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Open Specifications for
Wireless Grids

Technical Requirements


Version 0.1 approved:

WiGiT Group

Dr. Lee W. McKnight, Editor

Kauffman Professor of Entrepreneurship and Innovation

School of Information Studies

Syracuse University


Prepared by Syracuse U
niversity, Virginia Tech,

R
ochester
I
nstitute of
T
echnology,
and Tufts

University




March 27, 2012

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Authors:

Lee W. McKnight, Tamal Bose*,
Janet Marsden, Edward Nanno, Joseph

Treglia,
Ha
ris Volos,
Xuetao Chen
,*

Piyush Sharma; Xiaofu Ma*







Re
vision History

Name

Date

Reason For Changes

Version















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Table of Contents


Revision History




1.

Introduction



1.

Purpose

2.

Project Scope

3.

References to Related Documents



2.

Overall Description



1.

Technical Specification Overview



2.

Features
and Functionality



3.

User Classes and Characteristics

4.

Operating Environment

5.

Design and Implementation Constraints



6.

User Documentation

7.

Assumptions and Dependencies



3.

System Features and Components

1.

System Logical Components Overview

2.

Authentication and

Authorization Component (AAC)

3.

Billing, Accounting, and Charging Component (BAC)

4.

Messaging and Presence Component (MPC)

5.

Metadata Component (MC)

6.

Resource Management Component (RMC)

7.

Economic and Legal Policy Component (ELP)

8.

Communication Protocols Component
(CPC)

9.

Security Component (SC)


4.

External Interface Requirements

1.

User Interfaces



2.

Hardware Interfaces


3.

Software Interfaces

4.

Communications Interfaces

5.

Data Interfaces



5.

Other Nonfunctional Requirements



1.

Performance Requirements

2.

Safety Requirements

3.

Security Requirements

4.

Software Quality Attributes

6.0


Other Requirements




Appendix A: Glossary

Appendix B: Analysis Models



Appendix C: Issues List

Appendix D: References

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1. Introduction


The Wireless Grid Innov
ation Testbed (WiGiT) and its

Wir
eless
Grid architecture and edgeware
has been developed under the auspices of NSF PFI grant #0227879. Syracuse University (SU)
and Virginia Tech (VT) created the first national WiGiT and are engaged in the development of a
working software prototype to be

field tested in August 2012. The project is currently supported
by the National Science Foundation Partnership for Innovation (NSF/PFI) program, NSF #
0917973.

Prior work leading to those efforts was also supported by the NSF PFI #....



1.1 Purpose


Th
e purpose of this Version 0.1 initial release of open specification technical requirements is to
define and describe the core components of the Wireless Grid Innovation Testbed (WiGiT), a
wireless grid

network platform, and the
edgeware

applications associ
ated with some use cases
for WiGiT. Edgeware is a new class of software specifically designed for software applications
deployed on wireless grids. WiGiT is a wireless
grid architecture

and platform that enables
heterogeneous resource discovery and sharing

through the formation of wireless grid virtual
networks. Wireless grids are dynamic virtual cognitive networks that exist only while they are in
use. Users are able to share and manage available and accessible hardware and software
resources through edgew
are applications based on the WiGiT product’s core components.
WiGiT platform components and edgeware have built in security and are energy and bandwidth
efficient by design. These open specifications define WiGiT and the logical functions of the
WiGiT cor
e components in detail.




Intended Audience and Reading Suggestions


The intended audience for these specifications includes software developers, network technicians
and managers, computer programmers,
project managers, academics,

students
, and
all glo
bal
citizens

that have an interest in
new forms of
application development, network technology and
wireless cognitive heterogeneous networks.


Because certain terms, such as ‘edgeware’, are new, and others are repurposed, a glossary of
terms is included in

Appendix A.



Document Conventions


Terms that appear in the glossary are denoted by appearing in

italics

where they first are used in
the text.


1.2 Project Scope


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Ultimately, WiGiT expects to be at the center of an emerging industry serving new markets
through its distributed incubation of wireless grid applications, training and workshops. By
incubating technology and teaching, both knowledge spillover and transfer between testbed
partners and their real/virtual communities flow, creating an “entrepren
eurial ecosystem” that
encourages exploitation of opportunities to transform user practices and system designs into
novel tools and products. The WiGiT technology diffusion model could be one of several
artifacts produced by this project with wide applicab
ility in other entrepreneurial ecosystems.


