MIDTERM EXAM: Tuesday, Feb. 6, 1:00 - 2:40 PM

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COURSE OUTLINE
-

PRINCIPLES OF MARKETING MANAGEMENT (IBM 301)


Cal Poly Pomona


College of Business A
d
ministration


Dr. Kirkpatrick


Winter 2007


Office Hours:

11:45
-

1:00 Tuesday/Thursday; 11:30
-

12:30 Wednesday


Bldg. #94, Room 223; Phone:

(909) 869
-
2438; fax: (909) 869
-
3647


email:

jkirkpatrick@csupomona.edu


web s
ite:

www.csupomona.edu/~jkirkpatrick


Required text:

Basic Marketing,

15th edition, by Perreault and McCarthy,
1

plus additional readings on reserve
in library


--------------------------------
--------------------------------
--------------------------------
--------------------------------
----------------------------






Text



Date


I.

Introduction



A. Marketing and the “Marketing Concept”



1/2


B. Consumer vs. Business
-
to
-
Business Marketing

Ch. 1, 2, Appendix A (p. 625)

1/4




Appendix C (p. 651)


II.

The Innovation Function




A. Target Market Identification




1. Mark
eting research


Ch. 8


1/9



2. The marketing environment


Ch. 4


1/11



3. Market segmentation and demographics

Ch. 3, 5


1/11



4. Consumer behavior and psychographics

Ch. 6


1/16



5. B2B and Organizational Buyer Behavior

Ch. 7

(
proposals due)

1/18




B. Product Strategy




1. Classification of products


pp. 240
-
54


1/18



2. Management of the product life cycle

Ch. 10


1/23



3. New product planning


Ch. 10


1/25



4. Branding and packaging


pp. 254
-
65


1/25



C. Pricing Strategy




1. Price determination by the market

Reisman: pp. 5
-
12, 36
-
47#

1/30



2. Price determination by the firm

Ch. 17, Appendix B (p. 639)

1/30



3. Arriving at the final price


Ch. 18


2/1


#George Reisman,
The Governm
ent Against the Economy

-

pages from book on reserve in library


MIDTERM EXAM: Tuesday, Feb.
6, 1:00
-

2:40 PM




III. The Delivery Function



A. Promotion Strategy




1. Persuasive communication


Ch. 14

(draft I)

2/8



2. Advertising


Ch. 16


2/13



3. Personal selling


Ch. 15

(Paper I due)

2/15





1

This book is available in electronic
form for $80.09 at
http://ebooks.primisonline.com/

(click McGraw
-
Hill eBooks). You can
either download or view it online (not both). THINK before hitting the “buy” button. Hard copy has its advantages.


2


Text

Date



B. Distribution Strategy





1. Why middlemen?


Ch. 11


2/20



2. Wholesaling middlemen

Ch. 13


2/22



3. Retailing middlemen


Ch. 13


2/27



4. Physical Distrib
ution


Ch. 12


2/27



IV.

Marketing Management


pp. 32
-
46, 522
-
29

(draft II)

3/1



V.

International Marketing


pp. 54, 100, 164
-
65, 172
-
73, 235
-
36, 601
-
03

3/1



VI.

Services Marketing


pp. 201
-
02, 244
-
46, 254

3/1


VII.

Marketing and Society



A. Planned
Obsolescence


Ch. 22, Reisman
-

article*


3/6


B. The Regulation of Marketing
-

Price Controls

Reisman: pp. 63
-
76**

3/6


C. The Social and Economic Effects of Advertising

Reisman: pp. 15
-
20, 95
-
98**

3/6


D. The Case for the Repeal of Antitrust Laws

Ra
nd
-

article***


3/8


E. Marketing Ethics and Bribery


(Paper II due)

