Computer Literacy BASICS: A Comprehensive Guide to IC, 3 Edition

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Computer Literacy BASICS

Lesson 1 Instructor’s Manual

Page
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Computer Literacy BASICS: A Comprehensive
Guide to IC
3
, 3
rd

Edition

Lesson 1: Computers and Computer Systems


A Guide t o t his Ins t ruct or’ s Manual:

We have designed this Instructor’s Manual to supplement and enhance your teaching experience
through classroom activities and a cohesive chapter summary.


This document is organized chronologically, using the same headings in
p
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that you see in the
tex
tbook. Under each heading you will find (in order): Lesson Objectives, Teacher Materials, a
Prepare section that focuses students’ attention on the objectives in the lesson, Instructor Notes and
Teacher Tips that summarize the section, Figures and Boxes f
ound in the section, Classroom
Activities, Projects to Assign, Key Terms, and Assess. Pay special attention to teaching tips, and
activities geared towards quizzing your students, enhancing their critical thinking skills, and
encouraging experimentation w
ithin the software.


In addition to this Instructor’s Manual, our Instructor Resources CD also contains PowerPoint
presentations, Test Banks, and other supplements to aid in your teaching experience.


For your s t udent s:

Our latest online feature, Cour
seCasts, is a library of weekly podcasts designed to keep your students
up to date with the latest in technology news. Direct your students to
http://coursecasts.course.com
,
where they can download the most
recent CourseCast onto their mp3 players. Ken Baldauf, host of
CourseCasts, is a faculty member of the Florida State University Computer Science Department
where he is responsible for teaching technology classes to thousands of FSU students each year. Ken
is an expert in the latest technology and sorts through and aggregates the most pertinent news and
information for CourseCasts so your students can spend their time enjoying technology, rather than
trying to figure it out. Open or close your lecture with a

discussion based on the latest CourseCast.

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Lesson Objectives

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Data Files
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Teacher Materials

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Prepare
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Technical Notes

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Instructor Notes and Teacher Tips

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Mod1
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4: Understanding the Importance of Computers
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Mod1
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6: Defining Computers and Computer Systems

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Mod1
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7: Classifying Computers

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Mod1
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9: Using Computer Systems

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Mod1
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10: Identifying System Components

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Mod1
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17: Identifying Types of Storage Devices
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Mod1
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21: Caring for Storage Media

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Mod1
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22: Computers in Your Future

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Key Terms

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Projects to Assign

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Assess

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Computer Literacy BASICS

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Students will have mastered the material in Lesson 1 when they can:



Understand the importance of computers.



Define computers and computer systems.



Classify different types of computer
devices.



Use computer systems.



Identify system components.



Describe the role of the central processing
unit.



Define
computer memory.



Describe how data is represented.



Identify types of storage devices.



Care for storage media.


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Students will not need data files to complete this lesson.


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Learner text.



PowerPoint presentation from the

PowerPoint Presentations
drop
-
down menu on the
Instructor
Resources

CD.



Solutions to review questions and projects from the
Solutions to Exercises

drop
-
down menu on
the
Instructor Resources

CD.



ExamView® test questions from the
Test Bank & Test Engine

drop
-
down menu on the
Instructor
Resources
CD.




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Set up a projection system and show the PowerPoint presentation for the lesson, if desired.



Give necessary instructions to students about lab guidelines.



Prepare questions from ExamView.




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The show
-
and
-
tell method works well to provide learners with visual aids to make the
information easier to understand. Try to find an old computer and open the case. Label the parts
and leave it in the classroom for students to view.


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Review Objectives and ask students about their experience with computers and computer
systems. Encourage students to share their knowledge of and experience with computers as you
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discuss this lesson.



Review the vocabulary list at the beg
inning of the lesson, and ask students to identify any terms
they are already familiar with.



Discuss the widespread use of computers and how it affects each of us individually and as a
society.



Explain the information processing cycle and review the four c
omponents illustrated in Figure 1
-
5.



List the various classifications of computers and distinguish between special
-
purpose computers
and general
-
purpose computers.