Please refer to the Open Specifications for Wireless Grids Vision and Scope Document for a full
discussion of the vision and scope.


Product Perspective


The WiGiT architecture and edgeware has been in developmen
t since the early 2000’s. Wireless
grids software applications were implemented in 2002
-
2005 within the Syracuse University (SU)
Wireless Grids Lab under the NSF PFI grant #0227879 [1]. As a proof of concept the team
developed a modest initial application
that allowed devices with no prior knowledge of each
other to collectively record and mix an audio signal such as a concert, speech, lecture or
emergency event. The project demonstrated the potential of wireless grids and distributed ad
-
hoc
resource sharin
g to harness the combined abilities of mobile devices in social contexts [1].


Building on prior research Syracuse University (SU) and Virginia Tech (VT) created the first
national WiGiT. The project is currently supported by the National Science Foundati
on
Partnership for Innovation (NSF/PFI) grants, NSF # 0917973.


The WiGiT allows researchers to experiment with grids available throughout the community,
with the objective that WiGiT would enable transformative technologies by bridging the gap
between wir
eless network middleware and grid application layers, creating new markets and
realigning existing ones. WiGiT serves industry needs for intra
-
system, or crossover work,
bridging grid or cloud computing on one platform and wireless Internet on another, an
d
contributing to open standards for application programming interfaces on wireless grids.


Product Features


The evolution of computing has lead to networks which are characterized by decentralization and
decreasing institutional control over resources.
Wireless Grids, mobile ad
-
hoc resource sharing
networks, are challenging environments in which users strategic behaviors are crucial to system
performance. We discusss technical, social, legal and economic trends in their operation and
application within d
istributed, Grid, and cloud computing.[2]



1.3 References to Related Documents


WiGiT Group Open Specifications for Wireless Grids Vision and Scope document

WiGiT Group Open Specifications for Wireless Grids Use Cases: Wejay, iDAWG, VT CROSS


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2. Overa
ll Description


WiGiT technology creates wireless grids or infrastructure
-
less mobile ad hoc networks. Wireless
grids can intelligently and dynamically interconnect users and stakeholders at multiple sites,
transfer digital media, assume and respond to dif
ferent equipment types, and adapt to low power
conditions and diminished communications capabilities.


Figure 1 shows the wireless grid framework. Wireless grids’ functionality can be viewed in
multiple ways: as a front
-
end/user interface to heterogeneou
s resources, a mesh network used for
sharing resources, as low
-
powered sensors networked together, or as ultrawideband, eg, or other
high
-
capability spectrum sharing technologies. Characteristics of wireless grids include small,
low powered devices that ca
n address concerns about power efficiency. Wireless grids are
compatible with many device types, including mobile and nomadic devices, phones, tablets,
laptops, and network computers. The omnivorous intelligence of wireless grid edgeware offers
spontaneo
us, simultaneous access to telematics, eg. Onstar and capabilities of meshing groups of
devices together and pooling resources to enable new applications based on networks of wireless
sensors for environmental, health, security monitoring, and other potent
ial applications.





Figure 1. WiGiT Open Framework



2.1 Overview


There are two modes of wireless grid creation ; user mode and node
-
based mode. Figure 2 and
Figure 3 show these two modes. Comparing a ‘human user’
-
centric grid with a ‘node
-
based’
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gri
d in purely conceptual terms, it is evident that in both cases the outermost frontier of what is
currently possible, i.e., engaging the full range of user types (with device heterogeneity
considered on an infinite axis) only goes so far.

As of today the s
uccessful interoperability in an
entirely localized setting is difficult and not achievable without flash drives, uploads, downloads,
drivers, and ultimately wires. The promise of the wireless grid technology is the capability of
machine
-
to
-
machine communi
cation via a virtual distributed operating system that enables the
‘internet of things’.







