# Distribution Analysis/Smart Grid

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21 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Distribution Analysis/Smart Grid

ECE 445: Senior Design

Spring 2010

By: Kenny Koester & Greg Gillespie

Distribution Analysis/Smart Grid

Objective of Project

Distribution Analysis Overview

Small
-
Scale Model Overview

Challenges and Struggles

Future work and Discussion

Project Objective

Perform a distribution and cost analysis for
Coles Moultrie Electric Cooperative (CMEC).

Design and construct a small
-
scale model of a
portion of CMEC’s distribution system
implementing “Smart Grid” technology.

Distribution Analysis Overview

CMEC will be adding a convention center to its
distribution system. Giving an option of three
substations, it was our job to determine the
best substation to feed the center power.

Segment of CMEC System

Segment of CMEC Distribution Map

PowerWorld Simulation of System

Cost Analysis

Underground Cost:

Bore 100 ft.: \$3000.00

Trench 100ft.: \$2000.00

Terminator Pole: \$3552.78

Transformer Cost: \$50,000.00

Set Transformer: \$1450.00

Total Underground Cost: \$60,002.80

Cost Analysis

Over
-
:

Convert 2.5 mi. of 1/0 to 4/0:

Poles with ground rod (10): \$56,845.50

Poles with out ground rod (28): \$332,629.22

Total Over
-

Overall Total Cost:
\$449,479.00

Small
-
Scale Model

Small
-
Scale Model Overview

We downsized CMEC’s distribution system by
a scale of 60:1.

After downscaling we had the following
measurements:

Voltage Supply: 7200V

120V

Line Impedance:

Sarah Bush
: Z = 1.894 + j1.859

R = .03157

South Mattoon
: Z = 1.827 + j1.9745

R = .03045

Goals of Small
-
Scale Model

Point
-
to
-
multipoint wireless communication
to XBEEs through the use of LabView

Implement smart grid technology through
power factor correction. (P.F. = .9)

-
ends and fault switches
throughout the model

Demonstrate how an interruptible account
works

Small
-
Scale Model Overview

PowerWorld Simulation of

Small
-
Scale Model

Components of Model

1/6 HP Single Phase AC Motors

Resistor boxes (83.33

)

Voltage Sources (120V (AC) & DC supply)

12 gauge wire

Sarah Bush: 16.88ft

South Mattoon: 16.25ft

PCBs

Printed Circuit Boards

Components

XBEE

100
µ
F Capacitor

LED

15
Ω

resistor

2N7000 MOSFET

T75 series relay

Banana Ports

Picture of PCB (Single Relay)

T75 RELAY

2N7000 MOSFET

15
Ω

Resistor

L.E.D

XBEE Mount

100µF Capacitor

Layout of Single Relay PCB in
Eaglesoft

PCBs Controlling Capacitor Banks

2N7000 MOSFETs

15
Ω

Resistors

L.E.D.

XBEE Mount

100µF Capacitor

T75 Relays

Layout of Capacitor Bank PCBs in

Eaglesoft

Tests Ran on Motors

Two motors using 120V

Power = 192 W

Current = 6.09A

Power Factor = .263

One Motor using 120 V

Power = 94 W

Current = 3.11A

Power Factor = .246

Four Motors using 120V

P = 396 W

Current = 12.65

Power Factor = .263

XBEE Communication

XBEE: 802.15.4

XBEE Mounted on
RS
-
232 Interface Board

On/Off

Input Power

RS
-
232 Port

Antenna

XBEE Communication

Star (point
-
to
-
multipoint)

More Recent XBEEs use mesh communication

XBEE Communication

Our XBEEs are Programmed in a program
called X
-
CTU.

We programmed our XBEEs to communicate
with HEX coding by enabling them in API
mode.

Our code sends out HI and LO signals that the
XBEE can recognized in HEX coding

XBEE Communication Using LabView

The XBEEs on our circuit are controlled by a
program created in LabView.

In LabView we created a user interface. This
was to make the communication between
XBEEs easier for the operator.

LabView User Interface

Power Factor Correction

This was done by adding capacitor banks in
parallel with our motors

We calculated the correct amount of
capacitance by using the following equation:

C = (VARs)/(ωV
2

)

-
End/Fault Switches

Goal
: To keep the maximum amount of

customers with power at all times. This

helps to maximize a utility company’s

income.

Uses
:

To repair power lines when there is a fault.

To work on substations.

Interruptible Account

Our model will have a load (motor) that will
represent the convention center (new load on
CMEC’s system). This motor will be set up on an
interruptible account. This occurs during peak

Benefits
:

The Convention Center will get a better rate on their
electric bill

CMEC will get billed less for not consuming as much

Challenges and Struggles

Deciding best way to model the loads.

Obtaining a power factor of at least .9 .

Creating a circuit that could switch our relays
open or closed using the output from our
XBEEs.

Making our small
-
scale model work in
PowerWorld
.

Getting our XBEEs to communicate.

Getting
LabView

to communicate with our
XBEEs

Future Work

By using XBEE Pro modules, we could set up a
mesh network with all of the XBEEs on our
model.

There is also the possibility of reading in many
different parameters on the line with the XBEE
and sending them back to the main control

Making the system much larger is also a
possibility.

Special Thanks to:

Prof. Sauer and Prof. Garcia

CMEC

Kevin
Colravy

Tamer
Rousan

Ali
Bazzi

Jamie Weber (Power World)

Prof. Carney

Mark Smart

Part Shop and Machine Shop