2 - Smart Meter Education Network

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21 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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ARE

SMART METERS

SAFE?

Nicola Tesla


"If you wish to understand the secrets
of the Universe, think of energy,
frequency, and vibration."


Born in 1856, died in 1943, he was an inventor,
physicist, mechanical engineer, electrical engineer, and
futurist. Tesla's patents and theoretical work formed the
basis of wireless communication and the radio.



Agenda


Smart Grid vs Smart Meter


How smart meters work


How the mesh network works


ElectroMagnetic Spectrum


Naturally occurring EMF


Health effect studies


Why they are called

safe



What the FCC does and doesn't regulate


What it all means

Smart Grid vs. Smart Meter:

What’s the Difference?

Smart Grid Functions


Deliver electricity where and when
needed


Manage power quality


Improve grid reliability


Improve operational efficiency


Integrate
renewable energy
into grid


Platform for
“new products & services”
(?)

Grid Net Network Architecture

Coming Capabilities


Qualcomm

chipsets “enable more
real
-
time
exchange
of information to a new wave of smart
devices” and “constant connectivity to ensure an
ultra
-
fast,
always on
connection on
any

device”



Grid Net
“the state of
all managed devices
is
known
at all times
” and “connected in a more or less
real
-
time network
talking to a central controller




Smart meters will be
always

transmitting
!


“All managed devices”: smart meter,
thermostat, appliances, car charger


Electric Wireless Smart Meter


Photo of Electric Smart Meter which emits RF Radiation
into the home and neighborhood with each transmission

WHAT

UTILITIES USUALLY

TELL THE PUBLIC

1.
Smart Meters are low power, therefore, not harmful

2.
Smart Meters emit less RF Radiation than cell phones

3.
Smart Meter emissions are a fraction of FCC Guidelines

4.
Smart Meters transmit 4
-
6 times a day for 45
-
78 seconds

5.
Smart Meters only record total usage like analog meters

6.
Smart Meters do not cause fires or “fry” electronics

7.
Smart Meter RF Radiation does not pose a health risk

8.
Smart Meter studies show no evidence of harm to health

9.
Smart Meters are safe to install on homes and schools:
WHO 2B Carcinogenic label only applies to cell phones


Functions of a Smart Meter


Essentially a billing device


Two
-
way communication (
wireless relay
)


Meter can react to commands


Change parameters remotely


Remotely load new software


More information collected (4 channels)


Data collected in tiny snapshots of time
(increments of 5
-
15 mins, sent 4
-
6 times/day)


Also, send network messages every few seconds.



Switching Mode Power Supply


Translates

the 240v
alternating current
(AC)
to


the 2
-
10
volts
direct
current
(DC)
required


Generates
spikes of high frequency
transients or
electromagnetic
interference (EMI),
which
travel

along
building
wiring
,
radiating
outward; can also
back
up
all
the way to the utility, infecting every
energy customer in between


Results in
interference

with
electronic equipment
,
and also causes havoc
with
biological systems


The ‘
opt
-
out’ arrangement, of (digital) smart meter
without RF
transmitting
function,
would
not
eliminate
transients (True ‘opt out’ is analog meter)

Dirty Power vs “Clean” Power

Pattern of
Smart
Meter
Emissions

(from Dec 2010 EPRI
Report)

Neighborhood

Collector

Neighborhood


Collector

Neighborhood


Collector


Mesh Network Diagram

Taken from Dec. 2010 EPRI Report


PP

Peak smart meter
transmissions

Pulsed versus Continuous Wave

Bodies react to actual exposure, not averages!

How many times a PG&E smart
meter transmits in 24 hours

TOTAL TRANSMISSIONS 9981 190,396

PG&E Transmits & Duty Cycle


Avg. Smart Meter
-

transmits
every
8.66
secs
.
[86,400 (secs/day) / 9981
msgs
.]


Each is short duration (< 50
millisecs
) so total
Xmit

time is only 45.3
secs

(
0.000524
duty
cycle)
(
45.3
secs
./86,400
secs
/day)


Max
.
Sm

mtr

-

every
1/2

second
(twice/sec.)
(

(86,400 /190,396 max.
msgs
.)


