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UNIT FOUR

Reading

One


Military
C
ommunications

Throughout history, efficient communication has always been important in any
military situation, but what are the
repercussions

in today's "technological age"?

The important secret of war is to make oneself ma
ster of the communications

(
Napoleon I
,
Maxims of War (1831)
)



A look back at military history shows that armies have always made use of the
best means available in order to
relay

information. The Greeks had a water telegraph
;

the Romans used colored s
moke to pass on messages.

Morse code

(still around today)
was first used in the
Crimean War
, and the first wireless sets came into service
during World War I. The huge advances in technology also influence the way modern
armies are equipped. The soldier of

today has an impressive range of technological
devices, including the most
up
-
to
-
date

satellite and
digital

technology.


For over twenty years the Clansman range of
combat

radios has provided
communications for
mobile armored formations
,
amphibious

an
d airborne units,
ground to air communications and support and

logistic

units

in the British Army.
Each model is designed with a particular task in mind, but they have common
operating controls and
procedures

so training time for operators is kept to a
min
imum
. Soldiers generally consider them reliable, and the PRC
-
349 section radio
is equipped with a throat microphone so section commanders can communicate easily
and handle a weapon, note book or map at the same time.
Platoon

and
company

commanders can carr
y the PRC
-
351
manpack

radio (it weighs
in

at a
user
-
friendly

8.2 kgs). As a result, command and control and the passage of orders are faster and
more reliable.
EMC (Electromagnetic Compatibility)

is a key
feature
, allowing
several radios to be used in clos
e
proximity
, even in the same vehicle, without
interfering
with

each other.


But the Clansman radios are beginning to show signs of ageing. Their
performance is limited in the increasingly
congested

electromagnetic

spectrum
, and
they can't cope with wh
at will be required in a future battlefield
in terms of

data
transmission capability. The military communications system of the future is the
Bowman
. It will
exploit

the latest developments in radio and computer technology in
order to provide an

integrated

digital communications network across the battlefield.
For the first time commanders at all levels will have
secure

voice and data
communications as well as an integrated
Global Positioning System (GPS)
.
Bowman's digital links use Internet Protocol, which

means it can link up to a data
network, sharing positions and maps sketched on
palmtop

computers
. It will even
relay images from
helmet
cameras so that commanders can get an
on
-
the
-
spot

view
of the battlefield.


All

this means there is a greater need
for well
-
trained specialists. An area
systems operator might be in a communications center or with a mobile unit in the
field. In either situation, the signals and messages are likely to be received,
transmitted and processed
via

computer. An officer will
not only be in charge of a
group of people but will need to be able to manage a
sophisticated

IT system.
Communications expertise in today's British Army is in the hands of the Royal Corps
of Signals. Their
motto

"Certa Cito" (roughly translated as "swift
and sure") puts it
in
a
nutshell
-
---
the essence of military communications lies in two factors: they need to
be fast, and they need to be accurate.

(554 words)


Words in Focus

r
epercussion
s

n.


a far
-
reaching effect of some action or event
久远的影响
;

反响

relay

v.

to send out message by an electrical arrangement or
apparatus

up
-
to
-
date

adj.


modern; using the most recent knowledge, invents, etc

digital

adj.


based on a system in which
information

is represented in

the form of changing elec
trical signals
数字的
,
数码的

combat

n.

fight or struggle between armies, people, etc.


mobile

adj.

able to move or be moved, quickly and easily


formation

n.

arrangement of people, ships, aircraft, etc.
排列
,
队形
,




amphibious

adj.



able to live or move both on
land and in water

logistic units




后勤部队

procedure

n.

a set of actions necessary for doing something properly


,
步骤

minimum

n.

the least
or smallest possible
quantity, number or de
gree

低限度

platoon

n.




[
士兵的
]


company

n.




