Animal Testing Alternatives: Finding The ... - University Library

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Animal Testing Alternatives:

Finding The Information You Need


Myra E. Shields, Senior Trainer

BIOSIS


BIOSIS
Databases

Biological Abstracts

Biological Abstracts/RRM

(Reports, Reviews & Meetings)

BIOSIS Previews

Zoological Record

Legal Responsibility





Animal Welfare Act as Amended
(7 USC, 2131
-
2156) in the United States


Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986,
licensed by the Home Office, UK


The EU Treaty of Rome


Ethical or Social Responsibility


Change to non
-
animals


Make procedures pain free


Answer the questions…



Should animals be used?



When can animals be used?



How should animals be used?


Economic Responsibility


Expense of animal use


Non
-
animal models can be cheaper to use


Non
-
animal models can increase number of
compounds being tested

Scientific Responsibility


Currency in area of research


Awareness of research


Reduce duplication


Computer structure allows more compounds
to be screened


Less painful and invasive procedures


Awareness of new procedures


The 3Rs:

Reduction, Refinement, Replacement





Reduction alternatives



methods for obtaining comparable levels of information
from the use of fewer animals in scientific procedures, or for obtaining more
information from the same number of animals.


Refinement alternatives



methods which alleviate or minimize potential pain,
suffering and distress, and which enhance animal well
-
being.


Replacement alternatives



methods which permit a given purpose to be achieved
without conducting experiments or other scientific procedures on animals.”


Problems with Compliance


Several problems can make compliance with the

regulations difficult:


Primary research does not indicate a reduction or
refinement method.


Not all of the information available is indexed to 3R
compliance.


Multiple sources need to be included in a comprehensive
search.


Researchers or end users themselves are doing the
preliminary data gathering.



How Does BIOSIS Fit?

Coverage


Literature types:


Patents


Meetings and conferences


Books


Journals (international coverage)





Coverage


Traditional areas:


Molecular biology, Botany, Zoology, Ecology and the
Environment, Microbiology


Interdisciplinary areas:


Experimental, Clinical and Veterinary Medicine,
Biotechnology and Genetics, Agriculture and
Nutrition, Biochemistry, Pharmacology, Public Health


Related areas:


Methods and Instrumentation


MethodsBASE


Indexing





A literature search should use a 2
-
stage process:


General terms for alternatives in conjunction with disease
or subject area.


Specific searches on models, procedures, etc.



There are two ways to search using relational indexing:



Maximum
retrieval

for preliminary information gathering


Maximum
relevancy

for refining the search to specific areas
of research




Searching for Alternatives

Herpes Search

Evaluate an antiviral (ganciclovir)

against herpesviridae

Searching for Alternatives

General Search (Maximum Retrieval)

herpes?/DE,TI

antivir?/DE,TI

(animal model not (rat or muridae))/DE,TI


Antiviral effect of
antivirus capsule containing Chinese medicinal herbs on guinea pig model of genital herpes and cell culture.


Author:
Fan Ruiqiang(a); Li Hongyi(a); Xie Changcai(a); et al

Author Address:
(a)Department of Dermatology, Guangdong Provincial Hospital of T C M, Guangzhou, 510120**China

Journal:
Zhonghua Pifuke Zazhi


34 ( 3 ): p 198
-
201 June, 2001

Medium:
print

ISSN:
0412
-
4030

Document Type:
Article

Record Type:
Abstract

Language:
Chinese; Non
-
English


Summary Language:
Chinese; English


Abstract:
Objective:
To study the therapeutic mechanism of the antivirus capsule containing Chinese herbs against genital herpes
. Methods: The
female guinea pig GH models were treated with …

Descriptors:

Major Concepts:
Infection; Reproductive System (Reproduction)

Biosystematic Names:
Caviidae
--
Rodentia, Mammalia, Vertebrata, Chordata, Animalia; Herpesviridae
--
Animal Viruses, Viruses, Microorganisms

Organisms:
guinea pig (Caviidae)
--
animal model; herpes simplex virus
-
2 (Herpesviridae)
--
pathogen


Organisms: Parts Etc.:
vagina
--
reproductive system; vulva
--
reproductive system

Biosystematic Classification (super Taxa):
Animal Viruses; Animals; Chordates; Mammals; Microorganisms; Nonhuman Mammals; Nonhuman
Vertebrates; Rodents; Vertebrates; Viruses

Diseases:
genital herpes
--
reproductive system disease, viral disease


Chemicals & Biochemicals:


Chinese medicinal herbs
--
antiviral activity; acychovir
--
antiviral
-
drug

Methods & Equipment:
antivirus capsule
--
drug delivery method, therapeutic method; cell culture
--
culture method