Figure2. User View




Figure 3. Machine View




In contrast to today’s internet, the wireless grid or ‘Grid’ is software
-
driven, serverless and
infrastructure
less (in the sense of dedicated infrastructure). The Grid is made possible by the
‘Grid Core’. This is a piece of software that is installed on any Grid
-
enabled device. It consists of
a common core library with binding for the local environment. It runs as

a low level system
process and as a result is always available, though its function and capability is dictated by user
assertion.

Users are allowed to share and manage the digital resources at their fingertips through
applications of the architecture’s ei
ght core components: the Authentication and Authorization
Component (AAC), the Billing, Accounting and Charging Component (BAC), the Messaging
and Presence Component (MPC), the Metadata Component (MC), the Resource Management
Component (RMC), the Economic
and Legal Policy Component (ELP), the Communication
Protocols Component (CPC), and the Security Component (SC).


2.2 Features and Functionality



Interacting with or using the Grid is dependent upon the key functionality of the resource
sharing protocol
(RSP), which has the primary function of enabling service discovery for
nomadic ad hoc heterogeneous resource allocation through the following attributes:



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Resource Advertisement/Discovery



Resource Identification



Resource Acquisition



Resource Descriptio
n



Clearing Mechanisms



Coordination of Systems



Trust Establishment and Security


2.3 User Classes and Characteristics


Please refer to the illustrative use cases contained in the WiGiT Group Open Specifications for
Wireless Grids Use Cases: WeJay, iDAWG, a
nd VT CROSS.


2.4 Operating Environment


The Wireless Grid operating environment is based on agnostic acquisition and utilization of
existing networked and network compatible devices, and other resources. In that sense, there is
only one operating environm
ent


the Wireless Grid


but in another sense, there are limitless
potential operating environments.


2.5 Design and Implementation Constraints




As a preliminary specification for a technology that is still in development and exists mainly in
testbed
s at this time, this is beyond the scope of this document. Suffice it to say, the security,
policy, privacy and cost considerations of this technology have been closely scrutinized, and will
continue to be evaluated as development continues. However, thos
e applications that are now
public have met or surpassed every test or challenge that they have been subjected to, and in
every evaluation have been found to be superior to the standards now in use.


2.6 User Documentation


At this time, this document and

the documents noted as ‘Related Documents’ in section 1.3 are
the only planned documentation. However, full user manuals, online help, and other academic
and professional documentation will be defined, produced and published appropriately in
conjunction w
ith associated edgeware releases. The WiGiT Group expects to perform this
function for the wireless grid community of users and developers and will establish a library of
shared resources.


2.7 Assumptions and Dependencies



The Wireless Grid technology is

based on known wired and wireless network protocols and
network architectures such as OSI and TCP/IP. The Wireless Grid is compatible with but not
dependent upon these networking models. The intent of the technology is to enable
interoperability between a
nd among these and other existing networks, such as cellular
telephony, satellite communications, cognitive radio and more, the obvious assumption and
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dependency is that these technologies will continue to exist. However, the flexibility of the
Wireless Gr
id is such that it will be adaptable to new and emerging systems and devices.


3.0 System Features and Components


The blue boxes in Figure 4 represent edgeware applications that sit on a user interface which in
turn sits on an API. These may represent doz
ens or hundreds of different sorts of mini
-
programs
that enable different kinds of resource sharing and functionality.

Not all devices enabled on a
wireless

grid need to have an application sitting on them to be accessible and active. The only
thing that
must be deployed for a wireless grid to work is for the Grid Core to be on some
intelligent machine, somewhere, with rights to control other ‘edge’ resources such as sensors that
may not have the capability to have the core components installed. Other net
work hardware,
software, services, and content may be controlled and shared through the wireless grid
‘edgeware’. These may not be or cannot become self
-
aware devices on the grid. However, if
those ‘edge’ resources are in a relationship with other har
dware, software, and services which are
part of the wireless grid, they may function as if they were fully cognitive.

The Core components are represented by the green box and embedded in certain devices or
sensors depending on their capability.

This

makes every device a node on the wireless grid.
This core is extremely ‘light’ and easy to embed on a wide range of different kinds of equipment.
Users are allowed to share and manage the digital resources at their fingertips through
applications of the a
rchitecture’s eight core components.