[
陆军编制的
]


manpack

adj.



that can

be carried by one man

单人可携带的

user
-
friendly

adj.


easy to use or operate

feature

n.




a (typical or noticeable) part or quality

特征
,
特色

proximity

n.




nearness

interfere

with


to get in the way of another;

to prevent from working or
happening

congested

ad
j.




very full or blocked

in terms of




in connection with, with regard to


方面来说

exploit

v.





to use or develop fully so as to get profit

integrated

adj.



完整的



secure

adj.





protected against danger or risk

helmet

n.




头盔
,
钢盔

on

the

spot




at the place of the action

现场的

sophisticated

adj.



not easily understood; complicated

motto

n.





格言





Notes

Morse code

莫尔斯电码
(
一套信息发送系统
,
用点和划表示字母
)

Crimean War

克里米亚战争
(1853
-
1856)

arm
ored formations

装甲编队

EMC (Electromagnetic Compatibility)

电磁兼容性

electromagnetic spectrum

电磁频谱

GPS (
Global Positioning System
)

全球定位系统

palmtop

computers

掌上电脑

in a
nutshell

用一句话概括



Check Your Comprehension

1.

What are the various means mentioned in this passage
to relay information in
military history? Do you know any other means?

2.

In what way is Bowman advanced than Clansman radio?

3.

How do you understand the quotation by Napoleon at the beginning of this
passage?

4.

What will you do during your study in NUDT in order

to meet the future
requirement of military development?



Check Your Vocabulary


Fill in the blank with the words given below. Change the form where
necessary.


interfere minimum feature exploit

procedure sophisticated relay

s e c u r e

.

1.

O n e o f t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s p r o j e c t i s t o _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ t h e c o u n t r y

s mi n e r a l
r e s o u r c e
.

2.

Ur g e n t a c t i o n s s h o u l d b e t a k e n t o ma k e t h i s s y s t e m _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ f r o m
a t t a c k
.

3.

Th e b r o a d c a s t wa s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ t o Eu r o p e.

4.

Th e s o u n d o f t h e r a d i o u p s t a i r s _ _ _ _ _ _ _
_ _ _ _ wi t h my wo r k.

5.

Ea c h o f t h e c h i l d r e n h a d t o d r i n k s o me mi l k a t b r e a k f a s t; h a l f o f a g l a s s i s t h e
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.

6.

Wh a t i s t h e p r o p e r _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ f o r l e a v i n g t h e b u i l d i n g wh e n i t i s o n f i r e?

7.

He a v y r a i n s a r e a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ o f t h e we a t h e r
n e a r t h e e q u a t o r (
赤道
).

8.

This new equipment is highly ___________, and I don

t know how to operate it.



Reading Two

Take a Peek at the Future


Are you happy with your office? Have you ever imagined what you would find in
tomorrow

s office? Well, just take
a tour to see what US scientists have
prepare
d for
you
:


Universities, government labs, and companies like IBM, Microsoft, and US
office
-
furniture maker Steelcase are
making

plans to change the office environment.


They include: chairs that
sense

when
you

re
stressed out

and will, perhaps, tell
your boss to take away some of your work; PCs that
can

figure out

during your
uncertain moments where you

ve seen an unfamiliar name; and
desktops

that, with a
push of a button,
transform

themselves into a comput
er
monitor

to help discussions
during a roundtable meeting.


These ideas have one goal in common: To raise white
-
collar
productivity
.


The idea is to continue the inventions that have transformed offices over the past
15 years. As recently as 1990, voi
ce mail was still being introduced. Email was
largely
self
-
contained

within companies


attending a meeting in another city meant
going there.


Since then, net communication


such as email, instant messaging, and
videoconferencing


has sped up both wor
k and business decisions.


Now, the need for increased efficiency to meet the needs of
mobile
employees has
experts saying that office

innovation
is about to take another leap.


