Throughout history, efficient communication has always been important in any
military situation, but what are the
in today's "technological age"?
The important secret of war is to make oneself ma
ster of the communications
Maxims of War (1831)
A look back at military history shows that armies have always made use of the
best means available in order to
information. The Greeks had a water telegraph
the Romans used colored s
moke to pass on messages.
(still around today)
was first used in the
, and the first wireless sets came into service
during World War I. The huge advances in technology also influence the way modern
armies are equipped. The soldier of
today has an impressive range of technological
devices, including the most
For over twenty years the Clansman range of
radios has provided
mobile armored formations
d airborne units,
ground to air communications and support and
in the British Army.
Each model is designed with a particular task in mind, but they have common
operating controls and
so training time for operators is kept to a
. Soldiers generally consider them reliable, and the PRC
349 section radio
is equipped with a throat microphone so section commanders can communicate easily
and handle a weapon, note book or map at the same time.
commanders can carr
y the PRC
radio (it weighs
8.2 kgs). As a result, command and control and the passage of orders are faster and
EMC (Electromagnetic Compatibility)
is a key
several radios to be used in clos
, even in the same vehicle, without
But the Clansman radios are beginning to show signs of ageing. Their
performance is limited in the increasingly
they can't cope with wh
at will be required in a future battlefield
in terms of
transmission capability. The military communications system of the future is the
. It will
the latest developments in radio and computer technology in
order to provide an
digital communications network across the battlefield.
For the first time commanders at all levels will have
voice and data
communications as well as an integrated
Global Positioning System (GPS)
Bowman's digital links use Internet Protocol, which
means it can link up to a data
network, sharing positions and maps sketched on
. It will even
relay images from
cameras so that commanders can get an
of the battlefield.
this means there is a greater need
trained specialists. An area
systems operator might be in a communications center or with a mobile unit in the
field. In either situation, the signals and messages are likely to be received,
transmitted and processed
computer. An officer will
not only be in charge of a
group of people but will need to be able to manage a
Communications expertise in today's British Army is in the hands of the Royal Corps
of Signals. Their
"Certa Cito" (roughly translated as "swift
and sure") puts it
the essence of military communications lies in two factors: they need to
be fast, and they need to be accurate.
Words in Focus
reaching effect of some action or event
to send out message by an electrical arrangement or
modern; using the most recent knowledge, invents, etc
based on a system in which
is represented in
the form of changing elec
fight or struggle between armies, people, etc.
able to move or be moved, quickly and easily
arrangement of people, ships, aircraft, etc.
able to live or move both on
land and in water
a set of actions necessary for doing something properly
or smallest possible
quantity, number or de
be carried by one man
easy to use or operate
a (typical or noticeable) part or quality
to get in the way of another;
to prevent from working or
very full or blocked
in terms of
in connection with, with regard to
to use or develop fully so as to get profit
protected against danger or risk
at the place of the action
not easily understood; complicated
EMC (Electromagnetic Compatibility)
Global Positioning System
Check Your Comprehension
What are the various means mentioned in this passage
to relay information in
military history? Do you know any other means?
In what way is Bowman advanced than Clansman radio?
How do you understand the quotation by Napoleon at the beginning of this
What will you do during your study in NUDT in order
to meet the future
requirement of military development?
Check Your Vocabulary
Fill in the blank with the words given below. Change the form where
interfere minimum feature exploit
procedure sophisticated relay
s e c u r e
O n e o f t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s p r o j e c t i s t o _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ t h e c o u n t r y
s mi n e r a l
r e s o u r c e
Ur g e n t a c t i o n s s h o u l d b e t a k e n t o ma k e t h i s s y s t e m _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ f r o m
a t t a c k
Th e b r o a d c a s t wa s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ t o Eu r o p e.
Th e s o u n d o f t h e r a d i o u p s t a i r s _ _ _ _ _ _ _
_ _ _ _ wi t h my wo r k.
Ea c h o f t h e c h i l d r e n h a d t o d r i n k s o me mi l k a t b r e a k f a s t; h a l f o f a g l a s s i s t h e
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.