Figure 4 The Grid Core (courtesy of WGC)



The wireless grid architecture core components handle four primary functions: management of
identification (ID) and presence, permissions management, data transf
er ability, and
API/interfacing.

These are the elements that make the grid
-
enabled ecosystem possible.

The
layers above the core are comprised of the API which enables connections with other
applications and services, the User Interface (which may or may
not be necessary depending on
the device upon which it sits), and finally the edgeware applications are shown in blue. Once a
grid is established then resources can be published or accessed across the grid, enabling the
infinite functional possibilities of

the Grid technology.

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There are three classes of wireless grid applications:

Class 1: Applications aggregating information from the range of input/output interfaces
found in nomadic and mobile devices.

Class 2: Applications utilizing the locational an
d contextual characteristics in which the
devices will be found.

Class 3: Applications leveraging the mesh network capabilities of groups of devices.



3.1 System Logical Components Overview

The Resource Sharing Protocol (RSP) is the primary Grid function

provided by the eight core
components. The RSP enables creating, joining and subscribing to a wireless grid through
provision of the following services:




Resource Identification



Resource Acquisition



Resource Advertisement/Discovery



Communication among
wireless grids



Communication with the internet




Creating a wireless grid



Joining and subscribing to a wireless grid


The eight core components discussed in detail below are the functional elements and
components needed to create a wireless grid.


3.2 Auth
entication and Authorization Component (AAC)


The Authentication and Authorization Component (AAC)



This is the component that handles
the authentication of the user and the authorization of resources. In effect, the AAC provides the
protocols to identify

the individual and understand that individual’s relationship to a resource,
i.e. what the individual can or can’t do with a resource. This component must also provide
protocols to manage multiple identities mapped to a given resource; possibly in later, m
ore
advanced iterations of the core, in order to support the abstractions of multi
-
layered access that
the AAC should support. The AAC does not manage permissions. Permission management is
handled through the meta
-
data in the resource.


The AAC utilizes a

Global Unique Identifier (GUID). Every grid creates with it a globally
unique identifier that is used by all grid members.


The AAC has an identity

system that looks at users across all their devices and allows policies to
be made regarding the user’s gri
d profile


without the user having to think about all of their
user/device accounts. At the enterprise level, this identity system may look at users across their
office
-
related devices and accounts. A tremendous potential exists here for integration with
combined social network offerings that bring together services like Facebook and Twitter®, and
provides a way to access some subset of features from outside the consumer/home office through
a web browser and mobile phones.

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The AAC incorporates a policy en
gine based on the notion of identity that allows users to make
simple statements such as “visitors cannot access my shared photos”, or “Kevin cannot use the
Internet after 8pm.”


3.2 Billing, Accounting, and Charging Component (BAC)

This section descr
ibes the Accounting and Charging Policy.


To be addressed: 3GPP standardization, AAA server.


ITU paper(s) to be included.


See also: McKnight, L. M. , J Howison. J. (2003), Towards a Sharing Protocol for Wireless
Grids. In Proceedings of the Internatio
nal Conference on Computer Communication and Control
Technologies. CCCT '03, Orlando, Florida, USA, July 31
-

August 2, 2003.





3.3 Messaging and Presence Component (MPC)

The Messaging and Presence Component (MPC)


This is a scalable messaging and pre
sence
system. It manages the availability of a resource and the method or language of communication
with that resource.


3.4 Metadata Component (MC)

The Metadata Component (MC)



This component creates, edits, and generally manages the
metadata for a resou
rce, i.e. it facilitates the creation of metadata around resources. For example,
this resource is a File with a name of “fall events calendar.pdf” that belongs to Dave, and is
accessible on his laptop.

This metadata component from an interface perspective

in later
iterations of the core can look like a dynamic, advanced search tool allowing for user
-
defined
tags to drive the process of identifying which resources need to be manipulated at any given
time.


3.5 Resource Management Component (RMC)

The Resourc
e Management Component (RMC)


This component is responsible for aggregating
and searching metadata about resources within the context of authentication, it therefore works
closely with the AAC and MPC. In actual fact this component may be considered exten
ded
functionality of the MC, but defining its operation separately here is useful for clarity.