Make sure students understand the step
-
by
-
step process of the instruction cycle and executio
n
cycle and how the process is affected by the amount of RAM available.



Give examples of the kinds of data that are commonly stored on these different types of storage
media, and provide examples for students to examine if possible.



Explain the difference
between short
-
term and long
-
term memory. As an example, compare the
computer’s different types of memory to how the brain remembers something in the short term,
such as directions to a party or a phone number to call about an apartment for rent, and in the

long term, such as stored information including vocabulary, friends’ names, or an identification
number.



Intel offers an interactive, media
-
rich Web site called
The Journey Inside
SM

that answers
questions about computers through activities that help expla
in how technology works and
impacts our society. It contains a student section and an instructor’s guide and can be a helpful
teaching aid.
The Journey Inside

site is located at
http://educate.intel.com/en/thejourneyinside/
.




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The computer is one of the most important inventions of the past century.

A Brief History of the Computer



The first computers were developed in the late 1940s and early 1950s for use by the military
and government.



The first Apple
computer was built in 1976. The IBM PC was introduced in 1981.


BOXES



Extra for Experts: In 1969, the Neiman Marcus catalog advertised the first home computer, a
Honeywell H316 model called the “Kitchen Computer,” for $10,600.


FIGURES



Figure 1
-
1: A group
of students playing an online video game



Figure 1
-
2: Early computers



Figure 1
-
3: The Apple II and IBM PC


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES

1.

Discussion Questions:

1)

Have students identify an occupation and discuss ways in which computers are currently used
Computer Literacy BASICS

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in that occupat
ion. Emphasize how many jobs and professions require computer skills today.

2)

In what ways has computer technology changed in your own lifetime? Think about the kinds
of computers you encountered in grade school compared with computers and computerized
devic
es that you use today.

2.

Group Activity:

1)

Divide the class into small groups. Ask each group to research a pioneer in the history of
computers. Have each group make a short presentation to the class about the contributions of
that pioneer and how he/she is significant.


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A computer is an electronic device that follows a series of steps referred to as an information
processing cycle.



A computer system includes hardware, software, data, and people.


BOXES



Extra for Experts: In 1937, Dr. John Atanasoff a
nd Clifford Berry designed and built the first
electronic digital computer.



Extra for Experts: A computer won a World Chess Championship game playing against a
human.


FIGURES



Figure 1
-
4: Using a mobile computer to process data into information



Figure 1
-
5:

Information processing cycle


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES

1.

Quick Quizzes:

1)

True or False? Peripheral devices such as printers and monitors are software.

Answer:

False. Peripheral devices are hardware.

2)

True or False? The users, the people who use computers,
are part of the computer system.

Answer:

True.

2.

Critical Thinking:

1)

Think of an example that demonstrates how a computer receives data, processes data, stores
data, and produces a result. For example, consider the steps in writing a letter using a
computer.

The user types the letter (the computer receives the input). The computer
processes the commands that you enter as the letter is typed. The letter is temporarily stored
in the computer’s memory or the user can save it to disk. The completed letter will ap
pear on
the screen or printed (the result).


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Special
-
purpose computers are used mostly to control other devices.



General
-
purpose computers are divided into categories, based on their physical size, function,
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cost, and performa
nce: desktop and notebook computers; server; mobile devices; tablet PC;
mainframe computer; supercomputer; embedded computer; portable music and media
players; calculators; computer game systems; and electronic book readers.


BOXES



Extra for Experts: Super
computers are often used to conduct and test medical experiments.


FIGURES



Figure 1
-
6: (a) Desktop computer (b) Mobile device (c) Notebook computer (d) Contains an
embedded computer (e) Mainframe (f) Supercomputer



Figure 1
-
7: Electronic book reader


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES

1.

Discussion Questions:

1)

Discuss the criteria used to classify computers, and identify different types of situations in
which the various types of computers would be used.

2)

Discuss with students how the parts of the computer system work

together to process a result.
Emphasize the different elements that work together to make a computer system including
hardware, software, data, and people. Ask students for examples of new types of hardware
and software that are being developed for comput
er systems.

