Emerging Technologies Report

weightwelloffΚινητά – Ασύρματες Τεχνολογίες

13 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

212 εμφανίσεις

1








Emerging Technologies Report

4G Telecommunication

INFO 482

Instructor: Todd Boyle









Matthew Lypko

Brayden Logel

Sheng Wang

Yi Wu

2


Overview

The
4G telecommunications is the fourth generation of ce
llular wireless
standards and the

next stage
of

the evolution of
wireless

communication
s
.

4G
technologies
integrate mobile communications
specified by IMT standards and
Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN). Moreover, t
he International
Telecommunication
Union (
ITU)

set the peak speed of 4G service
s

at 100
Mbps
for high mobility communication and 1Gbps for low mobi
lity communication

(International Telecommunication Union)
.

T
hese

requirements specified by
the
ITU
have are

bec
oming

the general standard
s

for

4G
mobile
communication.

Comparatively, the speed of 4G
services

can be

10

times

faster than
the
current 3G speed

required by
the
ITU
.

Most of

today’s

4G technologies are
based on

all
-
IP

packet switched network and have the

ability to offer high
er

quality of video, voice and other multimedia service
s

after

the future

extensive
implementation
.

At present,
the

general
structure

of 4G
signals

mainly consist
s

of
Advanced Time Division Multiple Access (ATDMA), Orthogonal
Frequency
-
Division Multiplexing
(OFDM), and Multicarrier Code Division
Multiple Access (MCCDMA)

signals
. Among these types of 4G
signals

systems
, all carriers seem to agree to use Orthogonal Frequency
-
Division
Multiplexing

(OFDM)

as the chief of indicator that

can be legitimately marketed
as being
used in
4G

systems

(TechTarget.com)
.
According to Savo Glisic
(University of Oulu, Finland),
OFDM is a method of digital modulation

and

the
3


basic idea of OFDM system is to split the data stream into a number of parall
el
channels and use different subcarriers for each channel.
This technology

is
also being considered
as a process of obtaining high
-
speed digital data
transmission over conventional telephone lines and being used in wireless
local area networks as well.


T
here are

two

ways

to build 4G data network
s
.
O
ne

proposal

is using Long
Term Evolution

(LTE)

technology which is developed by

an industry trade
group

3GPP
.

It is based on both the GSM (2G) and

the UMTS (3G)
technologies but provides

higher throughput and improved coverage.
As one
of the most popular

4G communication

technologies
, the LTE
offers peak data
rate

of

more than 100Mbps for downstream and 30Mbps for upstream

(TechTarget.com, 2008)
. Furthermore, LTE has the possibility of pr
oviding

a

maximum
of
300Mbps peak throughput.


After the NTT DoCoMo of Japan proposed
it

in 2004,
LTE

was finalized in
the end of 2008 and was extensively commerci
alized around the world,
especially in

North America, Europe and Japan. On December 1
4, 2009
,

with
the infrastructure built by Huawei and Ericsson,

TeliaSonera the dominant
telecommunication company
in Sweden and

Finland,

firstly
launched LTE
service
between

the Stockholm
and Oslo

(
TeliaSonera
.com)
. At the same time,
the Samsung supplied the modem

devices in order to support TeliaSonera’s
4G network.

4


Another proposal is the application of WiMAX
,

which is represented for
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access technology. WiMAX
interoperate
s

with the implementations of IEEE 8
02.16 standards
for
broadband w
ireless
access

(BWA)

networks

and it could provide bit rate up to
1Gigabit per second with the technical update

by WiMAX Forum

in 2011

(TechTarget.com)
.

Comparing to Wi
-
Fi

Local Area Network
,
the WiMAX
delivers faster

Internet service to

broader geographical area
s.
However, in the
same WiMAX service network, the multiple users have to share the single
bandwidth, which means the actual speed of surfing Internet can be lower than
the customers’ expectation.

In November 2005, KT Corporation
firstly
demonstrates the mobile WiMAX service in Busan
and South Korea and
started

the comm
ercial WiMAX service the next

year, which is the most
important milestone of WiMAX application

(KT Corporation, South Korea)
. On
12
th

November 2008, HTC release the
a new mobile phone


Max 4G which is
the first mobile phone enabled by WiMAX service

(HTC.com)
.

Now, 4G is developed and implemented by various methods. The high speed
data transferring service has been launched by a lot of
carriers in the world
and a v
ariety of applications like HD video and

voice communication have
been realized by the fourth generation telecommunication technology.


