Assignment: Intro to Computer Topic: Embedded Computer Class: BBA-1(B)

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25 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Intro to Computer


Embedded Computer






Tufail Rana

Muhammad Anwar Amjad

Fatima Ishaq

Aneeqa Ikram

Embedded Computers:

It is a special purpose computer that is use as a product in large product. It performs
specific functions. They are usually small and have limited hardware.

Features of Embedded computer

the versatility of the
embedded computer system
lends itself to utility in all
kinds of enterprises, from the
simplification of deliverable
products to a reduction in
costs in their development
and manufacture.

Simplification, Miniaturizations and

Cost Reduction

Embedded systems are designed to perform simple, repeatable tasks

often with little
or no input from the user. Since the first microprocessor was introduced into pocket
calculators there has been a concerted drive to reduce the size and

complexity of
computerized systems in electronic devices.

Embedded systems are based on the concept of the microcontroller, a single integrated
circuit that contains all the technology required to run an application. Microcontrollers
make integrated sys
tems possible by combining several features together into what is
effectively a complete computer on a chip, including:

* Central Processing Unit

* Input/output interfaces (such as serial ports)

* Peripherals (such as timers)

* ROM, EEPROM or Flash me
mory for program storage

* RAM for data storage

* Clock generator

By integrating all of these features into a single chip it is possible to greatly reduce the
number of chips and wiring necessary to control an electronic device, dramatically
its complexity, size and cost.


The functions of the embedded systems are not generic but rather specific.

In most cases embedded computers are built in parts. Usually they constitute a
single board or a chip placed inside the concerned machine

that it must operate.

The software running the embedded computer systems is not stored in the disc
drive but rather in the ROM. The software language used for writing the program
is called FIRMWIRE.

Embedded Computers are capable of communicating with t
he world outside.
They do it with the help of peripherals. These peripherals comprise:

1.Universal Serial Bus (USB)

2.Synchronous Serial Communication Interface: I2C, JTAG, SPI, SSC and ESSI

3.Discrete IO: aka General Purpose Input/output (GPIO)

orks: Controller Area Network, Lon Works, etc.

5.Serial Communication Interfaces (SCI): RS
232, RS
422, RS
485 etc

6.Timers: PLL(s), Capture/Compare and Time Processing Units


There are e
ndless uses for embedded computer

in consumer products, with
methods of exploiting them presented every year at such industry events as the MEDC
and the Embedded Systems Conference. The most obvious beneficiaries are those
enterprises concerned with the manufacture and sale of electrical devices, as the
n of microcontrollers to replace general purpose microprocessors can drive
down unit manufacturing costs and end user prices dramatically, resulting in increased
sales and an improved profit margi

The use of embedded computer

in electrical products can

also solve many problems of
complexity and product size. For example, a modern automobile may contain dozens of
embedded systems to control a wide range of processes within the car, ranging from
brake balance control to air conditioning to the ignition sy
stem. Without embedded
systems it would be impossible to computerize all of these features without the
inclusion of a mass of complicated, fault prone electronics.

The only realistic alternative to using embedded
in a modern automobile
would be to install a fully functional PC within the car to control all of the functions
currently managed by microcontrollers. While this may be feasible it would raise several

* Size & Weight: Microcontrollers are designe
d to deliver maximum performance for
minimum size and weight. A centralised on
board computer system would greatly
outweigh a collection of microcontrollers.

* Efficiency: Microcontrollers are designed to perform repeated functions for long
periods of ti
me without failing or requiring service. Other computer systems are prone
to software and hardware failure as well as a whole host of other problems recognizable
to the users of any home computer. Above all other considerations, computer systems
must be 10
0% reliable when trusted to control such functions as braking in an