3)

Involve students in the discussion of how many different kinds of devices in our society now
include microprocessors. Create a list of all the computing devices people in the class come
into contact with daily.

4)

Provide examples or pictures of
different kinds of microcomputers including PCs, Macs, and
notebook computers. Discuss the features available that might make someone choose one type
of microcomputer rather than another.


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Computers are used for all kinds of
tasks.



Computers take raw data and change it into information. An example of the procedure:

-

You input programs and data with some type of input device.

-

The computer uses instructions to process the data and to turn it into information.

-

You send the
information to some type of output device.

-

You store it for later retrieval.


FIGURES



Figure 1
-
8: Computer system components


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES

1.

Quick Quiz:

1)

What does IPOS stand for in the procedure of a computer taking raw data and changing it
into info
rmation?

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Answer:

input, processing, output, and storage

2.

Critical Thinking:

1)

Print Figure 1
-
8 without the label and ask students to identify each computer system
component and provide a brief explanation of its purpose.




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The motherboard is a circuit board that contains integral components: central processing unit,
memory, basic controllers, and expansion slots.

The Central Processing Unit



The central processing unit (CPU) is the brains of the computer. The CPU h
as two primary
sections: the arithmetic/logic unit and the control unit.

The Arithmetic/Logic Unit



The arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) performs arithmetic computations and logical operations.

The Control Unit



The control unit coordinates all of the processor’s

activities. You communicate with the
computer through programming languages. The computer uses machine language, or binary,
which is all
1
s and
0
s.

Recognizing How a Computer Represents Data



In machine language, the control unit sends out necessary messag
es to execute the
instructions. A single zero or a single one is a bit. A byte is a single character.



In Step
-
by
-
Step 1.1, students will convert numbers to binary using a calculator.

Memory



The memory on the motherboard is short term, called random access

memory (RAM). Data,
information, and program instructions are stored temporarily on a RAM chip and disappear
when the computer is turned off.

Random Access Memory



The instruction cycle is the amount of time it takes to retrieve instructions to perform a
s
pecified task and complete the command. The execution cycle refers to the amount of time it
takes the CPU to execute the instruction and store the results in RAM. Together, the
instruction cycle and one or more execution cycles create a machine cycle.

Read
-
Only Memory



Another type of memory found on the motherboard is read
-
only memory (ROM). ROM chips
store specific instructions that are needed for computer operation. These instructions remain
on the chip even when the power is turned off. The more common o
f these is the BIOS ROM,
containing instructions to start the system when you turn on the computer.


BOXES



Heads Up: The Step
-
by
-
Step exercises in this book are written for a personal or notebook
computer with the Windows Vista operating system. The menus
and screens for earlier
versions of Windows are similar. Please make appropriate adjustments if you are using a
different Windows version or working on a network.



Extra for Experts: In the time it takes to blink your eye, certain computers can perform
certain operations 10 billion times.

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Heads Up: Can’t afford that new computer, but need more speed? Try adding more RAM or
purchasing one of the optimizer software programs.



Extra for Experts: If you have read computer ads lately, you most likely saw the a
bbreviations
MHz (megahertz) and GHz (gigahertz). These speed specifications indicate the speed of the
microprocessor clock

a timing device that specifies the speed for executing instructions.



Extra for Experts:
Cache memory

is another type of memory. This high
-
speed RAM is used to
increase the speed of the processing cycle.



Technology Careers: Computers on the Job: In the past few decades, computers have had
dramatic effects on how we live, learn, and work. For example, the
kinds of jobs available
have changed because of computers. Fifty years ago, only a handful of people were computer
programmers, and there were no Web designers or “dot.com entrepreneurs.” Today, few if
any prospective employees will find work that does not

require some computer skills.

Time
-
consuming, labor
-
intensive communications tasks that used to require face
-
to
-
face
meetings, telephone calls, overnight deliveries, or paging through printed materials are now
performed quickly and efficiently using Inte
rnet browsers and e
-
mail. Students can
participate in a distance
-
learning class to take a course of study not available where they live.
Even the electric meter reader and delivery person now carry handheld computers that track
a consumer’s electric use or

the location of a package. Cashiers use computers for retail sales,
and computers also update the store’s inventory, handle customer calls, and advertise the
products. All these advances, now taken for granted by many of us, are very recent
innovations.