Wh a t i s t h e p r o p e r _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ f o r l e a v i n g t h e b u i l d i n g wh e n i t i s o n f i r e?
He a v y r a i n s a r e a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ o f t h e we a t h e r
n e a r t h e e q u a t o r (
This new equipment is highly ___________, and I don
t know how to operate it.
Take a Peek at the Future
Are you happy with your office? Have you ever imagined what you would find in
s office? Well, just take
a tour to see what US scientists have
Universities, government labs, and companies like IBM, Microsoft, and US
furniture maker Steelcase are
plans to change the office environment.
They include: chairs that
and will, perhaps, tell
your boss to take away some of your work; PCs that
uncertain moments where you
ve seen an unfamiliar name; and
that, with a
push of a button,
themselves into a comput
to help discussions
during a roundtable meeting.
These ideas have one goal in common: To raise white
The idea is to continue the inventions that have transformed offices over the past
15 years. As recently as 1990, voi
ce mail was still being introduced. Email was
attending a meeting in another city meant
Since then, net communication
such as email, instant messaging, and
has sped up both wor
k and business decisions.
Now, the need for increased efficiency to meet the needs of
experts saying that office
is about to take another leap.
For example, to adapt products to the mobile work style, Microsoft is work
allowing an email or voice
mail message to arrive at whatever computer or phone
re closest to. Drop your cell phone on your desk when you arrive at work, and
in it will
cell calls to your office number, the company says.
etter software can also make
employees think that half the time they spend in meetings is wasted. So a number of
companies, including Microsoft, have developed digital white boards. These are
to allow everyone in a meeting to
Videoconferencing should improve
as well. In its model office,
Microsoft uses cameras to
degree view of everyone at the table for
employees who join a meeting remotely. In an
screen at the bottom of first
display, they might also show the face of each person who speaks. The idea
is to avoid
misunderstandings that are
common to phone conferencing.
Smart software might
in other ways. For instance, it cou
over routine tasks and leave more time for creative thinking. Sandia National
Laboratories is developing a programme that lets a PC or other computing device take
in the knowledge within your
. In that way, you can
n the data you
d like to find rather than using a file name, says Chris Forsythe, a
member of Sandia
s technical staff.
A more advanced
of this software would know that you
ve been called
away during a conference call, and it would give you a ty
ped summary of the most
important points the caller discussed.
it would act as a personal assistant,
Meanwhile, researchers at the Palo Alto (California) Research Center are
that should help an office work
s been asked to develop a
page report overnight, says Mark Stefik. The programme can sum up the main
them in grammatically correct sentences in just a few pages.
Another way to
that is for employees to wear a
. As you approach your office, a
the badge and tell your computer, which
would then open t
you last read.
However, experts say that many of these
will have to get cheaper
fore they can be
. (603 words)
rds in focus
a quick look
, esp. at something you are not supposed to see
to have a feeling that something exists
so worried and tired that you can
to understand by thinking
a computer that is small enough to be used on a desk
o change the nature, function, or condition of; convert
he rate at which goods o
r services are produced
output per unit of labor
onstituting a complete and in
dependent unit in and of
ct of introducing something new
tending to move from one social class, job or place to
o send or forward by a specific
together, especially in a joint intellectual effort
a set of questions that you ask a large number of people
order to find out about their opinions or behavior
o write down briefly or hastily
to make the picture of a photograph
appear in a larger
on a screen
omething set in
o assist in further development or progress
a collection of information on a computer that is stored
under a particular name
o get back; regain
fundamentally, in a basic manner
to offer or show
o succeed in doing; bring to pass.
device or emblem worn as an insignia of rank, office,
membership in an organization
roof or evidence of identity
o apply me
thods of business to for profit
Here is a set of statements about the text:
some are true and some are false. Put
T or F in the space before each statement. If you think the statement is false, make
whatever changes necessary to make it true.
_______ According to the passage, when you
re extremely tired in the office,
would ask your boss to allow you a holiday.
_______ The innovation of the office
aims to raise the employee
_______ Digital white board is developed to make collaboration more effective.
_______ When having phone conference, pe
ople sometimes make mistakes in
who is speaking.