Alternate Indexing:
Herpes Genitalis (MeSH)

Concept Codes:

12512 Pathology, General and Miscellaneous
-
Therapy (1971
-

)



16504 Reproductive System
-
Physiology and Biochemistry


16506 Reproductive System
-
Pathology


32500 Tissue Culture, Apparatus, Methods and Media


33506 Virology
-
Animal Host Viruses


36006 Medical and Clinical Microbiology
-
Virology



38506 Chemotherapy
-
Antiviral Agents

Biosystematic Codes:



02612 Herpesviridae (1993
-

)


86300 Caviidae



Searching for Alternatives


Specific Search (Maximum Relevancy)


Searching for herpesviridae where the rabbit
(leporidae) is used as the animal model and
ganciclovir is the antiviral drug



BC=herpesviridae or BC=02612

((rabbit or leporidae)(s)animal model)/OI

(ganciclovir or cymevene(s)antiviral)/SY (or
NA)


OR use the registry number 82410
-
32
-
0

Scleral plug of biodegradable polymers containing
ganciclovir for experimental cytomegalovirus retinitis.


Author:
Sakurai Eiji(a); Matsuda Yoshito; Ozeki Hironori; Kunou Noriyuki; Nakajima Katsuhisa; Ogura Yuichiro

Author Address:
(a)Department of Ophthalmology, Nagoya City University Medical School, 1
-
Kawasumi, Mizuho
-
cho, Mizuho
-
ku, Nagoya, 467
-
8601: ozeki@med.nagoya
-
cu.ac.jp**Japan

Journal:
IOVS


42 ( 9 ): p 2043
-
2048 August, 2001


Abstract:
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of a biodegradable scleral plug containing ganciclovir (GCV) in a rabbit model of human
cytomegalovirus (HCMV) retinitis. METHODS: To develop a rabbit model for HCMV retinitis, HCMV solution was injected once into

th
e vitreous
cavity of pigmented rabbits....

CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrated that sustained release of GCV into the vitreous cavity with biodegradable scleral plugs

wa
s effective
for the treatment of experimentally induced HCMV retinitis in rabbits.

Registry Numbers:
82410
-
32
-
0: GANCICLOVIR


Descriptors:

Major Concepts:
Infection; Pharmacology; Sense Organs (Sensory Reception)

Biosystematic Names:
Herpesviridae
--
Animal Viruses, Viruses, Microorganisms
; Leporidae
--

Lagomorpha, Mammalia, Vertebrata, Chordata,
Animalia

Organisms:
cytomegalovirus (Herpesviridae)
--
pathogen;
rabbit (Leporidae)
--
animal model
, host

Organisms: Parts Etc.:
eyes
--
sensory system; vitreous cavity
--
sensory system

Biosystematic Classification (super Taxa):
Animal Viruses; Animals; Chordates; Lagomorphs; Mammals; Microorganisms; Nonhuman Mammals;
Nonhuman Vertebrates; Vertebrates; Viruses

Diseases:
cytomegalovirus retinitis
--
eye disease, viral disease


Chemicals & Biochemicals:


ganciclovir
--
antiviral
-
drug
, biodegradable scleral plug, sustained release


Miscellaneous Terms:


vitreoretinal inflammation

Alternate Indexing:
Cytomegalovirus Retinitis (MeSH)

Concept Codes:

10062 Biochemical Studies
-
Nucleic Acids, Purines and Pyrimidines


12512 Pathology, General and Miscellaneous
-
Therapy (1971
-

)


20004 Sense Organs, Associated Structures and Functions
-
Physiology and Biochemistry


20006 Sense Organs, Associated Structures and Functions
-
Pathology


22002 Pharmacology
-
General


33506 Virology
-
Animal Host Viruses


36006 Medical and Clinical Microbiology
-
Virology


38506 Chemotherapy
-
Antiviral Agents

Biosystematic Codes:



02612 Herpesviridae (1993
-

)


86040 Leporidae

Searching for Alternatives


Specific Search (Maximum Relevancy)


Searching for an in
-
vitro or cell culture as a replacement:



CC=32600 In Vitro Studies, Cellular and Sub Cell
or CC=32500 Tissue Culture, Apparatus, Methods &
Media

BC=02612 or BC=herpesviridae

(ganciclovir and antiviral)/SY (or NA)

Budding yeast as a screening tool for discovery of nucleoside analogs for use in HSV
-
1 TK suicide
-
gene therapy.


