Intro to Micro

whipmellificiumΒιοτεχνολογία

20 Φεβ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 1 μήνα)

215 εμφανίσεις

What are microbes?

algae

bacteria

cyanobacteria

protozoa

mold

yeast

helminths

viruses

Taxonomy

http://www.linnean.org/html/history/linnaeus_biography.htm

http://www.nhm.ac.uk/library/linn/

Taxonomy

www.amazon.com

Five kingdom system

Plantae

Animalia

Fungi

Monera

Protista

Three Domain System

Animals

Plants

Marine group 1

EUKARYA

EUBACTERIA

ARCHAEA

Fungi

Paramecium

Porphyra

Dictylostelium

Entamoeba

Naegleria

Euglena

Trypanosoma

Physarum

Encephalitozoan

Valrimorpha

Hexamita

Giardia

Trichomonas

Chromatium

Riftia

E. coli

Organisms visible to
human eye

Chlorobium

Agrobacterium

Thermus

Thermomicrobium

Aquifex

Thermotoga

Bacillus

Cytophaga

Epulopiscium

Synechococcus

Methanococcus

Methanobacterium

Methanopyros

Thermococcus

Haloferax

Methanospirillum

Methanosarcina

Sulfolobus

Thermoproteus

Thermofilum

pSL50

pSL4

pSL22

pSL12

pJP27

pJP78

Black, J.G. (2002) Fig. 9.13

Taxonomical “ranks”

Human Being

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Mammalia

Order

Primata

Family

Homindae

Genus

Homo

Species

H. sapiens

after Alcamo Fig. 3.4

Bacterial nomenclature


Genus

+
species


e.g.:


Escherichia
(genus)
coli

(species)


Bacillus subtilis


Enterococcus faecalis

OR,
underline

if handwritten:

Enterococcus faecalis



strains? (subspecies)

Where do bacteria come from?

chroococcalean form

Palaeolyngbya

www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/ bacteria/cyanofr.html

Where do bacteria live?


EVERYWHERE!
(almost)


humans host 10
14

bacterial cells in 10
13

human cells!


NOT found inside tissues (of organisms)

What do microbes do?


Eat, grow, and divide!!


How to accomplish?


modify metabolism


make toxins


structural

modifications

www.microbiologyonline.org.uk/ faq.html

Why do we care?


Disease


Agriculture


Food and beverages


Chemicals


Basic research


Biotechnology

How did microbiology become a
science?


Anthony van Leeuwenhoek (late 1600’s)


microscope

micrograph

Spontaneous generation
controversy

www.darwin.museum.ru/site_bac/ etap/etap2_A.htm

Pasteur &
Tyndall end
spontaneous
generation
controversy


Disease transmission?

www.ghosthunting.org.uk/ cemetary3.htm

miasma

Fracastoro

delpiano.com/millennium/html/ body_fracastoro.html

“seeds” of contagion

infection

symptoms

courses

Semmelweis

www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/ j/e/jel5/micro/art.htm

John Snow

www.soi.city.ac.uk/ ~dk708/pg1_1.htm

Germ Theory of Disease

Joseph Lister

Lister

pw1.netcom.com/~aguldo/ agga/bt/txt/bt1899.htm

www.umanitoba.ca/.../medicine/ history/lister/anessurg.html

Koch establishes causative link
between
B. anthracis

& anthrax

www.robert
-
koch
-
stiftung.de/ ziele.html

Robert Koch

http://www.vdem.state.va.us/prepare/terrorismto
olkit/anthraxoverview.htm

Suspected microbe must be present in EVERY case of the disease

Must isolate &
grow pure
culture of
microbe

Diseased subjects

Microbe not typically found in
healthy subjects

Cultured microbe
must cause disease
when inoculated into
a healthy, susceptible
host

Same
microbe must
be isolated
from
diseased
experimental
host

Koch’s
Postulates

Exceptions to Koch’s postulates


Organism can’t be cultured


e.g.
Mycobacterium leprae


Combination of pathogens


Ethical considerations

“Golden Age” of Microbiology: Late
1800s

DISEASE

Anthrax

Gonorrhea

Typhoid fever

Malaria

Tuberculosis

Cholera

Diphtheria

Tetanus

Diarrhea

Pneumonia

Meningitis

Gas gangrene

CAUSATIVE AGENT

Bacillus anthracis

Neisseria gonorrhea

Salmonella typhi

Plasmodium spp.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Vibrio cholera

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Clostridium tetani

Escherichia coli

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Neisseria meningitidis

Clostridium perfringens

YEAR

1867

1879

1884

1880

1882

1883

1883
-
84

1885
-
89

1885

1886

1887

1892

What’s included in “microbiology”?

Basic research
microbiology

Microbiology

Applied
microbiology

Bacteriology

Phycology

Mycology

Protozoology

Parasitology

Virology

Microbial metabolism

Microbial genetics

Microbial ecology

Microbial

taxonomy

Immunology

Epidemiology

Etiology

In relation
to disease

By process

By kind of organism

After Black (2002)
Microbiology: Principles & Explorations
, 5th Ed. Table 1.2

What’s included in “microbiology”?

Basic research
microbiology

Microbiology

Applied
microbiology

Infection control

Chemotherapy

Environmental


microbiology

Food/Beverage


technology

Pharmaceutical


microbiology

Genetic


engineering

Industrial

Environmental

Disease
-
related

After Black (2002)
Microbiology: Principles & Explorations
, 5th Ed. Table 1.2