History of Biotech - Killingly Public Schools

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20 Φεβ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 1 μήνα)

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COURSE
-

SYLLABUS


PERSONAL INFORMATION


BIOTECHNOLOGY






Definition



Ancient Biotechnology



Classical Biotechnology



Foundations of Modern Biotechnology




WHAT IS BIOTECHNOLOGY?

The use of

living organisms


or
their products


to
enhance

our
lives

and our

environment



WHAT IS BIOTECHNOLOGY ?

Biotechnology

Ancient

Classical

Modern

NEED + KNOWLEDGE




=> TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES





*

Domestication

and Agriculture



*

Ancient Plant
Germplasm




*

History of
Fermented
Foods and Beverages





(the beginning of Classical Biotechnology
)


Ancient

Biotechnology

Nomadic lifestyle of prehistoric peoples



-

gather food

and
hunt animals


-

10K years ago they abandoned

their nomadic ways



and started to
domesticate plants and animals



-
archaeological findings
ancient farming sites




New World, the Far East, and Europe





at ≈ the
same time








Domestication

*Agriculture developed independently in several areas of the world


Domestication

What exactly prompted this sudden shift to a more sedentary lifestyle


is not clear;
-

increasing demand for food due to
population growth




-

natural
dwindling of herds of migratory animals


9000 BC

-

First evidence of plant domestication in hills



above Tigris River

5000 BC

-

Agricultural communities exist in Mesopotamia


2000 BC

-

The Babylonians and Egyptians left pictorial evidence



that dogs, sheep, and cattle had been domesticated

1000 BC

-

Domestication complete for all important



food crops in the new world


-

selected

seeds, cuttings, or tubers

from


superior plants for the next planting.




700 BC

-

Assyrians and Babylonians



-

Hand pollination of date palm





Ancient Plant Germplasm

Large
-
scale organized seed production began in the early 1900s

Nikolai I. Vavilov

(1887
-
1943), Russian plant geneticist and agronomist




collected and catalogued thousands of ancient crop plants




and their wild relatives.




-
Between 1923 and 1931, he traveled extensively in the





Soviet Union and in over 50 countries to collect economically




important plant varieties
-

beans, pea, chickpeas, maize,




lentils, oats, rye, wheat


-
Established one of the
first important gene banks

for long
-
term storage



of important plant germplasm.





Ancient Plant Germplasm

Demonstrated the economic value of germplasm collection particularly with



respect to breeding programs for disease resistance


Vavilov

was arrested in 1940 on charges of espionage


and died in prison from malnutrition


Lysenk
o

(1898
-
1976), a leader in the Soviet Science


favored
Lamarckism
:


theory of science that argues

that
organisms can


acquire physical traits in response to the


environment, and pass on these traits to their


offspring


He was opposed to Mendelian inheritance


Thus, Lysenko was against selective breeding


Ancient Plant Germplasm


As the Soviet government suppressed Mendelian genetics,


the US was establishing centers for the preservation, study,


and distribution of germplasm.


National Seed Storage Laboratory
-

Fort Collins Colorado





National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation



Ancient Plant Germplasm

CGIAR
-

C
onsultative
G
roup of

I
nternational
A
gricultural
R
esearch

Stores house plant material such as seeds, plant cuttings, and tubers.

-

storage is either short
-
, intermediate, and long
-
term


Ex.
Seeds in intermediate
-
term

storage are kept at
-
5
-

0
o
C



Dried seeds

are stored in sealed containers at
-

20
o
C



-

long
-
term

to last over 100 years



-

Periodic germination

and viability tests are performed


Tissues are now also kept in
tissue culture



-

individual cells capable of regenerating new platelets.

SGRP

S
ystem
-
wide

G
enetic

R
esource

Programme


CGIAR

4000 BC

-

Egyptians used yeast in wine and bread




making


2000 BC

-

Chinese develop fermentation


Ancient Biotechnology



FERMENTATION

Once people settled in villages, the development of new foods was
possible


-

accidental

discovery!