Author:
Wera S; Degreve B; Balzarini J; De Clercq E; Thevelein J M; Neyts J(a)

Author Address:
(a)Rega Institute for Medical Research, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B
-
3000, Leuven**Belgium

Journal:
Biotechniques


27 ( 4 ): p 772
-
777 Oct., 1999

ISSN:
0736
-
6205

Document Type:
Article

Record Type:
Abstract

Language:
English


Summary Language:
English


Abstract:
We present a fast, convenient and inexpensive method that

allows the automated, large
-
scale screening of chemical libraries for
compounds that are converted by the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV
-
1)…

The method may also be used as a tool to selectively suppress or arrest the growth of one population of yeast out of mixed ye
ast

cell cultures.


Registry Numbers:
59277
-
89
-
3: ACYCLOVIR; 59277
-
89
-
3: ZOVIRAX; 82410
-
32
-
0: GANCICLOVIR; 127759
-
89
-
1: LOBUCAVIR; 39809
-
25
-
1:
PENCICLOVIR; 77181
-
69
-
2: SORIVUDINE; 9002
-
06
-
6: THYMIDINE KINASE

Descriptors:

Major Concepts:
Molecular Genetics (Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics); Methods and Techniques; Pharmacology

Biosystematic Names:
Ascomycetes
--
Fungi, Plantae; Herpesviridae
--
Animal Viruses, Viruses, Microorganisms

Organisms:
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Ascomycetes);
herpes simplex virus type
-
1 {HSV
-
1} (Herpesviridae)

Biosystematic Classification (super Taxa):
Animal Viruses; Fungi; Microorganisms; Nonvascular Plants; Plants; Viruses


Chemicals & Biochemicals:


IVDU
--
antiviral
-
drug; acyclovir {Zovirax}
--
Glaxo Wellcome, antiviral
-
drug; ara
-
T
--
Sigma, antiviral
-
drug; brivudin
--
antiviral
-
drug;
ganciclovir { Cymevene}
--
Sarva Syntex, antiviral
-
drug
; lobucavir
--
Bristol Myers Squibb, antiviral
-
drug; penciclovir
--
SmithKline
Beecham, antiviral
-
drug; sorivudine
--
Yamasa Shoyu, antiviral
-
drug; thymidine kinase {TK}; herpes simplex virus TK gene (Herpesvi
ridae)

Methods & Equipment:
gene cloning
--
Recombinant DNA Technology, genetic method; gene therapy
--

recombinant gene expression applications,
therapeutic method; yeast culture
--
cell culture techniques, culture method

Concept Codes:

31500 Genetics of Bacteria and Viruses


02504 Cytology and Cytochemistry
-
Plant


10062 Biochemical Studies
-
Nucleic Acids, Purines and Pyrimidines


38506 Chemotherapy
-
Antiviral Agents


32500 Tissue Culture, Apparatus, Methods and Media


12512 Pathology, General and Miscellaneous
-
Therapy (1971
-

)

Biosystematic Codes:



02612 Herpesviridae (1993
-

)


15100 Ascomycetes



Searching for Alternatives


Searching for reduction:



CC=04500 Mathematical Biology


Computational Biology or Computer
Applications or Mathematical Biology or
(Models and Simulations) or (Methods and
Techniques)/MC



The cost
-
effectiveness of preventing AIDS
-
related opportunistic infections.


Author:
Freedberg Kenneth A(a); Scharfstein Julie A; Seage Geroge R III; Losina Elena; Weinstein Milton C; Craven Donald E; Paltiel A

Da
vid

Author Address:
(a)Clin. Economics Res. Unit, Boston Med. Cent., 91E Concord St., Suite 200, Boston, MA 02118**USA

Journal:
JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association)


279 ( 2 ): p 130
-
136 Jan. 14, 1998

ISSN:
0098
-
7484



Abstract:
Context.
-
Multiple options are now available for prophylaxis of opportunistic infections related to the acquired immunodeficiency

syndrome (AIDS). …

Conclusions.
-
The cost
-
effectiveness of prophylaxis against HIV
-
related opportunistic infections varies widely, but prophylaxis a
gainst PCP or
toxoplasmosis and against MAC delivers the greatest comparative value.
In an era of limited resources, these results can be used to set
priorities and explore new alternatives for improving HIV patient care.