For example, to adapt products to the mobile work style, Microsoft is work
ing on
allowing an email or voice
-
mail message to arrive at whatever computer or phone
you

re closest to. Drop your cell phone on your desk when you arrive at work, and
special
chips

in it will
route

cell calls to your office number, the company says.


B
etter software can also make
collaboration

more effective.
Surveys
show that
employees think that half the time they spend in meetings is wasted. So a number of
companies, including Microsoft, have developed digital white boards. These are
built

into desks

to allow everyone in a meeting to

jot

down ideas.


Videoconferencing should improve
dramatically

as well. In its model office,
Microsoft uses cameras to
project

a 360
-
degree view of everyone at the table for
employees who join a meeting remotely. In an
inset
screen at the bottom of first
display, they might also show the face of each person who speaks. The idea
is to avoid
misunderstandings that are
common to phone conferencing.


Smart software might

boost

efficiency

in other ways. For instance, it cou
ld take
over routine tasks and leave more time for creative thinking. Sandia National
Laboratories is developing a programme that lets a PC or other computing device take
in the knowledge within your
files
. In that way, you can
retrieve

information based
o
n the data you

d like to find rather than using a file name, says Chris Forsythe, a
member of Sandia

s technical staff.


A more advanced
version

of this software would know that you

ve been called
away during a conference call, and it would give you a ty
ped summary of the most
important points the caller discussed.

Essentially,

it would act as a personal assistant,
says Forsythe.


Meanwhile, researchers at the Palo Alto (California) Research Center are
developing
programs

that should help an office work
er who

s been asked to develop a
400
-
page report overnight, says Mark Stefik. The programme can sum up the main
points and
present

them in grammatically correct sentences in just a few pages.


Another way to
accomplish

that is for employees to wear a
bad
ge

with
radio
-
frequency
identification
. As you approach your office, a
scanner

might read
the badge and tell your computer, which
would then open t
o

the page
you last read.


However, experts say that many of these
technologies

will have to get cheaper
be
fore they can be
commercialized
. (603 words)


W
o
rds in focus

peek
n.

a quick look
, esp. at something you are not supposed to see
(偷偷的)一瞥

s
ense

v.





to have a feeling that something exists

stressed out

adj.

so worried and tired that you can

t relax
紧张焦虑的

figure out

v.




to understand by thinking

desktop

n.


a computer that is small enough to be used on a desk
台式
电脑

transform

v.


t
o change the nature, function, or condition of; convert

变;转化

monitor

n.




监听器
;
监视器

productivity

n.


t
he rate at which goods o
r services are produced

especially

output per unit of labor

生产力

self
-
contained

adj.


c
onstituting a complete and in
dependent unit in and of

itself

自足的,独立的
,
整体的

videoconferencing

n.


通过电视举行会议

innovation

n.



t
he a
ct of introducing something new

革新

mobile

adj.

tending to move from one social class, job or place to

another

(
在不同社会阶层、职业或地区
)
流动的

chip

n.






〈计〉芯片

route

v
.


t
o send or forward by a specific

course
按特定路线运送或
传送

collaboration

n.



work
ing

together, especially in a joint intellectual effort

作,合作

s
urvey

n.



a set of questions that you ask a large number of people

in
order to find out about their opinions or behavior
调查

jot

v.






t
o write down briefly or hastily

简略
或草草地写下
dramatically

adv.



戏剧性地
;
显著地

project

v.

to make the picture of a photograph

appear in a larger

form
on a screen

放映,投射

inset

n.





s
omething set in

嵌入物

boost

v.


t
o assist in further development or progress

辅助长远的发
展和进步

file
n.

a collection of information on a computer that is stored

under a particular name

档案文件

retrieve

v.





t
o get back; regain


version

n.




版本

essentially

adv.



fundamentally, in a basic manner
实质上
,

基本上


present

v.




to offer or show

accomplish

v.




t
o succeed in doing; bring to pass.

badge

n.


a

device or emblem worn as an insignia of rank, office,

o
r
membership in an organization

徽章

scanner

n.