3/8





*George Reisman, “The Myth of Planned Obsolescence”
-

article on reserve in library



**George Reisman,
The Government Against the Economy

-

pages from book on reserve in
library



***Ayn Rand, “America’s Persecuted Minority: Big Business”
-

article on reserve in library




FINAL EXAM

Thursday, Mar. 15, 11:30 AM
-

1:30 PM



--------------------------------
--------------------------------
--------------------------------
--------------------------------
----------------------------



Course grades
will be based on two exams and two papers. The midterm exam will be weighted 30%

and the
final exam 35%. Out of fairness to those who a
t
tend the exams on the assigned dates, make
-
ups will not be given.
Exams and exam dates should be considered a “death do us part” proposition. The first paper will be weighted 15%,
the second one 20%.

Late papers are subject to a two
-
thirds letter grade per class day penalty (i.e., an A
-

becomes a B,
a B+ becomes a B
-
, etc.)
--
and both papers must be handed in to get a passing grade for the course.



To determine your final course grade I convert all of

your scores and letter grades to the 4
-
point system and
weight each as indicated above. (A = 4.000, A
-

= 3.667, etc. See the Cal Poly catalog for details.) For example, su
p-
pose you get the following scores and grades:



midterm exam

76

1st paper

B+


final

exam

88

2nd paper

A
-



The letter grade for the midterm is a C (70 or 71 would be a C
-
, 78 or 79 a C+); thus, your midterm is assigned a score
of 2.000 on the 4
-
point system and weighted 30%. The letter grade for the final is a B+, assigned a 3.333, and
w
eighted 35%. Your 1st paper is assigned a 3.000 and weighted 15%, your 2nd paper a 3.667 and weighted 20%. Your
final course average then equals: (2.000 x .30) + (3.333 x .35) + (3.333 x .15) + (3.667 x .20) = 3.000 or a B (see scale
b
e
low) for the course.

But say you do the extra credit and do it well for an extra five
-
tenths of a letter grade. Now you
go from 3.000 to 3.500, or an A
-
! I assign final grades, using the following scale based on the 4
-
point sy
s
tem:



A

=

3.833 to 4.000

C

=

1.833 to 2.166


A
-

=

3.500 to 3.832

C
-

=

1.500 to 1.832


B+

=

3.167 to 3.499

D+

=

1.167 to 1.499


B

=

2.833 to 3.166

D

=

0.833 to 1.166


B
-

=

2.500 to 2.832

D
-

=

0.500 to 0.832


C+

=

2.167 to 2.499

F

=

0.000 to 0.499



3

To keep track of your grade progress, download the follow
ing: www.csupomona.edu/~jkirkpatrick/301GradeCalc.xls.
This an Excel spreadsheet that will open in Excel. If it doesn’t, open Excel first, then open the file
“301GradeCalc.xls.”




Note
: when turning in papers and other assignments, the safest place to do
so is
in my hands
.
Never

tape or in
any other way try to attach papers to the door of my office (they’ll disappear) or to slip them under the door (the
weather strip won’t allow it!). If you can’t put the papers in my hands, then put them in the drop box o
utside room 105
in building 6; be sure my name is clearly marked on the paper. It will be put in my mailbox. Do NOT take assignments
to the IBM department office. The secretaries are not responsible for lost papers; you are.



Required Papers



Two 2 to 2
-
1/2 page papers (plus exhibits, if any) are required for this course. The papers must be typed or
word processed, one
-
and
-
one
-
half
-

or double
-
spaced with one
-
inch margins, minimum 10
-
point type. (Using Times
or Times New Roman font, 10
-
point type, you can
easily put 1500 words in a 2
-
1/2 page, 1
-
1/2 spaced, paper. En
d-
notes do not count in the 2
-
1/2 pages.) Each paper will go through draft and revision stages, plus you will submit the
final copy to www.turnitin.com for a “plagiarism check.” (Actually, you sh
ould think of the two papers as one, br
o-
ken into two parts.)