Business Benefits

4g has already started to enhance wireless communication as well as
mobile internet access for man
y in

major centers across North America, Asia
5


and some parts of Europe
. The business implications are similar to the
benefits experienced with 3g. The main difference is the speed, now users can
send
, upload and download data

at much greater speeds than ever b
efore.
Giving users the ability to upload and download larger amounts of data
increases the quality of information exchanged between parties. 4g allows
users to exchange video and other forms of media in high definition, enhancing
the quality of any presen
tation. The major business implications come in the
form of enhancements to mobile internet usage, mostly affecting smart phones

and tablets
. Devices connecting to the internet such as tablets or laptops are
now able to function at higher levels of perform
ance without being connected
to an actual land line. This gives users the ability to utilize these devices the
same way they would if they were connected via internet from home.


This technology also allows users to connect

on mobile devices

in real
time
video conversation. This communication medium is unprecedented,
allowing smart phone users to communicate in a way that was never before
possible. Giving business people the opportunity to communicate face to face
on a mobile device allows business men and

women to connect on a higher
level, facial expression or even hand gestures now become a part of

mobile

communication. No longer is video chat something we

only

do on Skyp
e or
MSN messenger. U
ser
s now

communicate face to face,

on the go, in real time.


T
he business
implications of 4G technologies lacks

legitimate academic
research. This mostly has to do with the newness of the technology.

We can
6


also see that many firms outside the communication industry will be hard
pressed to utilize this technology to
create a competitive advantage. Users are
generally limited to the provider’s willingness to provide coverage and when
they do it’s available to whomever wants to subscribe. For most firms this
technology will only improve the day to day mobile communicati
on of
employees. The

same cannot be said about the technologies

effect on
communication specific industries
. 4G has

major implications for both
providers and device manufacturers

and

is a popular topic among many
industry analyst.



4G technology changes the landscape of the mobile phone industry, now
people utilize their phones in a similar manner that they used to use their
laptops. With 3G users were able to act in a similar manner but were not able
to use their mobile devices wit
h the sa
me parity of speed, as say their

desktop
or laptop. This has been problematic for a number of mobile phone
manufacturers, Nokia is still the leader in its industry holding the largest market
share by a long shot, and this strong market position has

been eroded in last
few years.

Nokia has failed to meet the demands of its customers by providing
what many consider inferior technology. This poor performance has reflected
negatively on the firm’s financial standing, “for the fourth quarter, Nokia
repor
ted sales of €10 billion (US$13.3 billion), down 21 percent year on year,
and a net loss of €1.07 billion, compared to a net profit of €745 million a year
earlier”.(
Mikeal Rikas, 2012
). The main reason for the firm’s market erosion is
7


the poor operating sy
stem, as well and a generally poor hardware performance.
The following quote supports the previous inference about Nokia’s OS, “Nokia
had to

kill

its signature Symbian OS

after a new CEO forced it to admit that the
OS was at end of life after several years of self
-
denial, and the company's
efforts to create a successor had all failed

(
Galen Grumen, 2011)
.”
Firms in the
mobile phone industry that fa
il to provide users with a platform that takes
advantage of 4G technology will face serious losses. Simila
r to Nokia,
Research in Motion
has also experienced a major lack of growth in
an industry
that’s growth

goes unmatched

when

compared to other technolo
gy based
market environments. For similar
reason to Nokia’s failure, the B
lackberry
lack
s

comparable performance standards to the android “super phones” or the
Apple IPhones and tablets.

Previously the Blackberry was praised for its
method of sending data, as it took up a small portion of the networks
bandwidth, sending data in multiple small packets. This competitive advantage
is no longer relevant with the increased bandwidth associated
with 4G
networks.


It is clear that the implications of 4G are playing a major role within the
communication industry as providers will fight to provide the

4G

technology or
similar

versions o
f it to a variety of customers. Device manufacturers will have

to create phones that can take advantage
of the technology. Businesses
outside the telecommunication industry will be affected by their ability to use
the technology, firms operating in rural locations
, smaller metro centers or
8


even certain countries

will

have limited access
;

giving competitors in metro
areas

that have access to 4G an advantage.