扫描装置,扫描仪

identification

n.



p
roof or evidence of identity

身份证明

commercialize

v.



t
o apply me
thods of business to for profit

使商业化



C
heck
Your
Comprehension

Here is a set of statements about the text:
some are true and some are false. Put
T or F in the space before each statement. If you think the statement is false, make
whatever changes necessary to make it true.


1.

_______ According to the passage, when you

re extremely tired in the office,
your chair

would ask your boss to allow you a holiday.

2.

_______ The innovation of the office
environment

aims to raise the employee

s
productivity.

3.

_______ Digital white board is developed to make collaboration more effective.

4.

_______ When having phone conference, pe
ople sometimes make mistakes in
who is speaking.

5.

_______ The programme developed by the Palo Alto Research Centre can write a
400
-
page report in grammatically correct sentences overnight.

6.

_______ Many of the technologies mentioned in the passage are too ex
pensive to
be commercialized.


Check Your
Vocabulary

Fill in the blank with the words given below. Change the form where necessary.



peek efficiency survey present jot

routine retrieve essentially

f i g u r e o u t mo b i l e


1.

In
creased __________ can release the worker for other tasks.

2.

He just had time to

take a __________

into the room before the door closed.

3.

I arrive at nine o'clock, teach until twelve thirty and then have a meal; that is my
morning

__________
.


4.

The results of
this exercise were __________ similar to those of the previous
exercise.

5.

"According to a recent
__________
, in Shanghai alone there are more than 2.5
million migrant workers."

6.

Many workmen are not _________, because if they move to a new environment
they
have difficulty in moving their family.

7.

He _________ his views and then sat down.

8.

He went back to the locker (
储物柜
) to _________my bag and other things.

9.

Let me _______ down your telephone number before I forget.

10.

We can

t _________ why he has behaved like th
at.



Reading Three

A Little Device That Can Save Your Life

Each year, nearly 600 Americans die from accidental
carbon
-
monoxide

poisoning at home or in
motor

vehicles,

and more than 85,000 suffer
symptoms

that
require medical attention. An inexpensive carb
on
-
monoxide
detector

and some
common
-
sense safety
tips

can protect you and your family.

Carbon monoxide, called the silent killer, is commonplace and
insidious
. It
cannot be seen or smelled. When
inhaled,

the
toxic

gas
displaces

oxygen

by
combining with th
e blood

s
oxygen
-
carrying
molecule
,
hemoglobin
. The more
carbon monoxide you breathe, the less oxygen reaches your blood. Without oxygen,
the heart and brain cannot function.

The
early

symptoms of carbon
-
monoxide poisoning, often
dismissed

as a

touch
of t
he flu,


include headache,

fatigue
,

weakness, shortness of breath,

dizziness

and
nausea
. Respond to these early signs of trouble by getting out of the
contaminated

environment and seeking medical attention. A blood test or a breath analyzer can
confirm

pre
sence of the gas.

But if
exposure

continues, the symptoms worsen
---
vomiting
, confusion,
heart
palpitations

and finally
coma

and death. Many people are asleep when overcome by
this gas, or fall asleep as a result
of the

poisoning and never again wake up.

Th
ose who survive can experience long
-
lasting
neurological
effects, including
impaired

memory and personality change. That

s why detecting carbon
-
monoxide
poisoning early is especially important for people more
susceptible

or to its severe
consequences: preg
nant women
(a

fetus

can die even before the woman fully realizes
something

is wrong), children,
smokers
, the elderly and those with
chronic

illness.

The main cause of accidental carbon
-
monoxide poisoning in homes is a
defective

or improperly installed hous
ehold
appliance

that operates on oil, gas,
kerosene
, coal or wood. When these fuels burn incompletely, carbon monoxide is
generated instead of harmless
carbon dioxide
. Other
culprits

include space heaters,
water heaters, clothes dryers and

kitchen ranges

t
hat use gas, wood
-
burning stoves,
fireplaces and
barbecue grills

used indoors.