These are descriptive papers, essentially exercises in library and/or internet research, although you may support
your research with interviews and other information collected from business peo
ple. Your assignment is to select a
specific product, company, or industry, such as the Macintosh com
puter, the Los Angeles Dodgers, or subcompact
cars, etc., then describe the marketing strategy practiced today by the marketers of your selected product,
company,
or industry. The assignment is broken into two papers to correspond to the two major functions of marketing: innov
a-
tion and de
livery. Consequently, your first paper should focus on market definition and the product and pricing stra
t-
egies of your
product, company, or industry. Your second paper should focus on promotion and distribution. Each of
these components, incidentally, must be
labeled

as subheadings in your papers; in other words, your final copy
should look like a business report, rather t
han a literary essay. The papers are exercises in application, that is, applic
a-
tion of the concepts and principles of ma
r
keting to the topic or area you have decided to study.



Your major reference sources will be books, articles in periodicals, and inter
net web pages. Conduct searches
by going to the library web site: http://www.csupomona.edu/~library/. Click either “Library Catalog” or “Databases”
for searches. On the Databases page, use the pull
-
down menu to select “Business/Economics,” then click “Go.”

Choose your database and search.
2

Also, check this page:
http://www.csupomona.edu/~library/html
/tutorials_business.html

for many helpful tips. Publications such as
Business Week
,
Forbes
,
Fortune
,
Adverti
s
ing Age
,
A
d
week
,
Inc
., the
Wall Street Journal
, an
d the business sections of major newspapers such as the
NY Times

and the
LA Times

frequently run articles that I have always found helpful in this kind of re
search. The
Simmons Study of M
e-
dia and Markets

(reference tables in the library and also on CD
-
ROM
) provides detailed information about the buyers
of large nu
m
bers of products.



In no case, however, is any one article or web page going to give you all you need (and you may well have to
collect ten, twenty, or even more such items to complete your rese
arch). Your information sources must be read car
e-
fully and milked for what they are worth
--
no more, no less. (You’ll learn the art of “reading between the lines.”) Do
not hesitate to go back five years or more, if necessary, in your research
--
marketing str
ategies do not change all that
often. You may even have to read a book about your company or industry to get some of the info
r
mation you need.



Reference notes should be used throughout your papers. (
A

Manual for Writers

by Turabian is a good reference
bo
ok, which is available in both the Cal Poly library and bookstore). The notes do not have to be listed at the foot of
the page; they may be cited at the end of the paper as “Endnotes.” (If you use footnotes or endnotes, a separate bibl
i-
ography is not neces
sary.) This means using superscripted numbers at the end of every significant piece of info
r-
m
a
tion; the footnote or endnote provides the reference information. Remember that the assumption behind reference
notes is that anyone who picks up your paper shoul
d be able to go to the exact page you did to find the information.
You must have at least
5

different

reference sources (books, articles, or, web pages) in each paper.



See
http://www.csupomona.edu/~library/html/bib_citations.html

for appropriate citation

syles.
Or use the fo
l-
lo
w
ing guidelines. Formats for hard
-
copy sources (articles and books):




2

To access these databases from off campus, you will
need a library pin number. On the library’s home page, click “About R
e-
mote Access” for instructions on how to obtain one.


4



1
last name of author, first name, “article title in quotes,”
Magazine Title Underscored or in
Italics

(not both)

(date in parentheses), pp. xx
-
xx.


2
last name of

author, first name,
Book Title Underscored or in
Italics
, (city of publisher in parentheses followed
by colon: publisher’s name, year of publication), pp. xx
-
xx.



For electronic citations, use the following format:



3
“United States,”
The 2005 Grolier Mu
ltimedia Encyclopedia

(Macintosh CD
-
ROM, version 7.0.2).


4
“Chile,”
Encyclopedia Britannica,
http://www.search.eb.com.


5
“CIA
--

The World Factbook 2005
--

Australia,” http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/as.html.


6
”Vietnam General Informati
on,” http://www.asiatradehub.com/vietnam/general.asp.