Case Study

There are many companies that looking to gain a competitive advantage
through the implementation of 4G technology. One of those companies is Bell
Cana
da Enterprises. Bell is Canada’s largest communications company and
offers many services to its customers. These services include Bell Home
Phone, Bell Internet, and Bell Satellite TV. In addition to these segments Bell
also boasts one of the largest mobil
e phone networks in the country, with over
7 million users as of 2011 (Bell Canada). The mobile phone segment operates
under the name Bell Mobility. The company was founded in 1880 and first
offered a mobile division in 1986. Bell Mobility operates under b
oth the Bell
and Bell Aliant brands, in addition to owning companies such as Virgin Mobile
and Solo Mobile. Since its foundation, Bell’s has prided itself on offering the
most advanced and highest quality technology to its customers while providing
the hig
hest quality service in the industry. Bell is a publically traded company,
its share trade on the Toronto Stock Exchange, and as of February 12, 2012 its
shares were trading at $39.38 per share (Toronto Stock Exchange). It is also
one of the most profitabl
e companies operating in Canada, earnings in the
fourth quarter of 2011 alone exceeded $5 billion (Bell Canada). Looking into
the future Bell is committed to maintaining its status as a leader in the
9


Canadian communications industry and establishing a sust
ainable competitive
advantage over its rivals.

As mobile technology has progressed Bell has strived to offer the most
advanced and up to date mobile network service. The transition from 2G to 3G,
and now to 4G mobile networks has meant that cell phone prov
iders have had
to adapt to the new technology. Bell is an example of a company who has been
able to successfully manage the rapidly changing technological environment in
order to provide its customers with the best possible mobile network. The
company firs
t offered a 3G EVDO network in 2005 that offered download
speeds of up to 3 Mbps (Megabits per second). In 2010, Bell upgraded its
mobile network to a 4G HSPA+, that offered download speeds of up to 42
Mbps. Most recently, on September 14, 2011, Bell launc
hed its new 4G LTE
(Long Term Evolution) network in the greater Toronto area. It was the first
Canadian cell phone provider to offer the 4G LTE network to its users. Since
that time its main rivals, Rogers and Telus, have also implemented the LTE
network.
The initial launch of the network was generally considered to be
successful and since that time Bell has expanded it to select areas across the
country, which includes most of the major urban areas in Canada. On October
29, 2011 the Bell 4G LTE network rea
ched Nova Scotia, as the Halifax and
Dartmouth areas received access to the network (Thompson
, 2011)
. The
company is committed to expanding the network across the country
throughout 2012 so that it is available to all Canadians with a Bell mobile
10


phone. Th
e LTE network is the fastest network currently available in Canada
and it offers download speeds of up to 75 Mbps. When discussing its LTE
network the company says, “LTE is the gold standard for wireless technology.
Everything you do using a Bell LTE mobil
e device on the Bell LTE network
-

running business applications, watching videos, downloading large files, etc.
-

will be faster and better” (Bell Canada). Implementation of the LTE network
allows Bell to offer its customers with the most sophisticated mo
bile network
currently in use, something that is of critical importance within the industry. In
an industry that is as competitive as mobile technology offering the newest and
fastest technology to customers is something that every cell phone provider
wish
es to achieve and Bell has been successful in achieving this goal.

The transition to the new 4G LTE network has allowed Bell to boast the
fastest and most advanced mobile network in the nation. It also allows them to
market their cell phones to high end us
ers who demand superior technological
capabilities in their mobile phone. As a cell phone provider it is critical for Bell
to constantly look to improve its network so that they can not only remain
competitive in their industry, but to also establish a lea
dership position. By
being the first Canadian cell phone provider to offer the LTE network Bell has
gained notoriety from cell phone users and has solidified its reputation as the
leader in Canadian mobile technology. The president of Bell Mobility, Wade
O
osterman, has said that, “"LTE is the next step in ensuring Bell continues to
deliver the best networks in the world to Canadian consumers and businesses,
11


backed up by the newest data devices and the leading mobile services and
content available.” (Bell Ca
nada). Bell offers a wide selection of 4G LTE
compostable smart phones and tablets and customers can also buy a 4G TE
turbo stick that allows them to connect to the LTE network while on the laptop.
One review of the Bell 4G LTE network claimed that, “LTE f
rom Bell offers HD
quality online TV and video; wireless video conferencing and chat with quality
previously available only on wire line or high
-
speed Wi
-
Fi connections;
unprecedented mobile download times for apps, and mobile gaming on a
whole new level,
with stand
-
out graphics and video quality.” (Compare
Cellular). The many benefits achieved from the implementation of the LTE
network allow Bell to establish themselves as leaders in the Canadian cell
phone market.