FIGURES



Figure 1
-
9: Motherboard



Figure 1
-
10: Microprocessor



Table 1
-
1: Measurement terms



Figure 1
-
11: Windows Standard calculator



Figure 1
-
12: Windows Scientific calculator



Figure 1
-
13: RAM chips



Figure 1
-
14: Processing cycle



Figure 1
-
15: Machine cycle


C
LASSROOM ACTIVITIES

1.

Quick Quiz:

1)

How many primary sections does the CPU contain? What are they?

Answer:
Two: the arithmetic/logic unit and the control unit.

2.

Discussion Question:

1)

If possible, use a real motherboard to illustrate the discussion of
system components. If not
available, use a large diagram. If you have a motherboard available, show the expansion slot
and how a board fits into a slot. Try to find a chip to show students.

3.

Lab Activity:

1)

Follow instructions 1
-
6 on page Mod1
-
14 of this
lesson to create an address list of family and
friends. As you do, think about how the RAM is working and how the computer is processing
data.

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To keep a permanent copy of data, you must store it on a storage d
evice.

Magnetic Storage Devices



Data is stored in numbered tracks in a special log on the disk called a file allocation table
(FAT).



Hard disk advantages are speed and capacity. Magnetic tape is primarily used for backup
purposes and data collection. Sinc
e the introduction of USB drives and solid
-
state storage
media, disks are not as widely used.

Optical Storage Devices



Use laser technology to read and write data on silver platters, like CDs and DVDs.

Solid
-
State Storage Media



Removable medium that uses i
ntegrated circuits, such as USB flash drive.

Network Drives



Hard drive or tape connected to a network server and is available to and shared by multiple
users.


BOXES



Extra for Experts: DVD is also called Digital Video Disc and is backward
-
compatible with
CD
-
ROMs.


FIGURES



Figure 1
-
16: Hard disk



Figure 1
-
17: Parts of a 3½
-
inch disk



Figure 1
-
18: A laser reads data on a CD or DVD



Figure 1
-
19: Miniature mobile storage media



Figure 1
-
20: Examples of USB flash drives


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES

1.

Quick Quizzes:

1)

True or

False? Magnetic tapes are primarily used for backup purposes and data collection.

Answer:

True.

2)

True or False? CDs and DVDs are a type of magnetic storage device.

Answer:

False. They are a type of optical storage media.

3)

True or False? After the
information is written to a CD
-
RW disc, it cannot be changed.

Answer:

False. You can write to it multiple times.

4)

True or False? A popular solid
-
state storage medium is the USB flash drive.

Answer:

True.

2.

Group Activity:

1)

Divide the class into small gro
ups. Have each group research a different type of storage
device. Students should learn as much as possible about the method used to store data and any
new developments in technology. Present the findings to the class in a short report.

Computer Literacy BASICS

Lesson 1 Instructor’s Manual

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3.

Discussion Quest
ions:

1)

What are the advantages of each type of storage device? What circumstances determine
which type of storage medium to use?

2)

What types of storage devices have you used in the past? What type will you be using in
class?


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Keep away from magnetic fields.



Avoid extreme temperatures.



Remove media from drives and store them properly when not in use.



When handling DVDs and other optical discs, hold them at the edges.



Never try to remove the media from a drive when the
drive indicator light is on.



Keep discs in a sturdy case when transporting.


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES

1.

Quick Quiz:

1)

List some safeguards that should be taken to care for removable storage media.

Answer:
Keep away from magnetic fields, avoid extreme temperatures
, remove media from
drives and store them properly when not in use, hold DVDs and other optical discs at the
edges, never try to remove the media from a drive when the drive indicator light is on, and
keep discs in a sturdy case when transporting.


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One of the major areas of change in the evolution of computers will be connectivity, or the
ability to connect with other computers.



Wireless and mobile devices will become the norm.



Computer literacy, which is the knowledge and

understanding of computers and their uses,
will become even more important.


FIGURES



Figure 1
-
21: Working from home


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES

1.