This is the basic format of a web page citation:



7
”Title of Web Page,” http://full URL code of page. [Access dates are not usually necessary.]



Spelling, Grammar, and the University Writing Center.

Spelling and grammar, of course, matter! A pape
r-
back dictionary and a style book, such as
The Elements of Style

by Strunk and White or
The Golden Book on Writing

by Lambuth, are handy ref
erences to have on your desk. By all means, please visit the Univer
sity Writing Center
(building 1, room 220, 869
-
5343) if you feel like you need help with your writing, or visit the Center’s website
http://www.csupomona.edu/~uwc.



Plagiarism:

The Cal Poly catalog states the following in connection with plagiarism. “Stud
ents are hereby i
n-
formed that the university considers plagiarism a serious academic offense which subjects those engaging in the pra
c-
tice to severe disciplinary measures.” These measures include not just failure of the course in which the plagi
a
rism
occur
s but expulsion from the un
i
versity. The Merriam
-
Webster dictionary defines plagiarism as stealing and passing
off as one's own the ideas or words of another, or the use of another’s production without crediting the source. See
http://www.csupomona.edu/~u
wc/non_protect/student/plagiarism
-
hnd.htm and
http://www.nutsandboltsguide.com/plagiarism.html for further discussions of what plagiarism is and how to avoid it.
(By the way, www.nutsandboltsguide.com is an excellent, albeit lengthy, guide to college writi
ng of all types.)



Turnitin.com.

Because the most common form of plagiarism these days seems to be “cut and paste” from the
Internet, part of your assignment is to submit your papers to http://www.turnitin.com, a company that bills itself as a
“plagiarism

prevention service”; it will check your papers against their database and many others, providing you an
Originality Report with an Overall Similarity Index (a percentage) and a color scale ranging from blue (least sim
i
lar)
to red (most sim
i
lar). If some
thing is found, the similar (or identical) passage will by highlighted in your paper and
you will be able to see where it came from on the Internet. Turnitin.com will also give you the percentage of simila
r
i-
ty to that one source.



Try to think of this as
a learning experience. I have already submitted five of my own papers to the service and I
have to admit that it is pleasing to get a “blue” back on the Overall Similarity Index. One of the flakey things the se
r-
vice does is to highlight clauses and phrases

of sentences (as it did on all of my papers). For example, on one of my
papers it found the phrase “what we would like to achieve in the future” in a database on the Internet! Of course, this
phrase could be found in thousands of papers without indicating

plagiarism (and my percentage of similarity in fact
was zero); so if you get something like that back, you’ve done a great job.



Scores to worry about on the Similarity Index are 25% overall similarity and higher. If you get a yellow, o
r-
ange, or red, you

need to rework your paper. The cut and paste plagiarism mentioned above means, most o
f
ten, that
you have taken sentences or paragraphs from various sources without putting the material in quotation marks or ci
t-
ing the sources. Both must be pr
e
sent if the
words you use are identical to what’s in the source. Paraphrasing is the
better way to go (with sources referenced), but even a poor paraphrase can be called plagiarism. If you have any
doubts, please see one of the tutors in the Wri
t
ing Center.



To submi
t a paper to turnitin.com:


1.

Go to http://www.turnitin.com, select Create User Profile.

2.

Follow instructions to create a profile, which includes registering your email address and creating a pas
s-
word. Be sure to select User Type “student.”


5

3.

Enter
Cl
ass ID:
1728756

and
Enrollment Password: winter2007
. This will enroll you in Principles of Ma
r-
keting (Winter2007). You will be asked to comply with an agreement statement, then return to the login
page.

4.

Login and click Principles of Marketing (Winter200
7). On the next page click Submit for either Paper I or
Paper II. (Do NOT click “Revision 1” or “Revision 2” at this time. These are for subsequent su
b
missions, if
you so desire.)

6.