The transition to the new 4G LTE network
has not come easily for Bell.
Currently, the network is currently only available in select urban areas in
Canada. Previously, the 4G HSPA+ network was available to 93% of
Canadians in 20,000 towns and cities across the country. (Reyes
, 2010
). The
company h
as communicated that it is committed to expanding the network
throughout the country in 2012. However, the switch to the LTE network has
also come at a high cost to Bell. Significant changes in infrastructure and
research and development were needed to suc
cessful launch the new network.
Bell has spent over $3 billion in infrastructure improvements and research and
developments costs exceeded $800 million in the 2011 fiscal year. (Bell
12


Canada). Also, while it is advertised that downloading speeds can reach u
p to
75 Mbps, the average downloading speed is only around 12
-
25 Mbps. Still, the
company remains optimistic that the switch to the LTE network will
be
beneficial.
As Steven Howe, the Senior Vice President and Chief Technology
Officer for Bell Mobility sai
d, “This broad global technology ecosystem will
mean a fast, efficient and cost
-
effective network transition to 4G LTE, and
access to the broadest possible range of next
-
generation phones and data
services.” (Bell Canada). When considering the costs and be
nefits of the
implementation of Bell’s new LTE network it can be determined that while
significant costs were incurred the benefits of offering the fastest mobile
network to its customers justify these costs. The Bell 4G LTE network offers
what many Canadi
an cell phone users are looking for, access to the fastest
and largest mobile network available in the country.


Assessment of Future


Today, we have just turned into the 4 G domain. Most companies seem
to think that the 4 G refers to the long
-
term evolution


getting ITU
/

3 GPP
standard recognition in the global range,
which

is recognized as a great
technology of the Cellular Network. S
ome companies also regard WiMAX as
4G technology.


In t
he 4G

domain, the ITU and the 3GPP,

treat

LTE and WiMAX as 3G
technology. However, the Marketing Department of major Wireless Network
Operators are more willing to call the LTE and WiMAX 4G. T
-
Mob
ile and AT&T

13


even called HSPA+ 4G

(www.itu.int)
.


WiMAX, HSPA and LTE, are

usually consider
a

3G technology, have
been

significantly

leaping

out of the market, compared with the traditional
UTMS/WCDMA and cdma2000
EV
-
DO
.


In October
2011
, ITU sta
ted formally that LTE,
EV
-
DO

Rev. A


B,
HSPA and WiMAX still belong to 3 G technology. Moreover, ITU said

that

4G
refer
red

to the so
-
called IMT
-
Advanced. In every aspect of 4 G standards, only
two can meet the requirements of IMT
-
Advanced: LTE
-
Advanced and

WiMAX2. The latter is also called Advanced WMAN or IEEE 802.16 m.
Although these standards have been authorized, they still need years to be
realized and gain popularity

(www.itu.int)
.


T
he LTE deployment scale is also quite small in the global
scope. Most
operators of LTE praise

the technology, but deployment

is

still

very

slow

because the new infr
astructure equipment cost is so high. I
t is quite clear LTE
adopted the trend, even before that follow the cdma2000 EV
-
DO route
operators also recogn
ized LTE. In fact, MetroPCS and Verizon
,
two of the
CDMA2000 carriers did the first deployment of LTE in t
he United States.
MetroPCS provides

L
TE service but only in major cities. MetroPCS offers

the
Samsung LTE mobile phone

as the primary communication to
ol
.


In December
2010
, Verizon Wireless carried out LTE network in 39
markets. Since then, the company has been in the refresh LTE coverage.
Verizon Wireless plans to cover 175 markets before the end of
14


2011
(Verizon.com)
. Verizon use
s

the Samsung mo
bile phone and the updated
HTC Thunderbolt mobile phone.
Users

communicat
e

with 5Mb/s to 12Mb/s
downstream data rate and 2Mb/s to 5Mb/s upstream data rate, which has
remarkable improvement from the previous 3G communication system

(Verizon.com)
.


U.S
. Cellular deployed the LTE in 24 states before November 2011, AT
&T plans to carry out large
-
scale deployment in 2012

(www.att.com)
.

At the
same time, AT & T will continue to upgrade 3G HSPA + network and the return
channel.Sprint Nextel and Clearwire use

WiMAX to achieve their "4G" network,
and this expansion momentum is expected to continue. These operators may
switch to LTE soon.


Conclusion

4G telecommunication is the 4
th

generation of cellular wireless
standards

with
integrat
ion of

mobile communication and Wireless Local Area
Network (WLAN).
T
he
data
transferring

speed
can be

10 times faster than
current 3G

technology

(TechTarget.com, 2006)
. Long Term Evolution (LTE)
technology

and

WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Acc
ess
technology)

are the two major
proposal
s of 4G communication standards
specified by the ITU
.