*

food contamination often destroys the food reserve

*

in some cases the microbial activity





enhances the
flavor and texture




kimchi
-

sauerkraut
-

yoghurt
-

cheese

FERMENTATION
-

(lat.) fervere

=> to boil

addition of
yeast to fruit juice

=>
wine



yeast to malt and grain

=>
beer






aroma of bread baking =>
alcohol

produced






bread rises => because of trapped
CO
2

Glucose

--
>
-

-
>
-

-
>
Pyruvate

---
>
Acetaldeyhyde
------
> Ethanol

CO
2


Fermented Foods

Knowledge drives technology


scientific and applied knowledge


practical experience


*

From mid
-
nineteenth century




knowledge of cell processes


-

refined fermentation technology


Brewers began producing alcohol on a large scale in the early 1700s




Classical Biotechnology

* By the 1800’s brewers knew to use pure yeast cultures

Louis Pasteur
-

germ theory

-

microbes are responsible for fermentation


-

proved that fermentation is the result of


activity of yeasts and bacteria.


1822
-
1895


Classical Biotechnology

*Sir Alexander Fleming

1881
-

1995


*

Nobel prize 1945


Classical Biotechnology

Fleming did not attempt to purify penicillin. But in the late 1930s Australian
Howard Florey


and

Chain

and others
developed penicillin into a clinical antibiotic
in 1940
-
41.


Fleming, Florey, and Chain shared the 1945 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
.

Fleming left culture dishes lying around


He found that an unusual mold had germinated on the plate.

and
inhibited the growth of the bacterium

that was growing

on this plate.




A
crude extract

of the mold was then shown to have antibacterial properties.

This observation led Fleming to discover in 1928 and by 1929 an antibiotic that was


produced by the mold
Penicillium
.



-

Penicillin

was produced by the fermentation of cultured

Penicillium
.




Whole organisms
or

individual cells
rather than

specific genes


Classical Biotechnology


Classical Biotechnology
-

ANTIBIOTICS

Conversion of Cholesterol

to steroids such as
cortisone

and

sex hormones





chemical synthesis of cortisone requires




about
31 steps
-

low yield

in
1955 Upjohn

researchers realized that
Rhizopus arrhizus


is capable of converting inexpensive
plant sterols

into
cortisone



synthetic compound

$ 200 / gram





biotransformation


$ 6 / gram


Classical Biotechnology


-

biochemical transformations

Knowledge of




cell structure


biochemical reactions


genetic make
-
up of organisms



Foundation of Modern Biotechnology


Foundation of Modern Biotechnology


Classical Biotechnology


Classical Biotechnology


Classical Biotechnology


Classical Biotechnology

-

Knowledge of genetic material

Dr. Barbara McClintock

(1902
-
1992)

1983 Nobel Prize

-

discovery of transposable elements


35 years earlier

-

1929

-

reports 10 chromosomes in maize


Maize cytogeneticist

-

provided a

visual connection

between certain


inheritable traits

and their

physical basis in the chromosome
.


Foundation of Modern Biotechnology


Classical Biotechnology


Classical Biotechnology

SIR ARCHIBALD EDWARD GARROD (1857
-
1936)


Garrod studied medicine at
Oxford University

and became a physician.


Garrod was studying the human disorder
ALKAPTONURIA

[
turns the urine dark

when exposed to oxygen]


Individuals lack
homogentisate oxidase
,




leads to the excretion of





HOMOGENTISIC ACID



turns dark when exposed to aire

He collected family history information (as well as urine) from his patients.

Based on discussions with Mendel, Garrod deduced that alkaptonuria is a recessive disorder
.

In 1902, Garrod published a book called
The Incidence of Alkaptonuria: a Study in Chemical

Individuality
.
This is the first published account of a case of recessive inheritance in humans.