Enter name and submission (paper) title. Submit final copy of your paper
in either of two ways: (a) cut and
paste or (b) upload as a Word, text, postscript, PDF, HTML, or RTF document. Most word processing pr
o-
grams will save documents in RTF (rich text fo
r
mat). Submit. (Don’t include your notes or references; you
will get a bet
ter score by omitting them.)

7.

The next page gives you a digital receipt, which will be emailed to you. Or, you may print it.

8.

Return to the Class Portfolio page for IBM 301 in about ten minutes to view your Orig
i
nality Report. (Under
“Contents,” click
the color patch to see the report.) Click “print” at the top of the Originality Report page,
then print the first page only. This will show your score.

9.

If you would like to improve your score, you may revise your paper further and resubmit under the he
ading
“Revision 1.” And if you still don’t like the score, you may resubmit one more time under “Revision 2.”



The Similarity Index uses colors and a percentage (or number of matching words): blue (fewer than 20
matching words), green (0
-
24% matching te
xt), yellow (25
-
49% matching text), orange (50
-
74% matc
h
ing
text), and red (75
-
100% matching text).


Note:
Plan time accordingly. It takes only a few minutes to get an Originality Report, but sometimes the system
gets bogged down.


10. Make revisions and h
and in with draft, peer review, and Originality Report for grading.


For more detail on how to use turnitin.com, click Help, then User Manuals, and download the Student User Manual
(a PDF document); there also is an online FAQ. Please take care that you su
bmit papers to the correct assignment,
i.e., Paper I to the Paper I a
s
signment.



The following schedule applies to your two papers:



Thurs., Feb. 8
-

typed draft of 1st paper due
--

peer review in class, not graded


Wed., Feb. 14, 11:59PM
-

recommended
deadline for submitting final copy to turnitin.com.


Thurs., Feb. 15
-

final copy (
plus draft, peer review, and Originality Report
) of 1st paper due
--

will be graded,
weighted 15%.


Thurs., Mar. 1
-

typed draft of 2nd paper due
--

peer review in class,
not graded


Wed., Mar. 7, 11:59PM
-

recommended deadline for submitting final copy to turnitin.com.


Thurs., Mar. 8
-

final copy (
plus draft, peer review, and Originality Report
) of 2nd paper due
--

will be graded,
weighted 20%


The peer reviews will wor
k as follows: on the day your draft is due, you will be paired with a
n
other student. You will
read each other’s draft and write comments and suggestions on a “peer review guide sheet” (to be handed out), but
you will NOT criticize or evaluate. I’m the only

one who eval
uates your writing when your final copy is handed in.
(Note: when you hand in final copy,
you

must also hand in your draft and the peer review guide sheet
, along with the
Originality Report from turnitin.com.) Peer review of drafts is extreme
ly important in determining your grade. I stress
this because failure to have a draft on draft day, or to provide a peer review, is not only unfair to the student with
whom you are paired, but such failure will only result in a lower grade, if not an F. (T
he drafts, incidentally, will not
be handed in on draft day
--
the purpose of draft day is to get feedback on your writing and thinking from someone
other than me.) Your final copy must be
typed
.



See next page Checklist for Marketing Papers to guide your r
esearch



6

Checklist for Marketing Papers



First Paper



Target Market


Market Size
: your product
-
market, in dollars and/or units; total market of all competitors, in dollars and/or
units; your market share

Competition
: who they are, their market shares; i
ndirect competition

Environment
: uncontrollable variables that present opportunities and threats: political, legal, economic, cu
l-
tural, social, technological, demographic

Customer
: demographic and psychographic description; buying motivation



Product Stra
tegy


Classification
: consumer or business
-
to
-
business, and convenience, shopping, or specialty product, etc. (see
pp. 247
-
54 in text); justification

Features and Benefits
: primary, secondary

Product Life Cycle Stage
: which stage; justification; growth rat
e

Branding
: national or private, family or individual; packaging



Pricing Strategy



Objectives
: sales, profits, or status quo; justification


Pricing Method
: full cost or markup; justification

Final Adjustments
: transportation charges, discounts and allo
wances, other deals; examples of actual prices.