_______ The programme developed by the Palo Alto Research Centre can write a
page report in grammatically correct sentences overnight.
_______ Many of the technologies mentioned in the passage are too ex
Fill in the blank with the words given below. Change the form where necessary.
peek efficiency survey present jot
routine retrieve essentially
f i g u r e o u t mo b i l e
creased __________ can release the worker for other tasks.
He just had time to
take a __________
into the room before the door closed.
I arrive at nine o'clock, teach until twelve thirty and then have a meal; that is my
The results of
this exercise were __________ similar to those of the previous
"According to a recent
, in Shanghai alone there are more than 2.5
million migrant workers."
Many workmen are not _________, because if they move to a new environment
have difficulty in moving their family.
He _________ his views and then sat down.
He went back to the locker (
) to _________my bag and other things.
Let me _______ down your telephone number before I forget.
t _________ why he has behaved like th
A Little Device That Can Save Your Life
Each year, nearly 600 Americans die from accidental
poisoning at home or in
and more than 85,000 suffer
require medical attention. An inexpensive carb
can protect you and your family.
Carbon monoxide, called the silent killer, is commonplace and
cannot be seen or smelled. When
combining with th
. The more
carbon monoxide you breathe, the less oxygen reaches your blood. Without oxygen,
the heart and brain cannot function.
symptoms of carbon
monoxide poisoning, often
weakness, shortness of breath,
. Respond to these early signs of trouble by getting out of the
environment and seeking medical attention. A blood test or a breath analyzer can
sence of the gas.
continues, the symptoms worsen
and death. Many people are asleep when overcome by
this gas, or fall asleep as a result
poisoning and never again wake up.
ose who survive can experience long
memory and personality change. That
s why detecting carbon
poisoning early is especially important for people more
or to its severe
can die even before the woman fully realizes
is wrong), children,
, the elderly and those with
The main cause of accidental carbon
monoxide poisoning in homes is a
or improperly installed hous
that operates on oil, gas,
, coal or wood. When these fuels burn incompletely, carbon monoxide is
generated instead of harmless
include space heaters,
water heaters, clothes dryers and
hat use gas, wood
To prevent dangerous carbon monoxide buildup, have your
annually by a fuel
also need an annual
checkup for blockages,
or other sources of
Words in Focus
an instrument for finding out the presence of something
a helpful piece of advice
acting gradually and without being noticed, but
causing serious harm; secretly
to breathe in
poisonous or caused by poisonous substances
to force out of the usual place
to refuse to
to make impure or bad by mixing in impure, dirty,
or poisonous matter
to support; make certain; give proof (of)
being left unprotected
to throw up the contents of the stomach through the
continuous; lasting a long time
lacking something necessary; faulty
that is used
in the house
the person guilty of a crime or responsible for a
a state of being blocked
an escape of liquid,
gas etc through such a hole
Check Your Comprehension
Choose the best answer according to the information in
What is the main topic of the passage?
Harmful effects of carbon
Features of carbon monoxide
Carbon monoxide poisoning and prevention
Things that produce carbon monoxide
be inferred about carbon monoxide from the passage?
be noticed when released
It is a very rare toxic gas
It is the biggest killer in America
It interferes with oxygen supply to the heat and brain
The early symptoms include all
A. headache B. tiredness
D. high fever
The effects of carbon monoxide poisoning is described as all the following except
A. psychological B. neurological
C. physical D. continuous
The organizational pattern
of this passage can be best described as
answer B. problem
reason D. cause
Check Your Vocabulary
Fill in the blank with the words given below. Change the form where neces
contaminate crack appliance insidious exposure
displace dismiss inhale chronic fatigue
t overlook the ____________ spreading of this disease.
These days we can
t help ____________ car exhaust fumes (
), as the
He __________ a bone in his knee while playing football.
He just laughed, and ___________ the idea as impossible.
He was pale with ___________ after his sleepless night.
Large areas of land have been _________ by the leakage(
m the nuclear
Small ___________ were found in the aircraft
We need some domestic ____________ such as dishwashers and washing
d better use some lotion on your face for protection before ___________ to
She has suffered from this __________ disease for quite some years.