task
-
V
: Performance assessment, monitoring and
analysis

P V

Biomass

Battery

Diesel

Inverte
r

Generator

Switc
h

Intelligent
Load

Dispatch

Interface

Charge
Controller

Wind

Distributed Generation based SMG at
TERI Gram


Authored by CSIRO, Australia


“Review of minigrid research & development around the
world”


APP Minigrids Project: CSIRO Australian minigrid deployment
-

scope of control


APP Minigrid Project: Minigrids planning tools


state of the
art


Australian minigrid test results
-

initial observation


Minigrids testing and analysis
-

standardised test suite


Authored by TERI, India


Indian Minigrid


Scoping and Initial Design


APP Minigrid Project: TERI Indian Minigrid Design &
Deployment





Augmenting Grid with Distributed
Generation Systems



Creating network of stakeholders to
accelerate its deployment



Organizing International Workshops for
information dissemination



Expansion of the concept to other
developing nations