Max.
transmits
-

0.01
duty cycle
(<15
mins
)
(875 total
secs
./86,400)



Ionizing Radiation

Non
-
Ionizing Radiation

Taken from “Public Health SOS” by Camilla Reese and Magda Havas

Spectrum Characteristics


The higher the frequency (right side of chart),
the deeper the penetration (i.e. Xrays)


At very high frequencies (Xrays), the waves
have the power to knock an electron out of an
atom, creating ions (thus, ionizing radiation)


The lower the frequency, the further it travels
(i.e., fog horns) [Note: human cells use ELF]


A stronger signal often will interfere with or
override a weaker signal

Naturally Occurring EMF
(ElectroMagnetic Frequencies)


Schumann Resonance, earth’s own EMF,
is 7.86 Hz


Human heartbeat is 1
-
2 Hz


Sleeping brainwaves are 2
-
4 Hz


Awake brain is 8
-
13 Hz


Overall, human cells vibrate at rate
between 0
-
22 hertz


These are ELF, Continuous Waves (CW)


Visible light is 430
-
750 trillion Hz (CW)


How Much MW Radiation Today?


1980

Background Microwave was
0.005
uW
/cm2


Now

in cities it is
0.4 to 100
uW
/cm2


Background RFR has increased
20,000 times!!


Smart Meter Mesh Networks will add to this


Potential Chronic Health Effects could add to
health care costs


PREVENTION

is

key

(Precautionary Principle)

Source: Dr. Karl Maret youtube video, “The Truth about Smart Meters”

Traits of Microwave Radiation


Intensity

of emission (called power density) drops
off sharply with increased
distance
(equation)


The waves bounce (called
reflection
) off
smooth, hard surfaces
(
like glass, concrete,
polished metal, granite countertops, etc.)


The emissions are
additive
.
When two (or more)
waves intersect, the exposure is the sum of the two
(or more).


Multiple RF sources and/or reflection
cause
intersections, i.e.

higher than expected
pwr. density


Damage

done by RF is
cumulative

over time

Where Rays
Intersect

Sunlight is a form of RFR
as are microwaves.

When microwaves
intersect, the effect is
similar to sunlight
concentrated through a
magnifying glass.

The curvature of a skull
adds to the effect of “hot
spots” in the brain


5 year old 10 year old Adult


These are Cell Phone Studies but Smart Meters use same Frequencies

Research of Dr. Om Ghandi, University of Utah



Known Biological


Effects of HF EMF’s


Can affect Electroencephalogram & Blood
Brain Flow


Disruption of cell communications

Ca+
ions


Damage to genes and DNA (breakage)
found in extensive REFLEX Study 2004


Long
-
term Increased Cancer risk


REFLEX Study 2004 Findings


DNA strand breaks occur at only
1/40
th

(2.5%)
of
guideline limits


Significant increase in single and
double strand DNA
breaks


Chromosomal aberrations in fibroblasts


Changes in many proteins, including
heat shock
protein
, the
cell

stress response


This is solid evidence:
Mobile phone radiation
damages the genetic material and may increase the
risk of developing cancer.

`

(from PhD Martin Blank's presentation at the Commonwealth Club of CA 11/18/10)

Effects of Pulsed Microwaves


Breech the protective Blood Brain Barrier


Affect the Neurotransmitters


Affect Testosterone Hormone Levels


Can Decrease Sperm Production in Men


Affect the natural Rhythm of Brain


Can affect Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability


EEG Changes

also in sleep, reduction of learning,
memory problems


Lowers Hormones: Melatonin

affects sleep &
testosterone in male rats



This is Not New Information!


May
1975
, Naval Aerospace Medical Research Lab


“…
variability in the
waveform (
pulsed

vs

CW)
could
compromise

the validity of
conclusions”


1984

USAF
5
yr

pulsed

RF/MW study,
Dr

Bill Guy found
increase in tumors


RFIAWG
1999

Letter
to

IEEE

14 issues w/RF limits


“Studies
continue to be published describing
biological
responses

to
nonthermal

ELF
-
modulated and
pulse
-
modulated
RF radiation exposures that are
not produced by CW

(
unmodulated
) RF radiation
.”