Critical Thinking:

1)

What type of job would you like to have in five years? How do you think computers will be
involved

in your job? Will long
-
distance connectivity be an option? What level of computer
literacy will you need?


Computer Literacy BASICS

Lesson 1 Instructor’s Manual

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Arithmetic/logic unit (ALU):
Section of central processing unit that performs arithmetic
computations and logical operations. (Mod1
-
12)



Bi
na ry:

Machine language that is made up of only
0
s and
1
s. (Mod1
-
12)



Bit:

A single zero or a single one in machine language. (Mod1
-
12)



BIOS ROM:

A type of computer chip where instructions for starting up the computer are
stored. (Mod1
-
16)



Byte:

A single character in computer language; eight bits are equal to one byte. (Mod1
-
12)



Central processing unit (CPU):
Microprocessor that is the brains of the computer. (Mod1
-
11)



Circuit board:
Thin plate or board that contains electronic components. (Mod1
-
10)



Computer:
An electronic device that receives data (input), processes data, stores data, and
produces a result (output). (Mod1
-
6)



Control unit:
Coordinates all of the processor’s activities. (Mod1
-
12)



Data:
Text, numbers, sound, images, or video.
(Mod1
-
6)



Dual
-
core processor:

A single chip that contains two separate processors. (Mod1
-
11)



Embedded computers:

Perform specific tasks and can be found in a range of devices such as a
digital watch or an MP3 player. (Mod1
-
8)



File allocation table (FAT):

A

special log on a magnetic storage disk where each track is
labeled and given a location. (Mod1
-
17)



Hard disks:
Used to store data inside the computer; removable versions also available. (Mod1
-
17)



Hardware:

The actual machine

wires, transistors, and circui
ts

in a computer system.
(Mod1
-
6)



Information:
Output produced by a computer. (Mod1
-
6)



Memory:
Short term or long term way to store a file or information. (Mod1
-
14)



Mobile devices:
Small general
-
purpose computers that can generally fit into the palm of you
r
hand. (Mod1
-
7)



Motherboard:

Circuit board mounted in a computer case that contains integral components.
(Mod1
-
10)



Multicore processor:

An expansion that provides for more than two separate processors.
(Mod1
-
11)



Network drive:
A hard drive or a tape drive

located on a computer other than the user’s local
system. (Mod 1
-
21)



Notebook computers:

Small personal computers that contain the monitor with a built
-
in
keyboard; also called laptop computers. (Mod1
-
7)



Random access memory (RAM):

Short term memory locat
ed on the motherboard that the
computer can read from and write to temporarily. (Mod1
-
14)



Read
-
only memory (ROM):

Stores specific instructions needed for computer operations.
(Mod1
-
16)



Remote storage:
Used to extend disk space on a server and eliminate the

addition of more
hard disks or other storage devices. (Mod1
-
21)



Server:

A general
-
purpose computer that can support a few users or hundreds of users;
variations include file server, database server, and Web server. (Mod1
-
7)



Software:

Instructions or progr
ams for controlling the computer. (Mod1
-
6)

Computer Literacy BASICS

Lesson 1 Instructor’s Manual

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Supercomputer:

Fastest type of computer; used for specialized applications to process
enormous amounts of data. (Mod1
-
8)



Tablet PC:

Personal computer similar in size and thickness to a notepad; used with a stylus
or
digital pen on a touch screen. (Mod1
-
8)



Tracks:

Circles on a magnetic storage device where data is stored or retrieved. (Mod1
-
17)



USB flash drive:

Small removable solid
-
state storage device. (Mod1
-
21)


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In Project 1
-
1, students will
comparison shop for a computer.





In Project 1
-
2, students will use an image they locate to review the components of a computer.





In Project 1
-
3, students will find answers to questions about the history of computers and create a
presentation about the inven
tion of the microprocessor.





In the Teamwork Project, students will prepare a report describing power
-
management options.



In the Critical Thinking Activity, students will write a report about purchasing a computer.



In the Online Discovery project, students

will write a report about blog searching and then start
their own blog.


A
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Administer the ExamView test for Lesson 1.





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