The RMC
must be tied methodically to the function of the user interface to support the richness of the
search mechanisms supported by the MC.


The RMC has a sch
eduler to manage and coordinate resources, such as video recorders, network
access, lights, air conditioning, and security systems, and a virtual file system that seamlessly
integrates files from any of the multiple machines that a user has access to.


Th
e RMC provides a search mechanism that allows a user to find files that may be on their
laptop, desktop, or on their mobile phone.

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The RMC Grid advertising/discovery protocol allows for devices to be identified as being
available. A Grid “hello” packet is

established


3.6 Economic Legal Policy.


draft
-


3.7 Communication Protocols Component (CPC)

The Communication Protocols Component (CPC)



This is a sub
-
system that manages the
communication protocols needed to interact with specific types of resources,

such as Printers,
Files, Service Accounts, etc. The CPC Manages the communications protocol needed to interact
within a wireless grid, and identifies and manages network and internetwork communications.
The CPC includes IP and other protocols (eg Bluetoot
h)
, p
roviding connections with other
wireless grids and across the internet.


3.8 Security Component (SC)


Security Component (SC)


Security component is built of five sub components of each of the
listed core components above; AAC, MPC, MC, RMC and CPC.
Security has three levels: grid
owner, user access control, and guest. The security capabilities for each core component are
listed below.


AAC: three levels of authentication: simple, crowd, centralized authentication and three levels of
authorization:

o
pen (minimum security, maximum accessibility), restricted (uses locally defined
access control list) and managed (uses grid defined policy
-
based access control).


MPC: Security is derived from resource metadata



MC: Metadata component uses a distributed
database describing resource and user profile.


RMC: Security component includes scheduled authorization monitoring and access verification,
resource denial of service protection:



End
-
to
-
end security and trust



Content Monitoring vs Privacy



Distribution Vol
ume Tracking Systems


CPC: denial of service protection for network communication, protection mechanisms for
resources and metadata



4.1 Hardware
Requirement
s


The radio components support the connectivity for wireless grid, and also carry the information

exchanging functionalities among heterogeneous nodes.

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4.1.1
Connectivity


Each node shall have at least one radio.

This radio provides the connectivity between the

service
request node

and
service nodes
, or between the service request node and one

acces
s point

to
wired networks, which connects the service nodes. The radio components may have capabilities
to access multiple wireless standards.

A
radio combo module

may include multiple standard
radio interfaces, such as WiFi and Bluetooth.

It may be one

ultra wideband software defined
radio supporting those commercial wireless standards. The radio may have capabilities to hand
over among different wireless access networks.

The radio may maintain connections to two
different wireless systems while execu
ting this hand over process. The radio components may
support both remote access and local access. Remote access may be supported with cellular
networks or WiFi networks. Local access may be supported with shorter
-
range wireless
standards, such as Blueto
oth and Zigbee. Ad
-
hoc or mesh networks are an option for
connectivity when hierarchical systems are not available or a different option is preferred. Co
-
existence mechanisms among multiple radios may be defined by each system.


4.1.2 Protocol


Service a
ccess and service provision may map to different physical channels in terms of
frequency, time, or code. The protocols and interfaces of Wireless Grids run within the
application layer, which may be carried by commercial wireless standards, such as WiFi a
nd
cellular. TCP and UDP may be used as data communication protocol.


4.1.3 Power Consumption


Battery life reduction should be less than 25% for nodes joining wireless grids compared their
free
-
run mode. Power efficient platforms may be introduced in o
rder to reduce power
consumption. Resource management may be introduced in order to improve the power
efficiency.


4.1.4 Platforms


The devices joined into a wireless grid include but are not limited to sensors, mobile devices,
personal computers, and high

performance servers.


4.2 Software Requirements


Software components allow wireless grids to dynamically interconnect cell phones, Macs and
PC’s based on multiple software platforms such as droid OS, Mac, IOS, or Android. Specified
software modules that

account for these and other devices/applications are based on the logical
components outlined in section 3.0.