The
Salzburg Resolution of
2000



Scientists

set a
target
of 0.1
μW
/cm2 (or 0.614 V/m) for public
exposure to pulsed
radiofrequency (FCC limit is 600
uW
/cm2)

EMF & RFR Research 1950s
-
1990’s


Robert Kane, BSEE, MSEE in
electromagnetics, Ph.D. in EE, esp.
electromagnetics


Former Motorola prod. design engr.,
research scientist, developer of cell
phones and microwave
telecommunications


http://microondes.wordpress.com/2010
/04/17/robert
-
c
-
kane
-
cellular
-
telephone
-
russian
-
roulette
/


“Tissue destruction in one’s brain may
be occurring w/o the slightest
indication that anything is happening.
And the damage may be repeated, over
and over again, each time the energy
exposure takes place.”

Health Effect Studies


International Agency for Research on Cancer, at WHO states
possible carcinogen
based on Interphone study


Dr. Magda Havas: Cordless phones (2.4 GHz, same as HAN


and WiFi)
affect heart rate
at 0.5% of guidelines


REFLEX Study, 2 hrs of 60 Hz
breaks DNA


Mutates DNA which can lead to cancer


Children

s cells multiply much faster (duplicating mutations)


Blood brain barrier leaks
after 2 hrs GSM exposure (pulsed)


Pulsed signal causes heat shock
(stress) cell proteins


Dr. Carlo said 2.4 GHz affects
cognitive ability
and
memory


"Windows"
of effects at
lower frequencies


RFR Damages DNA, Fertility


Peer reviewed, published research shows
damage to ovaries and testes


Barrie Trower, British scientist, former naval
weapons expert, specializing in microwave
“stealth” warfare


Low level microwaves can damage the ovaries in
girls (they have all their eggs at birth)


That girl could have a genetically deformed child,
and that could be carried through generations.


You are risking the future generations of your
children with genetic disorders.

RF Effects on Children


Children’s bodies affected more by RF


Smaller, thinner bones


Higher water content


Cells rapidly multiplying (mutations are
multiplied)


Asphalt playgrounds reflect (intensify) RF


The earlier exposure starts, the higher the
health risks

Radio Frequency Guidelines and Effects



RF

Testing

So Many Studies, Why No Action?


Thousands of RFR studies find bioeffects.
Industry says, “No effect has been found.”


Actually, every assertion of risk has a counter
assertion of no risk.


For every study showing damage to DNA and
memory, there is an opposite study.


How is it scientifically possible for 50 percent of
all studies to get an opposite result?


H. Lai split 326 studies in 2006 by funder
(industry vs private); 70% of privately funded
show bio effect, only 30% of industry funded did.


Key Resolutions/Appeals re:
EMF/EMR Health Effects


Helsinki Appeal (2005)


Drs. & researchers


ICEM’s Benevento Resolution, Italy (2006)
-

Scientists
(International Commission for Electromagnetic Safety)


Venice Resolution (2008)
-

Scientists


Freiburger Appeal (2008)
-

Doctors


Porto Alegre Resolution, Brazil (2009)


Scientists & Drs.


Seletun Scientific Statement (2010)
-

Scientists


Parliamentary Assembly Council of Europe

(2011)


Russian National Committee on Non
-
Ionizing Radiation
Protection (2011)







Why
(falsely) claimed to


be "safe"


RF is well below FCC limits (
but

effects at <
3% of limit)


Emissions

(
claimed to be
)
less than a cell
phone

(
which is itself a possible carcinogen)


Emits only a "little tiny bit"
of radiation
(based upon averaging out the peaks)


Only transmitting 1
-
2% of time
(as
often as twice per second)


FCC Guidelines

The guideline is for
EXPOSURE
, not for
EMISSIONS

(but not enforced)

FCC guidelines protect:


6
ft

200
lb

man
from thermal effects (
heating
)


Emission averaged
over
30
mins


Protection from
one

device alone


Single

exposure (acute)

FCC Compliance is
not

safety

(it’s just legal)

From 1993 internal
FDA

memo:

“available data ‘strongly suggest’ that
microwaves

can

accelerate

the development of
cancer’
.”