To prevent dangerous carbon monoxide buildup, have your

furnace

inspected
annually by a fuel
-
company professional.
Chimneys
,
venting systems

and fireplaces
also need an annual
checkup for blockages,
cracks

or other sources of
leaks
.

338
words



Words in Focus

carbon
-
monoxide

n.



一氧化碳

motor
vehicle

n.




机动车

detector
n.

an instrument for finding out the presence of something

探测器

tip
n.






a helpful piece of advice

insidious

adj.





acting gradually and without being noticed, but

causing serious harm; secretly
harmful

暗中危害的
,
(
危害
)
潜伏的

inhale
v.






to breathe in

toxic

adj.






poisonous or caused by poisonous substances

displace

v.






to force out of the usual place

oxygen

n.






氧气

molecule

n.






分子

dismiss
v.


to refuse to

consider

seriously

认为是

而不加考虑

dizziness

n.






晕眩

contaminate

v.




to make impure or bad by mixing in impure, dirty,






or poisonous matter
污染

confirm

v.




to support; make certain; give proof (of)

exposure

n.




being left unprotected

暴露于
...

vomit

v
.

to throw up the contents of the stomach through the
mouth

呕吐

chronic

adj.





continuous; lasting a long time

defective

adj.





lacking something necessary; faulty

appliance

n.





an electrical
machine

that is used
in the house

carbon dioxide

n.




二氧
化碳

kerosene

n.






煤油

culprit
n.






the person guilty of a crime or responsible for a

problem
罪魁祸首
,
在此指引起人中毒的其它东西

barbecue grill

n.




烤肉架

furnace

n.






火炉

blockage

n.






a state of being blocked

crack

n.






裂缝

leak
n.






an escape of liquid,
gas etc through such a hole



Notes

hemoglobin

血红蛋白

heart palpitation

心悸

coma

昏迷

neurological

神经病学的

nausea

恶心
,
呕吐感

fetus

胎儿
,
胚胎

venting system

排气
(

)
系统

kitchen ranges

厨房炉灶



Check Your Comprehension

Choose the best answer according to the information in
th
e

text.

1.

What is the main topic of the passage?

A.

Harmful effects of carbon
monoxides

B.

Features of carbon monoxide

C.

Carbon monoxide poisoning and prevention

D.

Things that produce carbon monoxide

2.

What
can

be inferred about carbon monoxide from the passage?

A.

It can
be noticed when released

B.

It is a very rare toxic gas

C.

It is the biggest killer in America

D.

It interferes with oxygen supply to the heat and brain

3.

The early symptoms include all
the

following except

A. headache B. tiredness

C. nausea

D. high fever

4.

The effects of carbon monoxide poisoning is described as all the following except

A. psychological B. neurological

C. physical D. continuous

5.

The organizational pattern
of this passage can be best described as

A. question
---
answer B. problem
---
solution

C. opinion
---
reason D. cause
---
effect



Check Your Vocabulary

Fill in the blank with the words given below. Change the form where neces
sary.


contaminate crack appliance insidious exposure

displace dismiss inhale chronic fatigue


1.

We can

t overlook the ____________ spreading of this disease.

2.

These days we can

t help ____________ car exhaust fumes (
废气
), as the
re are
cars everywhere.

3.

He __________ a bone in his knee while playing football.

4.

He just laughed, and ___________ the idea as impossible.

5.

He was pale with ___________ after his sleepless night.

6.

Large areas of land have been _________ by the leakage(
泄露
) fro
m the nuclear
reactor(
核反应堆
).

7.

Small ___________ were found in the aircraft

s wings.

8.

We need some domestic ____________ such as dishwashers and washing
machines.

9.

You

d better use some lotion on your face for protection before ___________ to
strong

sunlight.

10.

She has suffered from this __________ disease for quite some years.