Garrod was also the first to propose the idea that diseases were
"inborn errors of metabolism
."

He believed that diseases were the result of missing or false steps in the body's chemical

pathways. In 1923, his studies on
alkaptonuria, and albinism

were published as a book:

Inborn Errors of Metabolism
.


Garrod attributed a biochemical role to genes, and laid the

groundwork for the next wave of discovery
--

the molecular basis of inheritance.



Classical Biotechnology


Classical Biotechnology


ALFRED HENRY STURTEVANT

(1891
-
1970)


Drosophila melanogaster

FRUIT FLY


For his Ph.D. thesis, Sturtevant published the world's first genetic
map based on the idea that
GENES ARE LINKED IN A SERIES
.


The
single, mutant white
-
eyed fly

was crossed with


normal red
-
eyed flies

=>


produced normal offspring (F1 generation)


F1 flies were crossed and more white
-
eyed flies were
produced
.


This result from this crossing experiment was
expected as Mendel found a similar pattern in peas.






Classical Biotechnology


Classical Biotechnology

In 1928,
Griffith

-

mice and pneumonia causing bacteria


Streptococcus pneumoniae
.


THE TRANSFORMING PRINCIPLE

















Smooth (S) strain
-

pathogenic

Rough (R) strain
-


non
-
pathogenic


Classical Biotechnology


Classical Biotechnology

1944
-

Avery, MacLeod and McCarty



-
isolated and fractionated cellular components from the heat killed


pathogenic bacteria.




-
introduced each fraction one at a time to harmless bacteria, which were


then given to mice.




By this method, they found that
only DNA

would make the bacteria


able to cause pneumonia and death in mice.






THE TRANSFORMING PRINCIPLE IS


Classical Biotechnology

-

knowledge of genetic material


1953 Watson and Crick




-

Structure of DNA



used
” x
-
ray data collected

by Rosalind Franklin to deciphered

the structure of DNA




Foundation of Modern Biotechnology


Classical Biotechnology

Holley, Khorana and Nirenberg


SHARED THE 1968


Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine


FOR DECIPHERING THE genetic code






Foundation of Modern Biotechnology


Classical Biotechnology

THE BEGINNING OF RECOMBINANT TECHNOLOGY
-

1973

Recombinant DNA

procedures
involve

splicing one piece of DNA
into another


Stanley Cohen

Plasmids and

Antibiotic resistance

Herbert Boyer

Restriction enzymes

BACTERIUM


Plasmids


Chromosomal

DNA

THE BEGINNING OF RECOMBINANT TECHNOLOGY
-

1973

Antibiotic Resistance Marker


Classical Biotechnology


Classical Biotechnology


Classical Biotechnology

Kary B. Mullis

1993 Nobel Prize in Chemistry

http://www.karymullis.com/


Classical Biotechnology

Dye
-
terminator sequencing technology


* 1986 Leroy E. Hood's Laboratory at the California Tech and Smith


announce the first semi
-
automated DNA sequencing machine

* 1987 Applied Biosystems markets first automated sequencing machine, the Prism 373


involving a variety of natural and applied sciences


cell and molecular biology


microbiology


genetics


physiology


chemistry and biochemistry


engineering


computer science / bioinformatics


nanotechnology


Biotechnology is multidisciplinary

Many Applications of Biotechnology

Recombinant vaccines




Production of new and improved foods

Industrial chemicals

Pharmaceuticals

Livestock

Disease
-
resistant crop plants and livestock

Diagnostics for detecting genetic diseases

Gene therapy

Biotechnological
-

hope for



-

restoring the environment




-

protect endangered species

Microorganisms are used to clean up toxic wastes from


industrial and oil spills

Conservation biologists use genetic methods to identify particular


populations of endangered or threatened species.



By determining the genetic diversity of various plant


and animal populations, genetic analysis can help


zoos and field biologists improve conservation practices.