Registry Numbers:
83905
-
01
-
5: AZITHROMYCIN; 72559
-
06
-
9: RIFABUTIN; 82410
-
32
-
0: GANCICLOVIR; 8064
-
90
-
2:

Descriptors:

Major Concepts:
Economics
; Infection;
Models and Simulations (Computational Biology
); Pharmacology

Biosystematic Names:
Herpesviridae
--
Animal Viruses, Viruses, Microorganisms; Hominidae
--
Primates , Mammalia, Vertebrata, Chordata,
Animalia; Mycobacteriaceae
--
Mycobacteria, Actinomycetes and Related Organisms, Eubacteria, Bacteria, Microorganisms; Retrovirida
e
--
Animal
Viruses, Viruses, Microorganisms; Sporozoa
--
Protozoa, Invertebrata, Animalia

Organisms:
cytomegalovirus (Herpesviridae)
--
pathogen
; human (Hominidae)
--
host; human immunodeficiency virus {HIV} (Retroviridae)
--
pathogen; Mycobacterium
-
avium (Mycobacteriaceae)
--
pathogen; Pneumocystis
-
carinii (Sporozoa)
--
parasite

Biosystematic Classification (super Taxa):
Animal Viruses; Animals; Bacteria; Chordates; Eubacteria; Humans; Invertebrates; Mammals;
Microorganisms; Primates; Protozoans; Vertebrates; Viruses

Diseases:
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome {AIDS}
--
immune system disease; cytomegalovirus infection
--
viral disease; fungal infection
--
fungal disease ; toxoplasmosis
--
parasitic disease; Mycobacterium avium complex infection
--
bacterial disease; Pneumocystis carin
ii pneumonia
--
parasitic disease


Chemicals & Biochemicals:


azithromycin
--
antibacterial
-
drug;
ganciclovir
--
antiviral
-
drug
; rifabutin
--
antibacterial
-
drug; trimethoprim
-
sulfamethoxazole
--
antiparasitic
-
drug


Miscellaneous Terms:


prophylaxis cost
-
effectiveness; Markov simulation model


Concept Codes:

38502 Chemotherapy
-
General; Methods; Metabolism


04500 Mathematical Biology and Statistical Methods


12512 Pathology, General and Miscellaneous
-
Therapy (1971
-

)


16001 Respiratory System
-
General; Methods


22002 Pharmacology
-
General



36001 Medical and Clinical Microbiology
-
General; Methods and Techniques


60502 Parasitology
-
General

Biosystematic Codes:



02612 Herpesviridae (1993
-

)




Searching for Alternatives


Specific Search (Maximum Relevancy)


Searching for a rabbit care as a refinement topic



CC=28002 Laboratory Animal Care

CC=2650? Animal Husbandry

Animal Care/MC

(rabbit or leporidae)/OI

or


((rabbit or leporidae) and animal model)/OI

Hip dysplasia in rabbits: Association with nest box flooring.


Author:
Owiny James R(a); Vandewoude Sue; Painter J Todd; Norrdin Robert W; Veeramachaneni D N Rao

Author Address:
(a)Johns Hopkins University, 720 Rutland Avenue, 459 Ross Research Building, Baltimore, MD,
21208**USA

Journal:
Comparative Medicine (Memphis)


51 ( 1 ): p 85
-
88 February, 2001

Medium:
print

ISSN:
1532
-
0820

Document Type:
Article

Record Type:
Abstract

Language:
English


Summary Language:
English

Abstract:
Purpose: To study etiologic aspects of hip dysplasia in a colony of Dutch
-
belted rabbits.
Methods: Rabbits
used in the study were part of a reproductive toxicologic study



Conclusions: Provision of non
-
slippery flooring during the postnatal period is critical in preventing development of hip
dysplasia in rabbits. Hip dysplasia resulted in significant musculoskeletal changes, but not abnormal neurologic
development.


Descriptors:

Major Concepts:
Animal Care
; Skeletal System (Movement and Support)

Biosystematic Names:
Leporidae
--
Lagomorpha, Mammalia, Vertebrata, Chordata, Animalia

Organisms:
rabbit (Leporidae)
--
animal model,

breed
-
Dutch
-
Belted, juvenile

Biosystematic Classification (super Taxa):
Animals; Chordates; Lagomorphs; Mammals; Nonhuman Mammals;
Nonhuman Vertebrates; Vertebrates

Diseases:
hip dysplasia
--
animal model, joint disease


Miscellaneous Terms:


care conditions
--
flooring; nest box flooring


Concept Codes:

28002 Laboratory Animals
-
General (1970
-

)


18004 Bones, Joints, Fasciae, Connective and Adipose Tissue
-
Physiology and Biochemistry


18006 Bones, Joints, Fasciae, Connective and Adipose Tissue
-
Pathology

Biosystematic Codes:



86040 Leporidae


What’s New at BIOSIS

Important Links


http://www.altwebsearch.com/

http://www.frame.org

http://www.vetmed.ucdavis.edu/Animal_Alternatives/main.htm

http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic

http://sis.nlm.hih.gov/altaniml.cfm

http://grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/olaw.htm

http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/legislat/awa/htm

http://www.impi.org.uk/publications.htm