From 2002
EPA

letter:

“The
FCC

s
exposure
guideline

is considered protective of
effects arising from a thermal mechanism but
not from
all possible mechanisms
.

Therefore, the
generalization

by many that the
guidelines

protect human beings
from harm by any or all
mechanisms is
not justified
.”




Guideline Deficits


No protection
from:


Non
-
thermal, bio
-
effects


Pulsed signal vs. continuous wave (no distinction)


Momentary peak emission (no cap)


Emissions from other simultaneous devices
(whether smart meters,
WiFi
, cell phones,
etc
)


Daily, annual accumulation


No provisions
for
:


The vulnerable (children, elderly, pregnant women)


Nighttime period for cells to recover

What does it all mean?


FCC regulations
do
NOT

protect

against
all effects


The low
RFR

frequency
mimics/interferes


with cell communication


Residents’
exposure

is much
higher

than
admitted by utilities


RFR is a 'toxic
accumulant
',


i.e. the
effects

of exposure
build up
over time


Wireless microwave communication is
NOT

acceptable for the smart grid


END



Smart Grid Traits


Communication uses Wireless

Radio Frequency
Radiation
(RFR, also called microwaves)


Uses
pulsed

waves (as much as
2 times

per second)
not Continuous Waves (28 times worse than CW)


Each brief transmission reaches
high intensity peaks


The peaks are
averaged

over 30 minutes and whole
body exposure,
hiding

the peak


Multiple

transmitters

(
ZigBee
, neighbors’ meters,
apt. bldgs., collectors, backhaul to utility)


Background radiation
(cell
twrs
,
WiFi
, cell phones,
cordless phones, microwave ovens, etc.)



Neighborhood


Collector

Peak Pulse Intensity vs Avg. Exposure


Short pulse (<50 milliseconds) with
~1 watt
(10,000
uW
) peak
pulses can average to Power
of
9
uW
/cm2
(Tell Report)


The body feels
actual peak

pulse
, not average!
Consider the Biological Effects of high power
pulsing.


The physical max of a meter would be
72,000
pulses
transmitted in
an hour

(from Martin Blank's presentation at the Commonwealth Club of California 11/18/10)

Cell Phone vs. Smart Meter

Why the comparison?


Same/similar frequency


Most people have cell phones
--
reluctant to give them up
(inclined to ignore/discount reports of health effects)


Claim smart meter emission is much less

than cell
phone


However


Daniel Hirsch, nuclear policy expert: corrected duty cycle
and measurement unit,
smart meter emits 100 X’s more


WHO announced (May 2011) cell phones (and
all wireless
devices) are
possible carcinogens


Not as “Safe” as Claimed

Half Truth
Whole Truth
FCC RFR limit
Far below limit of
Bioeffects at
600uW/cm2
0.002 -10uW/cm2
Tiny bit" of RFR
Ave of 9uW/cm2
Peak is 100,000 to
over 30 mins.
1 mil X's backgrnd
Emits <cell phone
Using faulty numbers
sm mtr 100 X's
(CCST vs Hirsch)
& approach
cell phone
Very low
Only "on" a few
Transmits every 1/2
duty cycle
mins/day in total
to every 9 secs.


(from Martin Blank's presentation at the Commonwealth Club of California11/18/10.)

Are there Really Safe Levels?

“The actual exposure levels at which these
genetic effects
are shown are about
0.5 to
1.2
uW
/cm2.

These are not safe levels,
they
are just experimental levels that show, that
at extremely low experimental levels,
genotoxic

responses occur cell
-
by
-
cell.


There is no safe threshold
.”

Dr. Neil Cherry, New Zealand EMF Researcher
Studied Health Effects of SF
Sutro

Tower