The major business implications come in the form of
enhancements to mobile internet usage
and p
eople can upload and download
large amounts of data

via the high
speed mobile telecommunication
technology
.
4G

enables the
smart phones to perform
live video chats for
15


business and
other functions which are similar as the laptop
.
In the age of 4G,
m
obile
p
hone
m
anufacturers failing to provide with 4G based operating
sys
tems will fail just like NOKIA.

Bell Canada Enterprise is Canada’s largest
communications company. The company successfully manages the rapid
change in mobile network from 2g to 3g. Bell is the first to provide high
-
quality
4G LTE network, enabling video c
hat, HD movies and other

applications
. To
achieve so, Bell has spent a lot in infrastructure for LTE

network

(Bell.com)
.
However, the network really satisfies the customers’ needs
, which helps Bell
reinforce its status and gain lots of reputation in commun
ication industry.

Today,
the world has
been
turning into 4G domain.

Although LTE and WiMAX

are

still
viewed

as 3G technologies

by the telecommunication industry, many carriers

have
already
deployed infrastructure
and commercialized 4G by
providing
network

service
all over the

world
in order for competitive advantages on the
current mobile
communication

market.










16


R
eferences:

1.

T
oolBox.com. (September 2007).
4G
.Retrieved from
http://it.toolbox.com/
wiki/index.php/4G

2.

International Telecommunication Union.

ITU global standards for
international mobile communications ‘IMT
-
Advanced’.

Retrieved from
http://www.itu.int/ITU
-
R/index.asp?category=information&rlink=i
mt
-
advanced&lang=en

3.

ResearchandMarkets.
LTE and the road to 4G 2010
-
2015.
Retrieved from
http:
//www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/1295208/lte_and_t
he_road_to_4g_2010_2015

4.

TechTarget.com.
4G (fourth generation wireless)
. Retrieved from
http://searchmobilecomputing.techtarget.com/definition/4G

5.

TechTarget.com.
WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for
Microwave Access).

Retrieved from
http://searchtelecom.techtarget.com/defin
ition/WiMAX

6.

TechTarget.com.

Long Term Evolution (LTE).
Retrieved from
http://searchmobilecomputing.techtarget.com/definition/Long
-
Ter
m
-
Evolution
-
LTE

7.

KT Corporati
on.
KT Launches Commercial WiBro Services in
Korea.

Retrieved from
http://www.wimaxforum.org/news/831

8.

HTC news_2008. Retrieved from
http://w
ww.htc.com/www/about/?id=76204&lang=1033

9.

Savo Glisic (2004).
Advanced Wireless Communications.

England. John Wiley & Sons,Ltd.

10.

Mikeal Rikas (2012).
Nokia will lay off 4,000, move more
manufacturing to Asia.
Retrieved from
http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9224060/Nokia_will_lay
_off_4_000_move_more_manufacturing_to_Asia

11.

Galen Grumen (2011).
Anatomy of fa
ilure: Mobile flops from RIM,
Microsoft, and Nokia.

Retrieved from
http://www.infoworld.com/d/mobile
-
technology/anatomy
-
failure
-
mobile
-
flo
ps
-
rim
-
microsoft
-
and
-
nokia
-
566


12.

Bell Canada Enterprises. (2011).
Bell to launch 4G LTE network
in Toronto, Mississauga, Hamilton, Kitchener
-
Waterloo and
Guelph tomorrow
. Retrieved from
http://www.bce.ca/en/news/releases/corp/2011/09/13/76957.htm
l


13.

Bell Canada Enterprises. (2012).
Financial Reporting
. Retrieved
from
17


http://www.bce.ca/en/investors/financialperformance/quarterlyre
sults/


14.

Thompson, Hugh. (2011).
Bell expands it LTE Network and adds
an LTE phone to its line
-
up
. Retrieved from
http://www.digitalhome.ca/2011/11/bell
-
expands
-
it
-
lte
-
network
-
a
nd
-
adds
-
an
-
lte
-
phone
-
to
-
its
-
line
-
up/


15.

Reyes, Allan. (2010).
Bell HSPA network to cover 93% of
Canada
. Retrieved from
http://www.cellphones.ca/news/post0010293/


16.

Toronto Stock Exchange. (2012).
BCE Inc. Stock Quote.

Retrieved from
http://tmx.quo
temedia.com/quote.php?qm_symbol=bce