Second Paper



Promotion Strategy



Promotion Methods
: advertising, personal selling, publicity, sales promotion; primary method, how used;
push or pull; secondary methods, how used; expenditures

Positio
ning Theme
: primary selling message, support messages

Execution
: description of ads (slogan, body copy, visual element) and media used; size and structure of
sales force; content of sales pitch; sales promotion techniques; publicity techniques


Distributio
n Strategy



Distribution Method
: direct, indirect, or dual; how achieved; names and description of middlemen; what
kind and how many

Market Exposure
: intensive, selective, or exclusive; justification

Physical Distribution
: transport mode; warehousing; mat
erials handling; inventory management; order pr
o-
cessing




Both Papers
-

does each paper have at least five published references?



7

TEACHING METHOD




This is primarily a lecture course.



The purpose of formal education is to save you time
--
the time it wo
uld take you to learn marketing, finance,
accounting, advertising, etc., on your own, by reading books and trying to find the right people to question. Lectures
and the “3
-
Step Plan To In
-
Depth Learning” can save you that time.


The 3
-
Step Plan



The acqui
sition and retention of knowledge is not automatic. It requires concentrated effort. The 3
-
Step Plan To
In
-
Depth Learning is designed to help you understand marketing principles at a level that exceeds what can be
achieved through other methods.



Step 1
-

Take Lecture Notes
. A well
-
organized lecturer presents his subject in terms of es
sentials. The spoken
word, by its nature, cannot present the detail of the written word. Hence, these “essentials” give you the necessary
foundation and superstructure on wh
ich to base your subsequent learning. Lectures, in other words, emphasize and
reinforce key points from your reading and add new material. Note
-
taking helps to integrate or blend together these
key points and new material with your current knowledge. The a
ct of note
-
taking, however, requires mental focus
and comprehension
--
an active, integrating mind during the process of note
-
taking. This integra
tion, in turn, leads to
retention (as opposed to rote memory).



I want to emphasize the value of good note
-
tak
ing. Recent educational research shows that “notes containing
more ideas and more words are related to higher achievement.” In other words, take down as much as you can. This
research also shows that students think the purpose of note
-
taking is to be brief
, taking down only the key ideas they
think they might otherwise forget. This is a mistake. One study showed that only 60% of the ideas the professors co
n-
sidered important were taken down in notes by the students. When I was a freshman, I used to stop taki
ng notes as
soon as the professor said “for example”
--
on the premise that I already had written down the principle and that the
examples are “just” illustrations. But when it came time to study for the exam, I didn’t fully understand the principle
-
-
because

I couldn’t remember the examples.



Step 2
-

Read The Text
. Of course. But also: a good lecturer can separate what’s important from what’s uni
m-
portant. But only the written word can give you the details that are necessary for a thorough understanding of a

su
b-
ject. The details of the written word are, so to speak, the brick and mortar (added to the “superstructure”) of
know
l
edge
--
the meat and flesh that are added to the skeleton of the lecturer’s essentials. A hallmark of professiona
l-
ism is attention to det
ails, especially the details of the written word. (Besides, studies show that successful people
--
such as CEO’s, who read six times as much as the average reader
--
are, indeed, heavy readers!)



Step 3
-

Write Answers To Review Questions
. The lecture contain
s material expressed in the words of the le
c
tu
r-
er; the book contains material expressed in the words of its authors. With this step it is time for you to put the m
a
ter
i-
al into your own words. Three sets of essay
-
type review questions will be handed out dur
ing the course (one set about
a week before each exam). Writing one
-

to two
-
paragraph answers to each of these questions, after thinking about the
lecture notes and the book, will help tie many loose ends together and especially help you to chew and d
i
gest

the id
e-
as. These answers to the review questions (assuming you have taken good lecture notes and have read the book) will
also give you a solid set of study notes to use in prep
a
ration for the exams.