4.3 Data Interfaces


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(AUDIO, VIDEO (files, documents, unstructured data, streams), IMAGING, DOCUMENTS
(text files, etc.) AUDIO


This section de
scribes interfaces for wireless grids. More details for general grid systems can be
found in reference [3]. Figure 5 shows the transactions for an example of the resource sharing
protocol described in section 3.0. This process can be divided into two pha
ses. The first phase is
the service access phase and the second is the service provision phase.



Figure Resource Sharing Protocol (RSP)



Service access phase

Service request node sends out resource discovery and issue service request once received
res
ponse from service nodes. Service nodes response to service request node with their resource
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reservations. Service request node responses with a resource reservation acknowledgment. Then
service request node gets access to the resource.


Service provision

phase

Service nodes share their resource with service request node. Both service request and service
nodes monitor the usage and exceptions of resource. When service is done, the resource will be
released or recycled.


There are several types of interfa
ces dedicated to wireless grids systems. Each interface can be
included into one frame with several control domains.


Resource Discovery:

Resource discovery can be used for a service request node to search for its
desired resource. Broadcasting protocol s
hould be used.






Source ID (SID):

Definition: ID used to identify the node that issues resource discovery.

Value: IP address

Example: 192.168.1.1

Description: the node has an ip address of 192.168.1.1

Resource Type(RTP):

Definition: description of reso
urce type.



Value: 0
-
255. 0
-
127 for software; 128
-
255 for hardware.



Example: 0


Description: the node has type 0 resource (software, hardware)

Methods (MET)



Definition: Methods for resource discovery.



Val
ue: 0
-
31: 0
-
15 for time based, 16
-
31 for propagation based.



Example: 16


Description: Flooding method.

Timestamp (TIM):



Definition: time when resource discovery issued.



Value: GMT



Example: 06:00AM 02/01
/2012


Description: Resource discovery issued on 06:00AM 02/01/2012

Expire Time (EXP)



Definition: The period after which the receiver can ignore the discovery.



Value: 0
-
24hrs.



Example: 2 hours




Descrip
tion: resource discovery can be ignored after two hours from its issued time.

Restrictions (RES)



Definition: policies of restrictions.



Value: 0
-
16.



Example: 0


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16




Description: resource discovery cannot go beyond 10 ho
ps.



Resource Description:

resource description can be used by service node to broadcast its
available resource.







Node ID (NID):

Definition: ID used to identify the node that the resource attached to.

Value: IP address

Example: 192.168.1.1

Descripti
on: the node has an ip address of 192.168.1.1

Resource Type(RTP):

Definition: description of resource type.



Value: 0
-
255. 0
-
127 for software; 128
-
255 for hardware.



Example: 0



Description: the node has type 0 resource (softwa
re, hardware)

Availability_T (AVT):



Definition: The period when the resource is available



Value: GMT



Example: 01:00AM 02/01/2012
-

01:00AM 02/02/2012


Definition: The resource will be available for 24 hours.

Availabi
lity_A (AVA):



Definition: The area where the resource is available



Value: IP on Gateway



Example: 192.168.XXX.XXX


Description: all the nodes within 192.168.XXX.XXX domain can share this resource.

Restriction (RES)




Definition: rules for restrictions



Value: 0
-
16



Example: 0


Description: This resource has a restriction rule type 0.




Resource Reservation:
resource reservation provides an interface for the reservation of resource
a
long with an authorization.




Source ID (SID):

Definition: ID used to identify source node.

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Value: IP address

Example: 192.168.1.1

Description: the service request node has an ip address of 192.168.1.1

Destination ID (DID):

Definition: ID used to identif
y destination node.

Value: IP address

Example: 192.168.1.2

Description: the service node has an ip address of 192.168.1.2

Resource Type(RTP):

Definition: description of resource type.



Value: 0
-
255. 0
-
127 for software; 128
-
255 for hardware.




Example: 0


Description: the node has type 0 resource (software, hardware)

Method (MET):

Definition: resource request methods.

Value: 0
-
16

Example: 0/1

Description: 0 Request for one server, 1 request for more than one server.

Timestamp (
TIM):



Definition: Length for reservation.



Value: GMT



Example: 06:00AM 02/12/2012


Description: time when a resource request/ack is issued.

