Distribution Analysis/Smart Grid

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21 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Distribution Analysis/Smart Grid

ECE 445: Senior Design


Spring 2010


By: Kenny Koester & Greg Gillespie



Distribution Analysis/Smart Grid


Objective of Project


Distribution Analysis Overview


Small
-
Scale Model Overview


Challenges and Struggles


Future work and Discussion

Project Objective



Perform a distribution and cost analysis for
Coles Moultrie Electric Cooperative (CMEC).



Design and construct a small
-
scale model of a
portion of CMEC’s distribution system
implementing “Smart Grid” technology.

Distribution Analysis Overview



CMEC will be adding a convention center to its
distribution system. Giving an option of three
substations, it was our job to determine the
best substation to feed the center power.





Segment of CMEC System


Segment of CMEC Distribution Map


PowerWorld Simulation of System

Cost Analysis


Underground Cost:


Bore 100 ft.: $3000.00


Trench 100ft.: $2000.00


Terminator Pole: $3552.78


Transformer Cost: $50,000.00


Set Transformer: $1450.00



Total Underground Cost: $60,002.80

Cost Analysis


Over
-
Head cost
:


Convert 2.5 mi. of 1/0 to 4/0:


Poles with ground rod (10): $56,845.50


Poles with out ground rod (28): $332,629.22



Total Over
-
Head Cost: $389,475.72



Overall Total Cost:
$449,479.00

Small
-
Scale Model

Small
-
Scale Model Overview


We downsized CMEC’s distribution system by
a scale of 60:1.



After downscaling we had the following
measurements:


Voltage Supply: 7200V

120V


Line Impedance:


Sarah Bush
: Z = 1.894 + j1.859


R = .03157



South Mattoon
: Z = 1.827 + j1.9745


R = .03045


Goals of Small
-
Scale Model


Point
-
to
-
multipoint wireless communication
to XBEEs through the use of LabView


Implement smart grid technology through
power factor correction. (P.F. = .9)


Make use of dead
-
ends and fault switches
throughout the model


Demonstrate how an interruptible account
works

Small
-
Scale Model Overview

PowerWorld Simulation of

Small
-
Scale Model

Components of Model



1/6 HP Single Phase AC Motors


48 micro Farad Capacitor boxes


Resistor boxes (83.33

)


Voltage Sources (120V (AC) & DC supply)


12 gauge wire


Sarah Bush: 16.88ft


South Mattoon: 16.25ft


PCBs


Printed Circuit Boards

Components


XBEE


100
µ
F Capacitor


LED


15
Ω

resistor


2N7000 MOSFET


T75 series relay


Banana Ports


Picture of PCB (Single Relay)

T75 RELAY

2N7000 MOSFET

15
Ω

Resistor

L.E.D

XBEE Mount

100µF Capacitor

Layout of Single Relay PCB in
Eaglesoft

PCBs Controlling Capacitor Banks

2N7000 MOSFETs

15
Ω

Resistors

L.E.D.

XBEE Mount

100µF Capacitor

T75 Relays

Layout of Capacitor Bank PCBs in

Eaglesoft

Tests Ran on Motors

Two motors using 120V


Power = 192 W


Current = 6.09A


Power Factor = .263


One Motor using 120 V


Power = 94 W


Current = 3.11A


Power Factor = .246

Four Motors using 120V


P = 396 W


Current = 12.65


Power Factor = .263

XBEE Communication


XBEE: 802.15.4


XBEE Mounted on
RS
-
232 Interface Board

On/Off

Input Power

RS
-
232 Port

Antenna

XBEE Communication


Star (point
-
to
-
multipoint)





More Recent XBEEs use mesh communication

XBEE Communication


Our XBEEs are Programmed in a program
called X
-
CTU.


We programmed our XBEEs to communicate
with HEX coding by enabling them in API
mode.


Our code sends out HI and LO signals that the
XBEE can recognized in HEX coding




XBEE Communication Using LabView


The XBEEs on our circuit are controlled by a
program created in LabView.



In LabView we created a user interface. This
was to make the communication between
XBEEs easier for the operator.


LabView User Interface

Power Factor Correction


This was done by adding capacitor banks in
parallel with our motors



We calculated the correct amount of
capacitance by using the following equation:


C = (VARs)/(ωV
2

)



Dead
-
End/Fault Switches


Goal
: To keep the maximum amount of



customers with power at all times. This


helps to maximize a utility company’s


income.


Uses
:


To repair power lines when there is a fault.


To work on substations.

Interruptible Account


Our model will have a load (motor) that will
represent the convention center (new load on
CMEC’s system). This motor will be set up on an
interruptible account. This occurs during peak
load times during different months.



Benefits
:


The Convention Center will get a better rate on their
electric bill


CMEC will get billed less for not consuming as much
power during peak load periods.


Challenges and Struggles


Deciding best way to model the loads.


Obtaining a power factor of at least .9 .


Creating a circuit that could switch our relays
open or closed using the output from our
XBEEs.


Making our small
-
scale model work in
PowerWorld
.


Getting our XBEEs to communicate.


Getting
LabView

to communicate with our
XBEEs

Future Work


By using XBEE Pro modules, we could set up a
mesh network with all of the XBEEs on our
model.


There is also the possibility of reading in many
different parameters on the line with the XBEE
and sending them back to the main control
center. (SCADA system)


Making the system much larger is also a
possibility.


Special Thanks to:


Prof. Sauer and Prof. Garcia


CMEC


Kevin
Colravy


Tamer
Rousan


Ali
Bazzi


Jamie Weber (Power World)


Prof. Carney


Mark Smart


Part Shop and Machine Shop