Conscientious practice of these three steps should gi
ve you in
-
depth knowledge and under
standing. At the same
time, it should keep rote memory to a minimum. It really depends on how you use your mind throughout the course.*






*Let me recommend a book that helped me a lot in graduate school:
A Guide to Ef
fective Study

by Edwin A.
Locke. This book discusses a wide range of study problems, including note
-
taking, coping with test
-
anxiety, how to
study for multiple
-
choice exams, how to write essay exams, etc.




8

Optional, Extra Credit
-

Computer
-
Aided Problem
s


Due
: the day of the final exam.


Amount of credit
: up to 5.0 percentage points added to your final course average

one
-
half of a letter grade


Assignment
: First, read pp. 719
-
723 in the text, “Computer
-
Aided Problems.” Next, using the
Student CD
-
ROM to
A
ccompany Basic Marketing

came shrinkwrapped with your text, do
12

of the “Computer
-
Aided
Problems” that you will find at the end of each chapter in the text. Of the 12 problems, you
must

include the ones at the end of
Chapters 17, 18, and 19
; the remaining

9 problems are your
choice.



Organize your answers to the problems into a quality presentation report. In other words, don’t
just give me a number of printouts.



(If you have trouble printing, as I did when trying to use the CAPS print button, go to Pri
nt Pr
e-
view and then print. It worked for me.)






--------------------------------
--------------------------------
--------------------------------
--------------------------------
----------------------------


Professor Kirkpatrick received his BA degree in philosophy from the University of Denver and his MBA and PhD
degrees in marketing from Baruch College of the City University of New York. He has worked as

account ex
ecutive
for Public Relations Aids, Inc. in New York City and Smith
-
Hemmings
-
Gosden Direct Response Advertising in El
Monte, CA; he has also worked as senior account executive for the Young and Rubicam Direct Marketing Group in
Los Angeles. His
publications have appeared in the
Journal of Advertising
,
Marketing Theory: Philosophy of Science
Perspectives
,
Developments in Marketing Science, Vol. IX, Managerial and Decision Economics
, and

The American
Journal of Economics and Sociology
. His book
In
Defense of A
d
vertising: Arguments from Reason, Ethical Egoism,
and Laissez
-
Faire Capitalism

was published in 1994 by Quorum Books; in 1997, the work was translated into Port
u-
guese and published in Brazil. He has just completed his second book, titled
Monte
ssori, Dewey, and Capitalism:
Educ
a
tional Theory for a Free Market in Education
, and is currently being reviewd by a commercial publisher.



9

University Writing Center, Cal Poly Pomona

[
http://www.csupomona.edu/~uwc/non_protect/student/plagiarism
-
hnd.htm]


What Is “Plagiarism”?




Americans believe that ideas and written expressions of ideas can be owned.


Thus, to use words and ideas
without giving the author credit is to steal them.


Americans also believe that writing is a visible, concrete de
mo
n-
stration of a writer’s knowledge, insight, and academic skill, and that to represent another person’s writing as your
own is to misrepresent your own a
c
complishments.


This is a type of fraud or deception.


For these reasons, most
universities have very

specific policies about plagiarism.


Cal Poly Pomona’s policy is typical:


Plagiarism is intentionally or knowingly presenting words, ideas or work of others as one’s own
work.


Plagiarism includes copying homework, copying lab reports, copying computer p
rograms
using a work or portion of a work written or created by another but not crediting the source, using
one’s own work completed in a previous class for credit in another class without permission, par
a-
phrasing another’s work without giving credit, and
borrowing or using ideas without giving cre
d-
it.


(Catalog, Cal Poly Pomona, 2001
-
02, p. 59).



Instances of suspected plagiarism are reported to the Office of Judicial Affairs.


Generally, in the first i
n-
stance, the student is put on probation for one year
.