Reservation_T (RST):



Value: 0
-
24hrs.



Example: 2 hours





Description: resource need to be available at least for 2 hours.

Restrictions (RES)



Definition: policies of restrictions.



Value: 0
-
16.



Example: 0/1




Description: 0 for Preemptive; 1 for non
-
Preempti
ve.


TYPE (TYP)



Definition: interface types.



Value: (0,1).



Example: 0/1




Description: 0 for request; 1 for Acknowledgment.

Resource Monitoring:
resource monitoring provides a method to monitor the status of the
d
esired resource. Point
-
to
-
point protocol can be used.




Source ID (SID):

Definition: ID used to identify source node.

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Value: IP address

Example: 192.168.1.1

Description: the service request node has an ip address of 192.168.1.1

Destination ID (DID):

Defi
nition: ID used to identify destination node.

Value: IP address

Example: 192.168.1.2

Description: the service node has an ip address of 192.168.1.2

Resource Type (RTP):

Definition: description of resource type.



Value: 0
-
255. 0
-
127 for software; 1
28
-
255 for hardware.



Example: 0


Description: the node has type 0 resource (software, hardware)

Resource Status(RSS)

Definition: status of resource.



Value: 0/1.



Example: 0


Description: 0 for idle;
1 for busy

Method (MET):

Definition: resource monitoring methods.

Value: 0
-
16

Example: 0/1

Description: 0 for polling, 1 for reporting.

Timestamp (TIM):



Definition: time when resource discovery issued or responsed.



Value: GMT



Example: 06:00AM 02/01/2012


Description: Resource discovery issued on 06:00AM 02/01/2012

TYPE (TYP)



Definition: interface type



Value: (0,1).



Example: 0/1




Description: 0 for monitoring interface; 1 f
or its ack.

Resource Recycle:

resource recycle interface can be used to predict the future resource status. It
can also be used to request release a resource immediately.

This interface provides an exit for resource occupation. Both point
-
to
-
point and br
oadcast
protocol can be used.





Source ID (SID):

Definition: node id that the resource attached to.

Value: IP address

Example: 192.168.1.1

Description: the service request node has an ip address of 192.168.1.1

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19


Resource Type (RTP):

Definition: descriptio
n of resource type.



Value: 0
-
255. 0
-
127 for software; 128
-
255 for hardware.



Example: 0


Description: the node has type 0 resource (software, hardware)

Resource Status(RSS)

Definition: status of resource.



Value: 0
/1.



Example: 0


Description: 0 for idle; 1 for busy

Timestamp (TIM):



Definition: time when the resource recycle is issued.



Value: GMT



Example: 06:00AM 02/01/2012


Description: Resource disc
overy issued on 06:00AM 02/01/2012

Length (LEN)



Definition: length for resource to be occupied in the future.




Value: hours



Example: 2 hours


Description: the indicated resource will be released in 2 hours

Expiration
(EXP)



Definition: Expiration time



Value: hours



Example: 3 hours




Description: The resource recycle can not be guaranteed after 3 hours.



Other Requirements




5.1 Performance Requirements




Universial Access

-

Disability studies (COTELCO, BBI, CDL) to be included.


(
Minimum

required level of service and response and quality)














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20



Appendix A: Glossary


Computing Capability
-

different platforms may need different computing capabilities.


Edgeware


a
new class of software that operates at the edges of networks (hence ‘edgeware’)
in order to take advantage of the capabilities of grid architecture. The Wireless Grids
Corporation, a corporate sponsor of WiGiT, has developed commercial applications includ
ing
WeJay, a social networking applications that allows music and other file sharing, and several
other edgeware application products that are currently in beta test.


Grid Architecture


a network architecture that enables resource discovery and sharing t
hrough
the formation of virtual wireless grids.


Wireless Grid
-

a human centric open access gateway to shared resources for mobile and
wireless electronic devices interconnecting at least one device to at least one other device or
resource. A device can
establish a grid and become an member of one or more wireless grids.


Operating Systems
-

a list of operating systems can be found in [3].


Virtualization
-

three types of virtualization methods may be used for wireless grids: hypervisor,
emulator, and OS
-
level virtualization .