In the second instance the student is suspended for at least two
quarters, not just from Cal Poly Pomona, but from all CSU campuses, and his or her name is placed in a permanent
file for Academic Dishonesty.


The third instance ends the student’s career

at Cal Poly Pomona (and any other ca
m-
pus in the CSU sy
s
tem).


However, there are a number of different types and degrees of plagiarism.



Type I Plagiarism: Fraudulently Taking Credit for Someone Else’s Work



Action
: A student puts his or her name on a p
aper that was written by someone else, and turns it in to the professor.




*

Some students download a paper from the internet.


Others buy a paper from a “research service.”


Some
get a paper from a friend who took the course before.

*

These students are
committing fraud.

*

Academic fraud hurts everyone involved, including the other students in the course who didn’t plagiarize.

*

It is easy for professors to catch internet plagiarism through search engines and anti
-
plagiarism services
such as “Turnitin.co
m.”


Result
: If a student does this and gets caught, he or she will probably get an “F” for the paper or the course and will
be reported to the Office of Judicial Affairs for investigation and disciplinary proceedings.



Type II Plagiarism: The “Pastiche”


Action
: A student copies paragraphs from different sources and puts them together in one paper, creating a “pa
s-
tiche.”


*

A “pastiche” is a written composition made up of selections of other works.

*

The internet makes it easy to assemble a “pastiche”
by grabbing an electronic paragraph here and another
paragraph there and pasting the whole collection of paragraphs together in a word processor.



*

In many cases the styles clash and it is easy for a reader to detect that different writers wrote differen
t par
a-
graphs.

*

Although the “writer” has done some searches, read some articles, and selected some m
a
terial, such a paper
is more like research notes than a research paper.



*

Although quotation marks, block quotes, and accurate documentation will preve
nt accusations of plagi
a-
rism, to produce a good paper the writer needs to take the research pro
c
ess a step farther by synthesizing
the material and paraphrasing much of it in his or her own words.

*

It is easy for the professor to find the sources of the d
ifferent passages by using internet search engines.


Result
:


If the sources are documented, the instructor may ask the student to rewrite the paper and resubmit it.


Ot
h-
erwise, the student may be sent to the Office of Judicial Affairs.



10


Type III Plagiari
sm: Improper Paraphrasing


Action
: A student submits a paper that does not copy the original sources, but is very close to the sources in style
and word choice.


*

Some students copy the passage and then try to substitute new words in the same se
n
tence str
ucture.


The
result has the same grammatical structure as the original, with some of the words changed.



*

Others will keep the same words, but reorganize the sentence structure, perhaps re
-
ordering the sentences at
the same time.



*

Neither of these app
roaches, same structure but different words, or same words but di
f
ferent structure, is
sufficient to avoid plagiarism, but each is a step in the right direction.


*

The best way to paraphrase material is to read it carefully, put it aside so you can’t loo
k at it, and try to
write down the ideas in your own words.


If you can’t do that, you prob
a
bly don’t really understand the
ideas.


Result
:


If the writer is trying to make these sorts of transformations and documents the sources, it is unlikely that
the i
nstructor will accuse him or her of plagiarism, although the instructor may suggest that the writer is too depen
d-
ent on the sources for language and sentence structure.



Avoiding All Types of Plagiarism


Here are some key points for avoiding plagiarism:


*

Start early so you have plenty of time to do the research and write the paper.

*

Find out what documentation system your instructor wants and use it to inform your reader of the sources
of all of your information.


MLA and APA are the most common documen
tation styles.


Documentation is
the key to avoiding accusations of plagiarism.

*

If an idea or fact is not common knowledge, it must be documented.

*

Keep accurate notes on all sources of information, including internet sources.

*

Use quotation marks arou
nd any passages that are in the exact words of the source.

*

When you paraphrase a source, change both the sentence structure and the words.


If you follow these guidelines, you won’t have to worry about plagiarism.