Service Request Nodes (SRN): nodes send out service requests


Service Nodes (SN): nodes response to service requests with desired hardware/software
resources.


Service Clusters (SC): Clusters formed with multiple service nodes


E
dge Node (EN): Service node in charge of inter
-
cluster or remote access communication.


Leader Node (LN): Service node in charge of resource allocation and monitoring within a
service cluster.


Service Process: A typical service process may be divided into

two phases:


a.) Service access: SRN send service request to SN through LN. SNs response to the request
based on their own status and observation. LN forms a table representing the map between
service demands and supply.


b.) Service provision: LN makes d
ecisions about resource allocation based on resource
utilization and channel status. SNs start processing service request.


Nomadic Devices: Refers to devices with the emphasis not on connectivity while literally in
motion, but rather when the user is at

various fixed but possibly varying locations. For example
using a notebook computer at a wi
-
fi hotspot could be seen as use of a nomadic device.


Marshalling: Refers to the process of converting native programming language data types to a
format suitable

for transmission across a network; the term "unmarshalling" is the conversion of
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21


data received over a network from its on
-
the
-
wire representation to data types appropriate to the
receiving application.



a.

Major Features and Definitions


Grid

-

A grid is a
collection of distributed resources that are shared among a group
of users. It schedules and coordinates resources to offer a diverse collection of
services over a network of connected devices. It defines methods to define, create,
discover, and manage dis
tributed services.


Ad
-

hoc UDDI (Universal Description Discovery and Integration)



UDDI is a
directory where web service descriptions that follow WSDL (Web Service
Description Language) are registered. Ad
-

hoc UDDI allows broadcasting of the
services. It

has methods to list all its services to a client that does not know what
services are available.


Ad
-

hoc Environment for Wireless grid
: It demands a combination of distributed
(because connection to centralized control cannot be guaranteed) and centraliz
ed
architecture (to be scalable, and allow efficient provision of services).


Demand and supply Aggregation:

Allowance of wireless device access to near
-
by
computing devices or wireless systems for proxy
-
resources (like cached files and
storages). Aggregat
ion of shared processing power provides the availability of
extensive computing and storage power by sharing unused resource of many
personal computers.


Sharing level agreement:

One of the main operations of virtual market that
describes protocols, which
define the responsibility of participants within a
wireless communications grid. It not only encompasses the roles and
responsibilities of the users within the grid, but also governs the attainment and
fulfillment of requested resources.


The existing conc
epts of Dialogue Independence and UIMS are extended to
provide users a wide range of different access and interaction mechanisms to the
same underlying data and functionality


Dialogue Independence
: It refers to the separation of user interface
-
related cod
e
from the rest of the application code. It therefore supports the development of
alternative user interfaces for the same application (semantics).

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22



UIMS (User Interface Management System):

A software component that is
separate from the application program

that performs the underlying task and
supports the concept of dialogue independence.


Peer
-
to
-
Peer (P2P) Networks:

These are properly called overlay networks to
emphasize that they run over the existing institutionally owned and managed
infrastructure.



Network Peering:

A form of barter exchange in which interconnecting carriers
agree to exchange traffic at no charge.


Trusted Computing:

Controlling end node behavior by allowing network clients to
ascertain that a peer is running application code without
detrimental behaviors like
injecting corrupted content and flooding networks and it excludes misbehaving
clients from the network.



Appendix B: Analysis Models


None at this time.



Appendix C: Issues List


A listing of issues raised and supported operati
ng systems will be included in the future.



Appendix D: References



[1] Fitzek, F. and Katz, M. “Cellular Controlled Peer to Peer Communications: Overview and Potentials”,
Chapter 2 in
Cognitive Wireless Networks
, Springer, 2007.


[2] McKnight, L. W., Le
hr, W., & Howison, J. (2003). “Coordinating User and Device Behavior in Wireless
Grids, in Inventing the Communications Future”. MIT Media Lab Workshop, 2003.


[3] OGF194 from open grid forum:
http
://
www
.
gridforum
.
org
/


[4]
www
.
cornet
.
wireless
.
vt
.
edu